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Implicit Bias

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Estimating Implicit and Explicit Gender Bias Among Health Care Professionals and Surgeons.
Salles A, Awad M, Goldin L, Krus K, Lee JV, Schwabe MT, Lai CK.
JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Jul 3;2(7):e196545.

Rationale for inclusion: Implicit bias testing of self-identified health care providers by Project Implicit IAT as well as Gender-Specialty IAT tested at a national surgical meeting in October 2017. Both implicit bias and *explicit* bias were higher in healthcare providers and surgeons associating men with surgery and career, and women with family and family medicine.  Authors recommend awareness to implicit bias to help negate effects.

CAVEAT: Data Review and cross-sectional study from self-identified health care professionals.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Reducing Implicit Bias: Association of Women Surgeons #HeForShe Task Force Best Practice Recommendations.
DiBrito S, Lopez CM, Jones C, Mathur A.
J Am Coll Surg. 2019 Mar;228(3):303-309.

Rationale for inclusion: These task force recommendations from the Association of Women Surgeons are an effort to eradicate implicit bias and improve surgical departments everywhere. They recommend adoption of these practices to departments of surgery interested in improvement. 

CAVEAT: Not a study.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Association of Racial and Socioeconomic Diversity With Implicit Bias in Acute Care Surgery.
Zebib L, Strong B, Moore G, Ruiz G, Rattan R, Zakrison TL.
JAMA Surg. 2019 Feb 20.

Rationale for inclusion: Implicit bias testing of trauma care providers was completed in a "majority minority" diverse city in the United States. Rates of racial bias in favor of whites were significantly lower compared to trauma surgeons from other cities, as was class bias. DIversity may be protective against implicit bias.

CAVEAT: Single center study of multidisciplinary trauma care profesisonals. 

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The effect of an intervention to break the gender bias habit for faculty at one institution: a cluster randomized, controlled trial.
Carnes M, Devine PG, Baier ML, Byars-Winston A, Fine E, Ford CE, Forscher P, Isaac C, Kaatz A, Magua W, Palta M, Sheridan J.
Acad Med. 2015 Feb;90(2):221-30.

Rationale for inclusion: This is one of the few single-blind, cluster randomized controlled studies of a gender-bias-habit changing interventions.  The intervention was in the form of a workshop that ultimately resulted in significant increases in self-reported action to promote gender equity and changed the department climate. 

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Unconscious race and class bias: its association with decision making by trauma and acute care surgeons.
Haider AH, Schneider EB, Sriram N, Dossick DS, Scott VK, Swoboda SM, et al.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Sep;77(3):409-16.

Rationale for inclusion: This was a web-based survey of EAST members that found that unconscious preferences for white and upper-class individuals is prevalent among acute care surgeons, although this did not appear to affect clinical decision making.

CAVEAT: Survey

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

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