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Cholecystitis

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A comparison of cholecystitis grading scales.
Madni TD, Nakonezny PA, Imran JB, Taveras L, Cunningham HB, Vela R, Clark AT, Minshall CT, Eastman AL, Luk S, Phelan HA, Cripps MW.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2019 Mar;86(3):471-478.

Rationale for inclusion: This is a prospective single institution compared the intraoperative Parkland Grading System to the AAST acute cholecystitis scale.  Notably, the Parkland score was superior predictor of conversion and complication rates.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus percutaneous catheter drainage for acute cholecystitis in high risk patients (CHOCOLATE): multicentre randomised clinical trial.
Loozen CS, van Santvoort HC, van Duijvendijk P, Besselink MG, Gouma DJ, Nieuwenhuijzen GA, Kelder JC, Donkervoort SC, van Geloven AA, Kruyt PM, Roos D, Kortram K, Kornmann VN, Pronk A, van der Peet DL, Crolla RM, van Ramshorst B, Bollen TL, Boerma D.
BMJ. 2018 Oct 8;363:k3965.

Rationale for inclusion: This multicenter, randomized-contgrolled trial compared percutaneous cholecystotostomy to laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis due to calculous in patients with an APACHE II score of 7 or more.  Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in critically ill patients reduced complications, healthcare utilization and costs. 

CAVEAT: Trial concluded early after interim analysis.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Evaluating the Relevance of the 2013 Tokyo Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Cholecystitis.
Joseph B, Jehan F, Dacey M, Kulvatunyou N, Khan M, Zeeshan M, Gries L, O'Keeffe T, Riall TS.
J Am Coll Surg. 2018 Jul;227(1):38-43.e1.

Rationale for inclusion: This prospecctive application of the Tokyo Guidelines demonstrates that these criteria  lack sensitivity and may miss over 50% of cases of acute cholecystitis.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Bile Spillage as a Risk Factor for Surgical Site Infection after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Study of 1,001 Patients.
Peponis T, Eskesen TG, Mesar T, Saillant N, Kaafarani HMA, Yeh DD, Fagenholz PJ, de Moya MA, King DR, Velmahos GC.
J Am Coll Surg. 2018 Jun;226(6):1030-1035.

Rationale for inclusion: This study evaluated the consequence of bile spillage during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  With over 80% follow up, the study identified an increase in surgical site infection and legnth of stay.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Validation of the AAST EGS acute cholecystitis grade and comparison with the Tokyo guidelines
Hernandez M, Murphy B, Aho JM, Haddad NN, Saleem H, Zeb M, Morris DS, Jenkins DH, Zielinski M
Surgery. 2018 Apr;163(4):739-746.

Rationale for inclusion: Direct comparison of two validated models for cholecystitis severity, AAST grading system outperformed the Tokyo Guidelines in predicting mortality and complications.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Extended antibiotic therapy versus placebo after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for mild and moderate acute calculous cholecystitis: A randomized double-blind clinical trial.
de Santibañes M, Glinka J, Pelegrini P, Alvarez FA, Elizondo C, Giunta D, Barcan L, Simoncini L, Dominguez NC, Ardiles V, Mazza O, Claria RS, de Santibañes E, Pekolj J.
Surgery. 2018 Mar 2. pii: S0039-6060(18)30030-8.

Rationale for inclusion: This single center, prospective, double blind, randomized trial failed to demonstrate that the addition of 5 days of postopertive amoxiciliin/clavulanic acid  was non-inferior to placebo.

CAVEAT: Trial underpowered to show noninferiority within a margin of 5%.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Tokyo guidelines 2018: antimicrobial therapy for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis
Gomi H, Solomkin JS, Schlossberg D, Okamoto K, Takada T, Strasberg SM, Ukai T, Endo I, Iwashita Y, Hibi T, Pitt HA, Matsunaga N, Takamori Y, Umezawa A, Asai K, Suzuki K, Han HS, Hwang TL, Mori Y, Yoon YS, Huang WS, Belli G, Dervenis C, Yokoe M, Kiriyama S, Itoi T, Jagannath P, Garden OJ, Miura F, de Santibañes E, Shikata S, Noguchi Y, Wada K, Honda G, Supe AN, Yoshida M, Mayumi T, Gouma DJ, Deziel DJ, Liau KH, Chen MF, Liu KH, Su CH, Chan ACW, Yoon DS, Choi IS, Jonas E, Chen XP, Fan ST, Ker CG, Giménez ME, Kitano S, Inomata M, Mukai S, Higuchi R, Hirata K, Inui K, Sumiyama Y, Yamamoto M
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2018 Jan;25(1):3-16.

