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A National Survey of Motor Vehicle Crashes Among General Surgery Residents
Schlick CJR, Hewitt DB, Quinn CM, Ellis RJ, Shapiro KE, Jones A, Bilimoria KY, Yang AD.
Ann Surg. 2020 Jun 4.

Rationale for Inclusion: Evaluated residents by survey about hazardous driving. Hazardous driving events are prevalent among general surgery residents and associated with frequent duty hour violations and poor psychiatric well-being.

CAVEAT: Self-reported survey

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Preventing distracted driving: A program from initiation through to evaluation
Ehrlich PF, Costello B, Randall A
Am J Surg. 2020 Jun;219(6):1045-1049.

Rationale for Inclusion: Prospective study demonstrating contextual placement digital advertising and focused social media was more effective in attracting parents to the website, and increased downloads.

CAVEAT: Level III evidence

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Distracted Driving Laws and Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities
Flaherty MR, Kim AM, Salt MD, Lee LK
Pediatrics. 2020 Jun;145(6):e20193621.

Rationale for Inclusion: Demonstrated relationship between handheld device use and motor vehicle crash fatalities. Supporting law to restrict usage.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Effectiveness of a collaborative, student-run campaign to increase safety belt use among adolescents
Kauffman JD, Soltani T, McCullough K, Vybiralova P, Macauley K, Danielson PD, Chandler NM
Inj Prev. 2020 Jun;26(3):262-269.

Rationale for Inclusion: Results from 14 high schools about a campaign on student driver seat belt use. A collaborative campaign resulted in a modest, short term increase in seat belt use among high school students.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Seat belt use among patients in motor vehicle collisions: Clinical and demographic factors
Marco CA, Ekeh AP, Hardman C, Lovell M, Brent A, Akamune J.
Am J Emerg Med. 2020 Jun;38(6):1069-1071.

Rationale for Inclusion: Study to identify factors associated with noncompliance with seat belt use among admitted patients after MVC. 32% were not compliant and highest among males, younger age, intoxicated, and who had a positive drug screen.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Applying Behavioral Economics to Enhance Safe Firearm Storage
K Hoskins, U Roy Paladhi, C McDonald, A Buttenheim
Pediatrics. 2020 Mar;145(3):e20192268.

Rationale for Inclusion: Begins to approach methods for effective counseling to improve safe storage.

CAVEAT: Needs empirical study

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Baltimore Ceasefire 365: Estimated Impact of a Recurring Community-Led Ceasefire on Gun Violence
Phalen P, Bridgeford E, Gant L, Kivisto A, Ray B, Fitzgerald S
American Journal of Public Health. 2020;110(4):554-559.

Rationale for inclusion: Identifies an approximately 50% decrease in violence associated with community-led "ceasefire" weekends with no postponement effect.

CAVEAT: Nonrandomized study

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Integrating e-scooters in urban transportation: Problems, policies, and the prospect of system change
Gössling S
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2020 February; Volume 79, 102230.

Rationale for Inclusion: Characterizes challenges with e-scooters in the context of urban planning and describes the reasons they are so popular in certain cities. This article provides insight to the popular trend of e-scooters.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The effectiveness of crisis line services: a systematic review.
Hoffberg AS, Sterns-Yoder KA, Brenner LA
Front Public Health. 2020 Jan 17;7:399.

Rationale for Inclusion: Systematic review of evidence on crisis hotlines for suicide prevention. 33 studies included. No conclusive evidence of effectiveness was identified.

CAVEAT: High risk of bias in included studies.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

An athletic coach–delivered middle school gender violence prevention program: a cluster randomized clinical trial
Miller E, Jones KA, Ripper L, Paglisotti T, Mulbah P, Abebe KZ
JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Jan 13;174(3):241-249.

Rationale for Inclusion: Cluster-randomized trial increased adolescent boys' positive bystander interventions and equitable gender attitudes and decreased relationship abuse and sexual harassment perpetration

CAVEAT: Outcome measured by self-report

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Are Booster Seats More Effective than Child Safety Seats or Seat Belts at Reducing Traffic Fatalities among Children?
Are Booster Seats More Effective than Child Safety Seats or Seat Belts at Reducing Traffic Fatalities among Children?
American Journal of Health Economics 5, no. 1 (Winter 2019): 42-64

Rationale for Inclusion: Analysis of data from 2006-2018 the study examined effectiveness of booster seats relative to child safety seats and adult seat belts. For children 2-5 booster seats are least effective form of restraint. For children 6-9, all three forms appear equally effective.

