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Choledocholithiasis

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Recurrence of choledocholithiasis following endoscopic bile duct clearance: Long term results and factors associated with recurrent bile duct stones.
Konstantakis C, Triantos C, Theopistos V, Theocharis G, Maroulis I, Diamantopoulou G, Thomopoulos K.
World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2017 Jan 16;9(1):26-33.

Rationale for inclusion: This study describes some risk factors for recurrence of biliary obstruction even after ERCP.

Citations - 1 (as of July 2017)

Nationwide Assessment of Trends in Choledocholithiasis Management in the United States From 1998 to 2013.
Wandling MW, Hungness ES, Pavey ES, Stulberg JJ, Schwab B, Yang AD, Shapiro MB, Bilimoria KY, Ko CY, Nathens AB.
JAMA Surg. 2016 Dec 1;151(12):1125-1130.

Rationale for inclusion: This longitudinal analysis of the National Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2013 confirms the decreasing role of common bile duct exploration (particularly via the open approach) concomitant with the increasing utilization of ERCP for CBD clearance.  While a shorter median hospital LOS was seen with laparoscopic CBE compared to ERCP, the difference was small (0.5 days) and of questionable clinical significance.

Citations - 3 (as of July 2017)

An analysis of omitting biliary tract imaging in 668 subjects admitted to an acute care surgery service with biochemical evidence of choledocholithiasis.
Riggle AJ, Cripps MW, Liu L, Subramanian M, Nakonezny PA, Wolf SE, Phelan HA.
Am J Surg. 2015 Dec;210(6):1140-4; discussion 1144-6.

Rationale for inclusion: This large study contradicts the traditional teaching that patients presenting with biochemical evidence of choledocholithiasis require preoperative or intraoperative biliary imaging.  The findings are encouraging because they report a low rate of adverse outcomes.  Additional studies are required to confirm these findings.

Citations - 2 (as of July 2017)

Initial Cholecystectomy with Cholangiography Decreases Length of Stay Compared to Preoperative MRCP or ERCP in the Management of Choledocholithiasis.
Lin C, Collins JN, Britt RC, Britt LD.
Am Surg. 2015 Jul;81(7):726-31.

Rationale for inclusion: This study demonstrates that a strategy of initial laparoscopic cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) is associated with a shorter hospital stay compared to preoperative MRCP or ERCP.

Citations - 8 (as of July 2017)

Use of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in clinical practice: not as good as we once thought.
Aydelotte JD, Ali J, Huynh PT, Coopwood TB, Uecker JM, Brown CV.
J Am Coll Surg. 2015 Jul;221(1):215-9.

Rationale for inclusion: another study demonstrating the inaccuracy of MRCP.

Citations - 14 (as of July 2017)

Initial cholecystectomy vs sequential common duct endoscopic assessment and subsequent cholecystectomy for suspected gallstone migration: a randomized clinical trial.
Iranmanesh P, Frossard JL, Mugnier-Konrad B, Morel P, Majno P, Nguyen-Tang T, Berney T, Mentha G, Toso C.
JAMA. 2014 Jul;312(2):137-44.

Rationale for inclusion: this RCT favors initial cholecystectomy with IOC over initial ERCP followed by cholecystectomy for patients with intermediate (total bilirubin < 4.0) risk of choledocholithiasis.

Citations - 43 (as of July 2017)

Accuracy of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography for diagnosing stones in the common bile duct in patients with abnormal intraoperative cholangiograms.
Richard F, Boustany M, Britt LD.
Am J Surg. 2013 Apr;205(4):371-3.

Rationale for inclusion: MRCP is not that accurate and has high rate of false negative results.

Citations - 21 (as of July 2017)

Natural history of gallstone disease: expectant management or active treatment? Results from a population-based cohort study.
Festi D, Reggiani ML, Attili AF, Loria P, Pazzi P, Scaioli E, Capodicasa S, Romano F, Roda E, Colecchia A.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Apr;25(4):719-24.

Rationale for inclusion: This very large population-based cohort study demonstrates that the majority of patients with gallstones are asymptomatic and most will remain asymptomatic.  More than half of patients with mild and severe symptoms will become asymptomatic over time.

Citations - 103 (as of July 2017)

Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and ultrasound compared with direct cholangiography in the detection of choledocholithiasis.
Varghese JC, Liddell RP, Farrell MA, Murray FE, Osborne DH, Lee MJ.
Clin Radiol. 2000 Jan;55(1):25-35.

Rationale for inclusion: in contrast, this study reports high accuracy of MRCP for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis.

Citations - 204 (as of July 2017)

Diagnosis of choledocholithiasis: EUS or magnetic resonance cholangiography? A prospective controlled study.
de Lédinghen V, Lecesne R, Raymond JM, Gense V, Amouretti M, Drouillard J, Couzigou P, Silvain C.
Gastrointest Endosc. 1999 Jan;49(1):26-31.

Rationale for inclusion: this study supports the accuracy of EUS for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis.

Citations - 244 (as of July 2017)

Use of magnetic resonance cholangiography in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis: prospective comparison with a reference imaging method.
Zidi SH, Prat F, Le Guen O, Rondeau Y, Rocher L, Fritsch J, Choury AD, Pelletier G.
Gut. 1999 Jan;44(1):118-22.

Rationale for inclusion: this study also suggests poor accuracy of MRCP for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis.

Citations - 208 (as of July 2017)

Endoscopic ultrasonography versus cholangiography for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis.
Canto MI, Chak A, Stellato T, Sivak MV Jr.
Gastrointest Endosc. 1998 Jun;47(6):439-48.

Rationale for inclusion: this study supports the accuracy of EUS for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis.

Citations - 252 (as of July 2017)

Predictive factors for synchronous common bile duct stones in patients with cholelithiasis.
Alponat A, Kum CK, Rajnakova A, Koh BC, Goh PM.
Surg Endosc. 1997 Sep;11(9):928-32.

Rationale for inclusion: This study describes offers four clinical/laboratory/sonographic signs which may help predict the likelihood of having CBD stones.

Citations - 65 (as of July 2017)

Endoscopic ultrasonography for diagnosing choledocholithiasis: a prospective comparative study with ultrasonography and computed tomography.
Sugiyama M, Atomi Y.
Gastrointest Endosc. 1997 Feb;45(2):143-6.

Rationale for inclusion: this study supports the accuracy of EUS for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis.

Citations - 248 (as of July 2017)

Diagnosis of choledocholithiasis by endoscopic ultrasonography.
Amouyal P, Amouyal G, Lévy P, Tuzet S, Palazzo L, Vilgrain V, Gayet B, Belghiti J, Fékété F, Bernades P.
Gastroenterology. 1994 Apr;106(4):1062-7.

Rationale for inclusion: another study supporting EUS for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis.

Citations - 282 (as of July 2017)

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