Seat Belt Usage
- The independent contribution of driver, crash, and vehicle characteristics to driver fatalities.
- Bedard M, Guyatt GH, Stones MJ, Hirdes JP.
- Accid Anal Prev. 2002 Nov;34(6):717-27.
Rationale for inclusion: Multivariate analysis noting seat belts protective against fatal injuries (OR: 0.49, 99% CI: 0.39-0.53).
Citations - 368 (as of July 2017)
- Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 2001.
- Grunbaum JA, Kann L, Kinchen SA, Williams B, Ross JG, Lowry R, Kolbe L.
- J Sch Health. 2002 Oct;72(8):313-28.
Rationale for inclusion: Noted scope of problem with youth - 14.1% of high-school youth rarely/never used seat belts.
Citations - 1101 (as of July 2017)
- Seating positions and children's risk of dying in motor vehicle crashes.
- Braver ER, Whitfield R, Ferguson SA.
- Inj Prev. 1998 Sep;4(3):181-7.
Rationale for inclusion: Noted children were safest in the back seat.
Citations - 172 (as of July 2017)
- Driver fatalities in 1985-1993 cars with airbags.
- Lund AK, Ferguson SA.
- J Trauma. 1995 Apr;38(4):469-75.
Rationale for inclusion: Additional confirmatory information on the benefits of airbags- 16% reduction in fatalities for all crashes.
Citations - 119 (as of July 2017)
- Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts - air bags compared with manual belts.
- Zador PL, Ciccone MA.
- Am J Public Health. 1993 May; 83(5): 661–666.
Rationale for inclusion: Noted fatality reduction with airbags - 15% w/ seat belts used, 31% with seat belts not used.
Citations -170 (as of July 2017)
- Design, characteristics, and usefulness of state-based behavioral risk factor surveillance: 1981-87.
- Remington PL1, Smith MY, Williamson DF, Anda RF, Gentry EM, Hogelin GC.
- Public Health Rep. 1988 Jul-Aug; 103(4): 366–375.
Rationale for inclusion: Evaluated the use of random-digit-dialing telephone surveys with regards to collecting behavioral data, including seat belt usage.
CAVEAT: Only dealt with data collection method
Citations - 472 (as of July 2017)
- Geographic variations in mortality from motor vehicle crashes.
- Baker SP, Whitfield RA, O'Neill B.
- N Engl J Med. 1987 May 28;316(22):1384-7.
Rationale for inclusion: Noted geographic variations in motor vehicle fatalities across US (highest in rural, low-income counties), with seatbelt use possibly a factor.
CAVEAT: Indirect evidence
Citations - 333 (as of July 2017)
- The effectiveness of safety belts in preventing fatalities.
- Evans L.
- Accid Anal Prev. 1986 Jun;18(3):229-41.
Rationale for inclusion: Estimated effectiveness of three-point belts by comparison with pre-1974 data, using other passengers as controls.
Citations - 332 (as of July 2017)
- Estimates of motor vehicle seat belt effectiveness and use: implications for occupant crash protection.
- Robertson LS.
- Am J Public Health. 1976 September; 66(9): 859–864.
Rationale for inclusion: Noted increased survival with seat belt usage (as well as only ~2/3 compliance with front seat belt usage).
Citations - 102 (as of July 2017)