CAVEAT: Database study

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Adolescent dating violence prevention program for early adolescents: the me & you randomized controlled trial, 2014-2015
Peskin MF, Markham CM, Shegog R, Baumler ER, Addy RC, Temple JR, Hernandez B, Cuccaro PM, Thiel MA, Gabay EK, Tortolero Emery SR.
Am J Public Health. 2019 Oct;109(10):1419-1428.

Rationale for Inclusion: Randomized trial of multilevel intervention showed lower odds of IPV perpetration but not overall victimization.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Proceedings from the Medical Summit on Firearm Injury Prevention: A Public Health Approach to Reduce Death and Disability in the US.
Bulger EM, Kuhls DA, Campbell BT, Bonne S, Cunningham RM, Betz M, Dicker R, Ranney ML, Barsotti C, Hargarten S, Sakran JV, Rivara FP, James T, Lamis D, Timmerman G, Rogers SO, Choucair B, Stewart RM.
J Am Coll Surg. 2019 Oct;229(4):415-430.e12.

Rationale for Inclusion: Comprehensive summary of public health approach to firearm-related injury prevention

CAVEAT: Consensus statement

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The association between seatbelt use and trauma outcomes: Does body mass index matter?
Elkbuli A, Dowd B, Spano PJ 2nd, Hai S, Boneva D, McKenney M.
Am J Emerg Med. 2019 Sep;37(9):1716-1719.

Rationale for Inclusion: Article describes association between seat belt use and body mass index. Four year review from Level I trauma registry with 11,792 patients. Conclusion was that BMI is not significant in reducing mortality with seat belt use

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Effect of a Home-Based Exercise Program on Subsequent Falls Among Community-Dwelling High-Risk Older Adults After a Fall: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Liu-Ambrose T, Davis JC, Best JR, Dian L, Madden K, Cook W, Hsu CL, Khan KM.
JAMA. 2019 Jun 4;321(21):2092-2100.

Rationale for inclusion: A 12-month randomized trial looking at risk elderly patients with an intervention of a PT delivered home exercise program vs. usual care. This program significantly reduced the rate of subsequent falls.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Motorized scooter injuries in the era of scooter-shares: A review of the national electronic surveillance system
Aizpuru M, Farley KX, Rojas JC, Crawford RS, Moore TJ Jr, Wagner ER.
Am J Emerg Med. 2019 Jun;37(6):1133-1138.

Rationale for Inclusion: Retrospective review of the NEISS database. Large number (820) of e-scooter injuries were captured in study. Risk factors and injury distribution described well, with the hope of influencing policy based on common trends.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Restraint use and injury in forward and rear-facing infants and toddlers involved in a fatal motor vehicle crash on a U. S. Roadway
Restraint use and injury in forward and rear-facing infants and toddlers involved in a fatal motor vehicle crash on a U. S. Roadway
Inj Epidemiol. 2019 May 29;6(Suppl 1):28.

Rationale for Inclusion: This study examines the practice of rear-facing restraints pre- and post-AAP recommendations for children under 2 years. Trends in the use of rear-facing child restraints improved over the timeframe of this study, but remain low despite the introduction of AAP guidelines and the strengthening of child restraint laws.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Crash risk factors associated with injury severity of teen drivers.
Duddu V, Kukkapalli V, Pulugurtha S
IATSS Research. 2019 Apr; 43:37-43.

Rationale for Inclusion: Paper focuses on identifying crash risk factors associated with injury severity of teen drivers. Crash data from highway safety information systems in North Carolina. The results obtained indicate that teen drivers driving sports utility vehicles and pickup trucks are more likely to be severely injured when compared to teen drivers driving passenger cars. Teen drivers are more likely to be severely injured on weekdays, particularly during peak hours. Age, gender, road configuration, terrain, adverse weather condition, and access control are observed to have a significant effect on teen driver's injury severity.

CAVEAT: Single state 

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Safety sensitivity to roadway characteristics: A comparison across highway classes
Chen S, Saeed TU, Alinizzi M, Lavrenz S, Labi S
Accid Anal Prev. 2019 Feb;123:39-50.

