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Damage Control Laparotomy

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Outcomes of Open Abdomen versus Primary Closure following Emergent Laparotomy for Suspected Secondary Peritonitis: A Propensity-Matched Analysis.
Kao AM1, Cetrulo LN1, Baimas-George M1, Prasad T1, Heniford BT1, Davis BR1, Kasten KR1.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2019 Apr 25

Rationale for inclusion: Open abdomen approach may not provide the benefit as perceived of a planned relook laparotomy and instead a selective approach of PC with " on demand" re laparotomy may be the method with lower complication rates, better mortality rates and lower health care costs. 

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The impact of standardized protocol implementation for surgical damage control and temporary abdominal closure after emergent laparotomy.
Loftus TJ, Efron PA, Bala TM, Rosenthal MD, Croft CA, Walters MS, Smith RS, Moore FA, Mohr AM, Brakenridge SC.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2019 Apr;86(4):670-678.

Rationale for inclusion: Protocol addressing patient selection, operative technique, resuscitation strategies, and critical care provisions decreases time to and rate of abdominal closure.

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Effect of Damage Control Laparotomy on Major Abdominal Complications and Lengths of Stay: a Propensity Score Matching and Bayesian Analysis.
Harvin JA1, Sharpe JP2, Croce MA2, Goodman MD3, Pritts TA3, Dauer ED4, Moran BJ4, Rodriguez RD5, Zarzaur BL5, Kreiner LA6, Claridge JA6, Holcomb JB1.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2019 Apr 1.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparing damage control laparotomy to primary closure on ICU, hospital length of stay and ventilator days.

CAVEAT: 2 studies with similar name. Looking on different outcomes. 

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Trauma and emergency general surgery patients should be extubated with an open abdomen.
Taveras LR, Imran JB, Cunningham HB, Madni TD, Taarea R, Tompeck A, Clark AT, Provenzale N, Adeyemi FM, Minshall CT, Eastman AL, Cripps MW.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Dec;85(6):1043-1047.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrates that trauma and EGS patient with open abdomen can be extubated safely with less risk of pneumonia. 

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Perforated Diverticulitis with Generalized Peritonitis: Low Stoma Rate Using a "Damage Control Strategy".
Sohn M, Iesalnieks I, Agha A, Steiner P, Hochrein A, Pratschke J, Ritschl P, Aigner F.
World J Surg. 2018 Oct;42(10):3189-3195.

Rationale for inclusion: Lowering stoma rate with damage control laparotomy in Hinchey II and IV diverticulitis.

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The effect of damage control laparotomy on major abdominal complications: A matched analysis.
George MJ, Adams SD, McNutt MK, Love JD, Albarado R, Moore LJ, Wade CE, Cotton BA, Holcomb JB, Harvin J.
Am J Surg. 2018 Jul;216(1):56-59.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparing damage control laparotomy vs primary closure on major abdominal complications.

CAVEAT: 2 studies with similar name. Looking on different outcomes.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Damage control surgery for non-traumatic abdominal emergencies.
Girard E, Abba J, Boussat B, Trilling B, Mancini A, Bouzat P, Létoublon C, Chirica M, Arvieux C
World J Surg. 2018 Apr;42(4):965-973

Rationale for inclusion: Damage control surgery (DCS) was a major paradigm change in the management of critically ill trauma patients and has gradually expanded in the general surgery arena, but data in this setting are still scarce. The study aim was to evaluate outcomes of DCS in patients with general surgery emergencies. DCS can be lifesaving in critically ill patients with general surgery emergencies. Patients with peritonitis and acute pancreatitis are those who benefit most of the DCS approach.

