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Speed Limits

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Long-term effects of repealing the national maximum speed limit in the United States.
Friedman LS1, Hedeker D, Richter ED.
Am J Public Health. 2009 Sep;99(9):1626-31.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted 3.2% increase in fatalities over all types of roadways time since repeal of 55mph limit.

Citations - 61 (as of July 2017)

Evaluation of variable speed limits for real-time freeway safety improvement.
Abdel-Aty M, Dilmore J, Dhindsa A.
Accid Anal Prev. 2006 Mar;38(2):335-45.

Rationale for inclusion: Introduces concept of real-time changes in speed limits with relation to on-road events (e.g. crashes).

CAVEAT: Unclear of cost of implementation of real-time signage

Citations - 188 (as of July 2017)

Intelligent speed adaptation: accident savings and cost-benefit analysis.
Carsten OM, Tate FN.
Accid Anal Prev. 2005 May;37(3):407-16.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted enforcing compliance with speed limits had a cost-benefit ratio of 7.9 to 15.4:1.

CAVEAT: UK study, recommended mandatory speed limit devices for vehicles

Citations - 225 (as of July 2017)

Drivers' compliance with speed limits: an application of the theory of planned behavior.
Elliott MA, Armitage CJ, Baughan CJ.
J Appl Psychol. 2003 Oct;88(5):964-72.

Rationale for inclusion: Potential way to influence compliance with speed limits.

Citations - 304 (as of July 2017)

Speed control in developing countries: issues, challenges and opportunities in reducing road traffic injuries.
Afukaar FK.
Inj Control Saf Promot. 2003 Mar-Jun;10(1-2):77-81.

Rationale for inclusion: Addresses road safety in developing countries - noted ~50% of deaths in Ghana related to speed.

Citations - 142 (as of July 2017)

Changes in motor vehicle occupant fatalities after repeal of the national maximum speed limit.
Farmer CM, Retting RA, Lund AK.
Accid Anal Prev. 1999 Sep;31(5):537-43.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted an increase in fatalities in those States that increased their speed limits over the 8 years from repeal of the 55 mph limit.

Citations - 110 (as of July 2017)

Did the 65 mph speed limit save lives?
Lave C, Elias P.
Accid Anal Prev. 1994 Feb;26(1):49-62.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted that the increase from 55 mph to 65 mph did NOT increase fatalities (reduced 3.4-5.1% State-wide).  Concept of transferring resources to other needs vs. 55 mph speed control.

CAVEAT: California-only study

Citations - 143 (as of July 2017)

The mortality consequences of raising the speed limit to 65 mph on rural interstates.
Baum HM, Lund AK, Wells JK.
Am J Public Health. 1989 Oct;79(10):1392-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted increased rural fatalities in States that allowed increased speed limits.

CAVEAT: Single-year post study vs historical control

Citations - 63 (as of July 2017)

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