Rationale for Inclusion: Paper examined the accident risk factors associated with highway traffic and roadway design.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Points of Influence for Lethal Means Counseling and Safe Gun Storage Practices
CW Runyan, A Brooks-Russell, ME Betz
J Public Health Manag Pract. Jan/Feb 2019;25(1):86-89.

Rationale for Inclusion: Reviews several important factors surrounding access to lethal means, counseling by health professionals, and collaborative efforts with the community to work toward suicide prevention

CAVEAT: Review article

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Recommendations from the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma’s Firearm Strategy Team (FAST) Workgroup: Chicago Consensus I
CL Talley, BT Campbell, DH Jenkins, SL Barnes, RA Sidwell, G Timmerman, RI Gross, M Coburn, JA Bailey, A Eastman, J Ficke, E Kuncir, RW Letton, BJ Eastridge, AE Liepert, A Wilson, D Robinette, JW Davis, C Shalgian, H Michaels, MC Weissler, DA Kuhls, EM Bulger, RM Stewart
J Am Coll Surg. 2019 Feb;228(2):198-206.

Rationale for Inclusion: First consensus statement from the ACS COT FAST Working Group to address a public health approach to firearm-injury prevention.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Violence prevalence and prevention status in China
Gao X, Ye P, Er Y, Jin Y, Wang L, Duan L
Inj Prev. 2019 Feb;25(1):67-73.

Rationale for Inclusion: Overview of violence and violence prevention in China

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Injuries Associated with Standing Electric Scooter Use
Trivedi TK, Liu C, Antonio ALM, Wheaton N, Kreger V, Yap A, Schriger D, Elmore JG.
JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Jan 4;2(1):e187381.

Rationale for inclusion: Retrospective glance at UCLA's ED experience with e-scooter. Sample size is large and characterizes common injury patterns of patients and safety practices, such as helmet/no helmet.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Firearm Injury Prevention Statement
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2019 Jan;86(1):168-170.

Rationale for Inclusion: EAST consensus statement of firearm injury prevention.

CAVEAT: Consensus statement

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The complex relationship between increases to speed limits and traffic fatalities: from a meta-analysis
Manzano J, Castro-Nuno M, Lopez-Valpuesta L, Vassallo F
Safety Science. 2019 Jan; 111: 287-297.

Rationale for Inclusion: Meta-analysis to look at econometric studies assessing the effects on traffic fatalities of increasing speed limits in the US. Findings show that by count traffic fatalities went up on both rural interstates and statewide level. Statewide fatalities rates could be improved in relative terms by raising legal speed limits, although the effect would be weak.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Assessing the Impact of Blood Alcohol Concentration on the Rate of In-Hospital Mortality Following Traumatic Motor Vehicle Crash Injury: A Matched Analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank
Ahmed N, Greenberg P
Injury. 2019 Jan;50(1):33-38.

Rationale for Inclusion: NTBD study evaluating alcohol levels in trauma. Patients who tested positive for alcohol following a traumatic injury showed no clinically significant reduction in mortality and no significant difference in total hospital length of stay.

CAVEAT: Database study

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The assessment of airbag deployment and seatbelt use in preventing facial injuries
Todorovic M, Vukcevic B, Cabarkapa M, Vukcevic N, Boljevic T, Radojevic N
Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2018 Dec;14(4):503-508.

Rationale for Inclusion: Study to determine the effectiveness of airbags and seatbelts in the prevention of facial fractures. Conclusion was the airbags and seatbelts are effective in preventing facial injuries in vehicles of average mass that are traveling at a speed under 49.2 km/h.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Airbag deployment and cervical spine injury in restrained drivers following motor vehicle collisions
Inamasu J, Kato M
Neuroradiology. 2018 Dec;60(12):1307-1313.

Rationale for Inclusion: Study to look at seatbelt and airbags deployment and cervical spine injury. Single center retrospective observational study.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Child Passenger Safety
Durbin DR, Hoffman BD; COUNCIL ON INJURY, VIOLENCE, AND POISON PREVENTION.
Pediatrics . 2018 Nov;142(5):e20182460.

Rationale for Inclusion: Technical report providing summary of precedent in support in best practices to optimize safety in passengers' vehicles for children from birth through adolescence.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Committee on Adolescense; Council on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention: The Teen Driver
Alderman EM, Johnston BD; COMMITTEE ON ADOLESCENCE; COUNCIL ON INJURY, VIOLENCE, AND POISON PREVENTION.
Pediatrics. 2018 Oct;142(4):e20182163.

