Hemothorax and Pneumothorax
- Management of post-traumatic retained hemothorax: a prospective, observational, multicenter AAST study.
- DuBose J, Inaba K, Demetriades D, Scalea TM, O'Connor J, Menaker J, Morales C, Konstantinidis A, Shiflett A, Copwood B; AAST Retained Hemothorax Study Group.
- J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Jan;72(1):11-22; discussion 22-4; quiz 316.
Rationale for inclusion: Large, multi-center review of retained hemothoraces found that 1) retained hemothoraces <300cc can often be observed, 2) >900cc often require thoracotomy as do patient who undergo initial chest tube placement without antibiotics.
Citations - 87 (as of July 2017)
- Hand-held thoracic sonography for detecting post-traumatic pneumothoraces: the Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (EFAST).
- Kirkpatrick AW, Sirois M, Laupland KB, Liu D, Rowan K, Ball CG, Hameed SM, Brown R, Simons R, Dulchavsky SA, Hamiilton DR, Nicolaou S.
- J Trauma. 2004 Aug;57(2):288-95.
Rationale for inclusion: EFAST was deemed to be more sensitive and equally specific at pneumothorax detection when compared to AP supine chest x-rays.
Citations - 454 (as of July 2017)
- Early evacuation of traumatic retained hemothoraces using thoracoscopy: a prospective, randomized trial.
- Meyer DM, Jessen ME, Wait MA, Estrera AS.
- Ann Thorac Surg. 1997 Nov;64(5):1396-400; discussion 1400-1.
Rationale for inclusion: Randomized trial comparing second tube placement to VATS found VATS management to decrease LOS and costs.
Citations - 183 (as of July 2017)
- Intrapleural fibrinolysis with streptokinase as an adjunctive treatment in hemothorax and empyema: a multicenter trial.
- Jerjes-Sánchez C, Ramirez-Rivera A, Elizalde JJ, Delgado R, Cicero R, Ibarra-Perez C, Arroliga AC, Padua A, Portales A, Villarreal A, Perez-Romo A.
- Chest. 1996 Jun;109(6):1514-9.
Rationale for inclusion: Prospective multi-center trial studying the use of streptokinase for loculated pleural effusions. 44 of 48 patients were managed without surgery.
CAVEAT: Patients with empyemas (n=30) were included in the study sample .
Citations - 177 (as of July 2017)
- Thoracoscopy for empyema and hemothorax.
- Landreneau RJ, Keenan RJ, Hazelrigg SR, Mack MJ, Naunheim KS.
- Chest. 1996 Jan;109(1):18-24.
Rationale for inclusion: In a 99 patient study sample, 23 of 23 patients with complex hemothoraces were managed effectively by VATS.
Citations - 253 (as of July 2017)
- Tube thoracostomy for occult pneumothorax: a prospective randomized study of its use.
- Enderson BL, Abdalla R, Frame SB, Casey MT, Gould H, Maull KI.
- J Trauma. 1993 Nov;35(5):726-9; discussion 729-30.
Rationale for inclusion: Prospective randomized trial of tube thoracostomy versus observation for occult pneumothoraces.
Citations - 186 (as of July 2017)
- Indications for early thoracotomy in the management of chest trauma.
- Kish G, Kozloff L, Joseph WL, Adkins PC.
- Ann Thorac Surg. 1976 Jul;22(1):23-8.
Rationale for inclusion: Early civilian series that established indications for thoracotomy still utilized today.
Citations - 122 (as of July 2017)