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Seat Belt Usage

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The independent contribution of driver, crash, and vehicle characteristics to driver fatalities.
Bedard M, Guyatt GH, Stones MJ, Hirdes JP.
Accid Anal Prev. 2002 Nov;34(6):717-27.

Rationale for inclusion: Multivariate analysis noting seat belts protective against fatal injuries (OR: 0.49, 99% CI: 0.39-0.53).

Citations - 368 (as of July 2017)

Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 2001.
Grunbaum JA, Kann L, Kinchen SA, Williams B, Ross JG, Lowry R, Kolbe L.
J Sch Health. 2002 Oct;72(8):313-28.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted scope of problem with youth - 14.1% of high-school youth  rarely/never used seat belts.

Citations - 1101 (as of July 2017)

Seating positions and children's risk of dying in motor vehicle crashes.
Braver ER, Whitfield R, Ferguson SA.
Inj Prev. 1998 Sep;4(3):181-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted children were safest in the back seat.

Citations - 172 (as of July 2017)

Driver fatalities in 1985-1993 cars with airbags.
Lund AK, Ferguson SA.
J Trauma. 1995 Apr;38(4):469-75.

Rationale for inclusion: Additional confirmatory information on the benefits of airbags- 16% reduction in fatalities for all crashes.

Citations - 119 (as of July 2017)

Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts - air bags compared with manual belts.
Zador PL, Ciccone MA.
Am J Public Health. 1993 May; 83(5): 661–666.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted fatality reduction with airbags - 15% w/ seat belts used, 31% with seat belts not used.

Citations -170 (as of July 2017)

Design, characteristics, and usefulness of state-based behavioral risk factor surveillance: 1981-87.
Remington PL1, Smith MY, Williamson DF, Anda RF, Gentry EM, Hogelin GC.
Public Health Rep. 1988 Jul-Aug; 103(4): 366–375.

Rationale for inclusion: Evaluated the use of random-digit-dialing telephone surveys with regards to collecting behavioral data, including seat belt usage.

CAVEAT: Only dealt with data collection method

Citations - 472 (as of July 2017)

Geographic variations in mortality from motor vehicle crashes.
Baker SP, Whitfield RA, O'Neill B.
N Engl J Med. 1987 May 28;316(22):1384-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted geographic variations in motor vehicle fatalities across US (highest in rural, low-income counties), with seatbelt use possibly a factor.

CAVEAT: Indirect evidence

Citations - 333 (as of July 2017)

The effectiveness of safety belts in preventing fatalities.
Evans L.
Accid Anal Prev. 1986 Jun;18(3):229-41.

Rationale for inclusion: Estimated effectiveness of three-point belts by comparison with pre-1974 data, using other passengers as controls.

Citations - 332 (as of July 2017)

Estimates of motor vehicle seat belt effectiveness and use: implications for occupant crash protection.
Robertson LS.
Am J Public Health. 1976 September; 66(9): 859–864.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted increased survival with seat belt usage (as well as only ~2/3 compliance with front seat belt usage).

Citations - 102 (as of July 2017)

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