Rationale for Inclusion: This policy statement, in which we update the previous 2006 iteration of this policy statement, is used to reflect new research on the risks faced by teen drivers and offer advice for pediatricians counseling teen drivers and their families.

CAVEAT: Policy statement 

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Teen driver system modeling: a tool for policy analysis
Misskpode C, Peek-Asa C, McGehee D, Torner J, Wakeland W, Wallace R
Inj Epidemiol. 2018 Sep 17;5(1):34.

Rationale for Inclusion: System Dynamics methodology was used as a new way of representing factors involved in the underlying process of teen crash risk. A Teen Driver System Model was developed by following an iterative process where causal hypotheses were translated into systems of differential equations to test whether they can reproduce historical teen driving data. The analysis suggests that natural risky driving improvement curve follows a course of a slow improvement, then a faster improvement, and finally a plateau. Individual risky driving behavior depends on initial risk and driving exposure.

CAVEAT: Injury model study

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Comparison of the safety planning intervention with follow-up vs usual care of suicidal patients treated in the emergency department
Stanley B, Brown GK, Brenner LA, Galfalvy HC, Currier GW, Knox KL, Chaudhury SR, Bush AL, Green KL
JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 Sep 1;75(9):894-900.

Rationale for Inclusion: Cohort comparison design study of safety planning intervention showed a 45% decrease in suicidal behavior and doubled attendance at mental health follow-up.

CAVEAT: Non-randomized

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Estimating the Effect of Standard Enforcement of a Rear Seat Belt Law for Rear Seat Fatality Prevention
Findley, D. J., Sanchez, M., & Nye, T.
Transportation Research Record. 2018 July 31; 2672(33), 67–77.

Rationale for Inclusion: Article analyses the link between primary enforcement of rear seat belt use and injury severity in fatal motor vehicle collisions.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Preventive effects of car safety seat use on clinical outcomes in infants and young children with road traffic injuries: A 7-year observational study
Park GJ, Ro YS, Shin SD, Song KJ, Hong KJ, Jeong J.
Injury. 2018 Jun;49(6):1097-1103.

Rationale for Inclusion: Multicenter cross-sectional study conducted using emergency department based injury in depth surveillance registry in 23 Eds 2010-2016. Total 5545 eligible patients, 1452 were in car safety seats at the time of the accident. Patients using car safety seats were less likely to have intracranial injuries compared with patients who were not. However, there was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

A multilevel analysis of risk and protective factors for Canadian youth injured or killed by interpersonal violence
Snider CE, Brownell M, Dufault B, et al
Inj Prev. 2018 Jun;24(3):199-204.

Rationale for Inclusion: Comprehensive review of individual and neighborhood risk factors associated with violent injury.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Systemic approach for injury and violence prevention: what we can learn from the Harlem Children's Zone and Promise Neighborhoods
Taylor C, Schorr LB, Wilkins N, Smith LS
Injury Prevention. 2018;24(Suppl 1):i32-i37.

Rationale for inclusion: Assessment of "cradle-to-career" neighborhood level interventions to address social determinants of health, including injury and violence.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Determinants of severe injury and fatal traffic accidents on urban and rural highways
Kassu A, Anderson M
IJTTE. 2018 May 15; 8(3): 294 - 308

Rationale for Inclusion: Studied correlation, impact, and association of several highway pavements and geometric design elements, the prevailing traffic characteristics and environmental conditions on severe traffic crashes over a five year period.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Variability of child access prevention laws and pediatric firearm injuries
EC Hamilton, CC Miller III, CS Cox Jr, KP Lally, MT Austin
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Apr;84(4):613-619.

Rationale for Inclusion: National perspective on firearm access and pediatric injuries. Implementation of strong child access prevention laws by each state, which require safe storage of firearms, has the potential to significantly reduce pediatric firearm injuries.

CAVEAT: Database

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Storage Practices of US Gun Owners in 2016
CK Crifasi, ML Doucette, EE McGinty, DW Webster, CL Barry 
Am J Public Health. 2018 Apr;108(4):532-537.

Rationale for Inclusion: National online survey of firearm storage practices and rationale for them.