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Decreasing the use of damage control laparotomy in trauma: A quality improvement project.
Harvin JA, Kao LS, Liang MK, Adams SD, McNutt MK, Love JD, Moore LJ, Wade CE, Cotton BA, Holcomb JB
J Am Coll Surg. 2017 Aug;225(2):200-209

Rationale for inclusion: Damage control laparotomy rates of 30% are documented and there is substantial morbidity associated with the open abdomen. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to decrease the rate of DCL at a busy, Level I trauma center in the US. A QI initiative rapidly changed the use of DCL and improved quality of care by decreasing resource use without an increase morbidity or mortality. This decrease was sustained during the QI period and further improved upon after its completion.

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Mortality after emergent trauma laparotomy: A multicenter, retrospective study.
Harvin JA, Maxim T, Inaba K, Martinez-Aguilar MA, King DR, Choudhry AJ, Zielinski MD, Akinyeye S, Todd SR, Griffin RL, Kerby JD, Bailey JA, Livingston DH, Cunningham K, Stein DM, Cattin L, Bulger EM, Wilson A, Undurraga Perl VJ, Schreiber MA, Cherry-Bukowiec JR, Alam HB, Holcomb JB.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Sep;83(3):464-468

Rationale for inclusion: Hypotensive trauma patients requiring emergent laparotomy had a 40% mortality. In the interim, multiple interventions to decrease hemorrhage-related mortality have been implemented but few have any documented evidence of change in outcomes for patients requiring emergent laparotomy. The mortality rate for hypotensive patients (46%) appears unchanged over the last two decades and is even more concerning, with almost half of patients presenting with an SBP of 90 mm Hg or less dying.

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Open abdomen with vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction in patients with complicated diffuse secondary peritonitis: A single-center 8-year experience.
Tolonen M, Mentula P, Sallinen V, Rasilainen S, Bäcklund M, Leppäniemi A
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Jun;82(6):1100-1105

Rationale for inclusion: This is a retrospective, single center study of patients with diffuse secondary peritonitis treated with open abdomen and vaccuum assisted closure and mesh mediated traction. They had 92% fascial closure rates with their technique and a low rate (7%) of enteroatmospheric fistula.

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History of the innovation of damage control for management of trauma patients: 1902-2016.
Roberts DJ, Ball CG, Feliciano DV, Moore EE, Ivatury RR, Lucas CE, Fabian TC, Zygun DA, Kirkpatrick AW, Stelfox HT
Ann Surg. 2017 May;265(5):1034-1044

Rationale for inclusion: This article provides an excellent review of the history of the use of damage control laparotomy. Newer studies question whether damage control laparotomy should be used more selectively, especially in the context of changing resuscitation strategies.

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Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma: management of the open abdomen, part III-review of abdominal wall reconstruction.
Diaz JJ Jr, Cullinane DC, Khwaja KA, Tyson GH, Ott M, Jerome R, Kerwin AJ, Collier BR, Pappas PA, Sangosanya AT, Como JJ, Bokhari F, Haut ER, Smith LM, Winston ES, Bilaniuk JW, Talley CL, Silverman R, Croce MA.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Sep;75(3):376-86.

Rationale for inclusion: a great 3-part series of papers from EAST.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Who should we feed? Western Trauma Association multi-institutional study of enteral nutrition in the open abdomen after injury.
Burlew CC, Moore EE, Cuschieri J, Jurkovich GJ, Codner P, Nirula R, Millar D, Cohen MJ, Kutcher ME, Haan J, MacNew HG, Ochsner G, Rowell SE, Truitt MS, Moore FO, Pieracci FM, Kaups KL; WTA Study Group.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Dec;73(6):1380-7; discussion 1387-8.

Rationale for inclusion: support for early enteral nutrition (EN) in the open abdomen to improve fascial closure, complication rate, and mortality.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma: a review of the management of the open abdomen--part 2 "Management of the open abdomen."
Diaz JJ Jr, Dutton WD, Ott MM, Cullinane DC, Alouidor R, Armen SB, Bilanuik JW, Collier BR, Gunter OL, Jawa R, Jerome R, Kerwin AJ, Kirby JP, Lambert AL, Riordan WP, Wohltmann CD.
J Trauma. 2011 Aug;71(2):502-12.