Rationale for inclusion: Systematic review of literature from January 2010 to 2016 to guide antibiotic management of acute cholecystitis & cholangitis.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Tokyo guidelines 2018: surgical management of acute cholecystitis: safe steps in laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis
Wakabayashi G, Iwashita Y, Hibi T, Takada T, Strasberg SM, Asbun HJ, Endo I, Umezawa A, Asai K, Suzuki K, Mori Y, Okamoto K, Pitt HA, Han HS, Hwang TL, Yoon YS, Yoon DS, Choi IS, Huang WS, Giménez ME, Garden OJ, Gouma DJ, Belli G, Dervenis C, Jagannath P, Chan ACW, Lau WY, Liu KH, Su CH, Misawa T, Nakamura M, Horiguchi A, Tagaya N, Fujioka S, Higuchi R, Shikata S, Noguchi Y, Ukai T, Yokoe M, Cherqui D, Honda G, Sugioka A, de Santibañes E, Supe AN, Tokumura H, Kimura T, Yoshida M, Mayumi T, Kitano S, Inomata M, Hirata K, Sumiyama Y, Inui K, Yamamoto M
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2018 Jan;25(1):73-86.

Rationale for inclusion: Expert consensus review of safe techniques and bail-out procedures in complex laparoscopic cases for acute cholecystitis.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Meta-analysis on the impact of the acute care surgery model of disease and patient-specific outcomes in appendicitis and biliary disease
Murphy PB, DeGirolamo K, Van Zyl TJ, Allen L, Haut E, Leeper WR, Leslie K, Parry N, Hameed M, Vogt KN
J Am Coll Surg. 2017 Dec;225(6):763-777.e13.

Rationale for inclusion: Meta-analysis looking at the acute care surgery model's impact on cholecystitis; decreased length of stay and complication rates.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Nationwide trends of hospital admissions for acute cholecystitis in the United States
Wadhwa V, Jobanputra Y, Garg SK, Patwardhan S, Mehta D, Sanaka MR
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf). 2017 Feb;5(1):36-42.

Rationale for inclusion: Sixteen year review (1997-2012) of patient outcomes after admission for acute cholecystitis in the United States.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Risk factors for surgical site infection after cholecystectomy
Warren DK, Nickel KB, Wallace AE, Mines D, Tian F, Symons WJ, Fraser VJ, Olsen MA
Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 22;4(2):ofx036.

Rationale for inclusion: Expansive study of > 66,000 patients identifying SSI risk factors such as male gender, chronic anemia, DM, drug abuse, malnutrition, obesity, previous infection, acute cholecystitis, and open surgery.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Subtotal cholecystectomy-"fenestrating" vs "reconstituting" subtypes and the prevention of bile duct injury: definition of the optimal procedure in difficult operative conditions.
Strasberg SM, Pucci MJ, Brunt LM, Deziel DJ.
J Am Coll Surg. 2016 Jan;222(1):89-96.

Rationale for inclusion: this review article describes the history, rationale, and methods of performing subtotal cholecystectomy, an important part of the armamentarium of any surgeon treating acute cholecystitis.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Gangrenous cholecystitis: deceiving ultrasounds, significant delay in surgical consult, and increased postoperative morbidity!
Yeh DD, Cropano C, Fagenholz P, King DR, Chang Y, Klein EN, DeMoya M, Kaafarani H, Velmahos G.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Nov;79(5):812-6.

Rationale for inclusion: this study warns of false negative ultrasounds and delay in surgical consultation for gangrenous cholecystitis.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Computed tomography is more sensitive than ultrasound for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis.
Fagenholz PJ, Fuentes E, Kaafarani H, Cropano C, King D, de Moya M, Butler K, Velmahos G, Chang Y, Yeh DD.
Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2015 Oct;16(5):509-12.

Rationale for inclusion: this modern series supports the use of CT for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Operative delay to laparoscopic cholecystectomy: racking up the cost of health care.
Schwartz DA, Shah AA, Zogg CK, Nicholas LH, Velopulos CG, Efron DT, Schneider EB, Haider AH.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jul;79(1):15-21.

Rationale for inclusion: another large NIS study, this time focusing on costs, which again favors early cholecystectomy.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Early versus delayed same-admission laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in elderly patients with comorbidities.
Haltmeier T, Benjamin E, Inaba K, Lam L, Demetriades D.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Apr;78(4):801-7.

Rationale for inclusion: this was a NSQIP study focusing on older (age>65) patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis… again favoring early cholecystectomy.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Optimal time for early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis.
Zafar SN, Obirieze A, Adesibikan B, Cornwell EE 3rd, Fullum TM, Tran DD.
JAMA Surg. 2015 Feb;150(2):129-36.

Rationale for inclusion: this was a very large study using the NIS which supports early cholecystectomy.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Subtotal cholecystectomy for "difficult gallbladders": systematic review and meta-analysis.
Elshaer M, Gravante G, Thomas K, Sorge R, Al-Hamali S, Ebdewi H.
JAMA Surg. 2015 Feb;150(2):159-68.