CAVEAT: Response bias of online survey

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Counseling on access to lethal means (CALM): an evaluation of a suicide prevention means restriction training program for mental health providers
Sale E, Hendricks M, Weil V, Miller C, Perkins S, McCudden S.
Community Ment Health J. 2018 Apr;54(3):293-301.

Rationale for Inclusion: Prospective evaluation of CALM training for mental health providers to counsel patients on lethal means restriction during times of crisis. Well received by mental health professionals.

CAVEAT: Did not assess suicide as an outcome.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Citywide cluster randomized trial to restore blighted vacant land and its effects on violence, crime, and fear
Branas CC, South E, Kondo MC, Hohl BC, Bourgois P, Wiebe DJ, MacDonald JM.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Mar 20;115(12):2946-2951.

Rationale for Inclusion: Cluster-randomized trial of greening vacant lands showed reduction in violence along with other positive health effects. Violence was not displaced to adjacent areas.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Identification of significant factors in fatal-injury highway crashes using genetic algorithm and neural network
Li Y, Ma D, Zhu M, Zeng Z, Wang Y
Accid Anal Prev. 2018 Feb;111:354-363.

Rationale for Inclusion: The paper explores the process of significant factor's identification. The most sensitive factors are hour of day, most severe sobriety, and roadway characteristics.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Examining teen driver crashes and the prevalence of distraction: Recent trends, 2007-2015
Examining teen driver crashes and the prevalence of distraction: Recent trends, 2007-2015
J Safety Res. 2018 Feb;64:21-27.

Rationale for Inclusion: The purpose of this study was to identify types of vehicle crashes teens are most frequently involved in, as well as the distracting activities being engaged in leading up to these crashes, with a focus on identifying changes or trends over time. Findings suggest that shifts in the way cell phones are being used, from talking/listening to operating/looking, may be a cause of the increasing number of rear-end crashes for teen drivers.

CAVEAT: Video review

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Rear-facing versus forward-facing child restraints: an updated assessment
McMurry TL, Arbogast KB, Sherwood CP, Vaca F, Bull M, Crandall JR, Kent RW.
Inj Prev. 2018 Feb;24(1):55-59.

Rationale for Inclusion: Evaluation of field evidence looking at child rear facing vs forward facing restraints. Year 1988-2015,1107 children. Conclusion was that the data supports the recommendation that children be kept in rear facing for as long as possible, but the field data are too limited to serve as a strong statistic basis for this recommendation.

CAVEAT: Retrospective

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Alcohol-Impaired Driving in the United States: Review of Data Sources and Analyses
DiMaggio C, Wheeler-Martin K, Oliver J
Getting to Zero Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities: A Comprehensive Approach to a Persistent Problem. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2018 Jan 17.

Rationale for Inclusion: Comprehensive review chapter on alcohol-impaired driving.

CAVEAT: Review of data

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Modeling crash injury severity by road feature to improve safety
Penmetsa P, Pulugurtha SS
Traffic Inj Prev. 2018 Jan 2;19(1):102-109.

Rationale for Inclusion: The objective of this research is 2-fold: to (a) model and identify critical road features (or locations) based on crash injury severity and compare it with crash frequency and (b) model and identify drivers who are more likely to contribute to crashes by road feature.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma's Injury Control and Violence Prevention Committee's Annual Distracted Driving Outreach Event: Evaluating Attitude and Behavior Change in High School Students
Allee L, Dechert T, Rao SR, Crandall M, Christmas A, Eastman A, Duncan T, Foster S
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Jan;84(1):31-36.

Rationale for Inclusion: Outcomes of EAST community outreach project for distracted driving.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Long-term evaluation of a hospital-based violence intervention program using a regional health information exchange
Bell TM, Gilyan D, Moore BA, Martin J, Ogbemudia B, McLaughlin BE, Moore R, Simons CJ, Zarzaur BL
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Jan;84(1):175-182.

Rationale for Inclusion: Evaluates long term rate of recurrent trauma for HVIP participants using a regional health information exchange, thus accounting for fragmentation in care. Long-term recurrence rate was low at 4.4% with very few admissions.

CAVEAT: No control group

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Law, Ethics, and Conversations between Physicians and Patients about Firearms in the Home
AD McCourt, JS Vernick
AMA J Ethics. 2018 Jan 1;20(1):69-76.