Rationale for inclusion:  a great 3-part series of papers from EAST.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Multicentre prospective study of fascial closure rate after open abdomen with vacuum and mesh-mediated fascial traction.
Acosta S, Bjarnason T, Petersson U, Pålsson B, Wanhainen A, Svensson M, Djavani K, Björck M.
Br J Surg. 2011 May;98(5):735-43.

Rationale for inclusion: another great technique article.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Damage control resuscitation in combination with damage control laparotomy: a survival advantage.
Duchesne JC, Kimonis K, Marr AB, Rennie KV, Wahl G, Wells JE, Islam TM, Meade P, Stuke L, Barbeau JM, Hunt JP, Baker CC, McSwain NE Jr.
J Trauma. 2010 Jul;69(1):46-52.

Rationale for inclusion: this paper emphasizes that good outcomes after DCL are dependent on anesthesia practices (DCR) as well!

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma: The management of the open abdomen in trauma and emergency general surgery: part 1-damage control.
Diaz JJ Jr, Cullinane DC, Dutton WD, Jerome R, Bagdonas R, Bilaniuk JW, Collier BR, Como JJ, Cumming J, Griffen M, Gunter OL, Kirby J, Lottenburg L, Mowery N, Riordan WP Jr, Martin N, Platz J, Stassen N, Winston ES.
J Trauma. 2010 Jun;68(6):1425-38.

Rationale for inclusion: a great 3-part series of papers from EAST.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Effect of immediate enteral feeding on trauma patients with an open abdomen: protection from nosocomial infections.
Dissanaike S, Pham T, Shalhub S, Warner K, Hennessy L, Moore EE, Maier RV, O'Keefe GE, Cuschieri J.
J Am Coll Surg. 2008 Nov;207(5):690-7.

Rationale for inclusion: this article supports early EN to decrease pneumonia.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

One hundred percent fascial approximation with sequential abdominal closure of the open abdomen.
Cothren CC, Moore EE, Johnson JL, Moore JB, Burch JM.
Am J Surg. 2006 Aug;192(2):238-42.

Rationale for inclusion: though it’s a small study, they describe their technique of sequential abdominal closure using NPWT for high rate of fascial closure during index hospitalization.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Early definitive abdominal closure using serial closure technique on injured soldiers returning from Afghanistan and Iraq.
Vertrees A, Kellicut D, Ottman S, Peoples G, Shriver C.
J Am Coll Surg. 2006 May;202(5):762-72.

Rationale for inclusion: further refinement of the serial abdominal closure technique using a Gore-Tex mesh as a temporary “handle” to help sequentially draw the fascia to the midline.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Prospective evaluation of vacuum-assisted fascial closure after open abdomen: planned ventral hernia rate is substantially reduced.
Miller PR, Meredith JW, Johnson JC, Chang MC.
Ann Surg. 2004 May;239(5):608-14; discussion 614-6.

Rationale for inclusion: negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is superior to non-NPWT for fascial closure during index hospitalization.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Vacuum pack technique of temporary abdominal closure: a 7-year experience with 112 patients.
Barker DE, Kaufman HJ, Smith LA, Ciraulo DL, Richart CL, Burns RP.
J Trauma. 2000 Feb;48(2):201-6; discussion 206-7.

Rationale for inclusion: the “Barker” technique is often cited as the “poor man’s VAC” for those who do not have ready access to commercial negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT).

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

'Damage control': an approach for improved survival in exsanguinating penetrating abdominal injury.
Rotondo MF, Schwab CW, McGonigal MD, Phillips GR 3rd, Fruchterman TM, Kauder DR, Latenser BA, Angood PA.
J Trauma. 1993 Sep;35(3):375-82; discussion 382-3.

Rational for inclusion: this article is often cited as the “original” modern description of damage control laparotomy.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

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Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

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