Rationale for inclusion: this study is important because it justifies the approach of “primum non nocere” when faced with a difficult gallbladder.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Acute cholecystitis: When to operate and how to do it safely.
Peitzman AB, Watson GA, Marsh JW.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jan;78(1):1-12.

Rationale for inclusion: Expert acute care surgeon on approach to acute cholecystitis with data review.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Acute cholecystitis: early versus delayed cholecystectomy, a multicenter randomized trial (ACDC study, NCT00447304).
Gutt CN, Encke J, Köninger J, Harnoss JC, Weigand K, Kipfmüller K, Schunter O, Götze T, Golling MT, Menges M, Klar E, Feilhauer K, Zoller WG, Ridwelski K, Ackmann S, Baron A, Schön MR, Seitz HK, Daniel D, Stremmel W, Büchler MW.
Ann Surg. 2013 Sep;258(3):385-93.

Rationale for inclusion: this was a fairly large, recent RCT supporting early cholecystectomy.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

A population-based analysis of the clinical course of 10,304 patients with acute cholecystitis, discharged without cholecystectomy.
de Mestral C, Rotstein OD, Laupacis A, Hoch JS, Zagorski B, Nathens AB.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Jan;74(1):26-30; discussion 30-1.

Rationale for inclusion: this is important “natural history” paper which informs us what will happen to the patient with acute cholecystitis treated without cholecystectomy.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

TG13 diagnostic criteria and severity grading of acute cholecystitis (with videos).
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2013 Jan;20(1):35-46.

Rationale for inclusion: although this is not primary literature, it is an important 2013 Tokyo Guidelines update reviewing diagnostic criteria and severity grading of acute cholecystitis.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Outcomes in the management of appendicitis and cholecystitis in the setting of a new acute care surgery service model: impact on timing and cost.
Cubas RF, Gómez NR, Rodriguez S, Wanis M, Sivanandam A, Garberoglio CA.
J Am Coll Surg. 2012 Nov;215(5):715-21.

Rationale for inclusion: this study supports our ACS model for acute cholecystitis.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic performance of imaging in acute cholecystitis.
Kiewiet JJ, Leeuwenburgh MM, Bipat S, Bossuyt PM, Stoker J, Boermeester MA.
Radiology. 2012 Sep;264(3):708-20.

Rationale for inclusion: this meta-analysis confirms that HIDA scan is more sensitive than US, CT, and MRI for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Does an acute care surgical model improve the management and outcome of acute cholecystitis?
Lehane CW, Jootun RN, Bennett M, Wong S, Truskett P.
ANZ J Surg. 2010 Jun;80(6):438-42.

Rationale for inclusion: this study supports our ACS model for acute cholecystitis.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Natural history of gallstone disease: Expectant management or active treatment? Results from a population-based cohort study.
Festi D, Reggiani ML, Attili AF, Loria P, Pazzi P, Scaioli E, Capodicasa S, Romano F, Roda E, Colecchia A.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Apr;25(4):719-24.

Rationale for inclusion: knowledge of a disease’s natural history is essential for disease management. This is one of the largest population based studies of over 11,000 patients and found an overall incidence of gallstones in 7.1% of patients; of which 73.1% are asymptomatic. 

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the safety and effectiveness of early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis.
Gurusamy K, Samraj K, Gluud C, Wilson E, Davidson BR.
Br J Surg. 2010 Feb;97(2):141-50.

Rationale for inclusion: yet more meta-analysis evidence supporting early cholecystectomy.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Error traps and vasculo-biliary injury in laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy.
Strasberg SM.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2008;15(3):284-92.

Rationale for inclusion: Expert review of anatomical variation in biliary disease that all general surgeons should be familiar with.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Timing of cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis: a meta-analysis.
Papi C, Catarci M, D'Ambrosio L, Gili L, Koch M, Grassi GB, Capurso L.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jan;99(1):147-55.

Rationale for inclusion: meta-analysis supports early cholecystectomy (open or laparoscopic) over delayed.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy and delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy in critically ill patients with acute calculus cholecystitis.
Spira RM, Nissan A, Zamir O, Cohen T, Fields SI, Freund HR.
Am J Surg. 2002 Jan;183(1):62-6.

Rationale for inclusion: this study supports the safety and efficacy of cholecystostomy tube for acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients followed by interval cholecystectomy.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Randomised trial of laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy for acute and gangrenous cholecystitis.
Kiviluoto T, Sirén J, Luukkonen P, Kivilaakso E.
Lancet. 1998 Jan 31;351(9099):321-5.

Rationale for inclusion: this study supports the safety of laparoscopy for acute and gangrenous cholecystitis.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

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