Rationale for Inclusion: Provides legal and ethical perspective on physician counselling on firearm ownership

CAVEAT: Some laws have changed

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Comparisons of Interventions for Preventing Falls in Older Adults: A systemic review and Meta-analysis
Andrea C Tricco, Sonia M. Thomas, Areti A Veroniki
JAMA. 2017 Nov 7;318(17):1687-1699.

Rationale for Inclusion: Meta-analysis of fall prevention methods

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Effectiveness of SBIRT for Alcohol Use Disorders in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review.
Barata IA, Shandro JR, Montgomery M, Polansky R, Sachs CJ, Duber HC, Weaver LM, Heins A, Owen HS, Josephson EB, Macias-Konstantopoulos W.
West J Emerg Med. 2017 Oct;18(6):1143-1152.

Rationale for inclusion: Systematic Review of the effectiveness of brief interventions (35 articles including RCTs) at reducing alcohol intake and preventing alcohol-related injuries. The study found a small reduction in alcohol use in low or moderate drinkers, a reduction in the negative consequences of use (such as injury), and a decline in ED repeat visits for adults and children 12 years of age and older. 

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

A multiyear assessment of a hospital-school program to promote teen motor vehicle safety.
Unni P, Estrada CM, Chung DH, Riley EB, Worsley-Hynd L, Stinson N.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Aug;83(2):289-295.

Rationale for inclusion: A two-phase study using student leaders to both conceptualize and deploy a program intended to decrease texting while driving. This novel program was effective in reducing texting while driving.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Suicide prevention in an emergency department population: The ED-SAFE Study.
Miller IW, Camargo CA, Arias SA, Sullivan AF, Allen MH, Goldstein AB, Manton AP, Espinola JA, Jones R, Asegawa K, Boudreaux ED, ED-SAFE Investigators
JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Jun 1;74(6):563-570.

Rationale for Inclusion: Trial of ED-based screening and intervention including discharge resources and post-ED phone calls decreased suicide attempts by 30%.

CAVEAT: Non-randomized, pre-post design

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Trauma Recidivism Predicts Long-term Mortality: Missed Opportunities for Prevention (Retrospective Cohort Study).
Strong BL, Greene CR, Smith GS.
Ann Surg. 2017 May;265(5):847-853.

Rationale for inclusion: Urban trauma center recidivists were compared to nonrecidivists and determined that recidivists were more likely to be male, Black, or intoxicated with alcohol.  In turn, recidivists were then more likely to die any cause including injury and disease.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Evaluating implementation of a fire-prevention injury prevention briefing in children's centres: Cluster randomised controlled trial.
Deave T, Hawkins A, Kumar A, Hayes M, Cooper N, Watson M, Ablewhite J, Coupland C, Sutton A, Majsak-Newman G, McDaid L, Goodenough T, Beckett K, McColl E, Reading R, Kendrick D.
PLoS One. 2017 Mar 24;12(3):e0172584.

Rationale for inclusion: Interesting method that they  developed. It is an Injury Prevention Briefing (IPB), which brought together evidence about effective fire safety interventions and good practice in delivering interventions as well as training and facilitation to support its use and evaluated its implementation.

CAVEAT: UK

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Bicycle injuries and helmet use: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Olivier J, Creighton P.
Int J Epidemiol. 2017 Feb 1;46(1):278-292.

Rationale for inclusion: Systematic review of existing literature of effectiveness of bicycle helmets.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Reducing Suicides Through Partnerships Between Health Professionals and Gun Owner Groups—Beyond Docs vs Glocks
C Barber, E Frank, R Demicco 
JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Jan 1;177(1):5-6.

Rationale for Inclusion: Emphasizes importance of engaging firearm owners and health professionals in approaching suicide prevention.

CAVEAT: Brief review of key issues

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Prevention of firearm-related injuries with restrictive licensing and concealed carry laws: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma systematic review.
Crandall M, Eastman A, Violano P, Greene W, Allen S, Block E, Christmas AB, Dennis A, Duncan T, Foster S, Goldberg S, Hirsh M, Joseph D, Lommel K, Pappas P, Shillinglaw W.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 Nov;81(5):952-960.

Rationale for inclusion: EAST systematic review to assess the effectiveness restrictive licensing of firearms and concealed carry laws on firearm-related injuries in the US. Study recommended  the use of restrictive licensing to reduce firearm-related injuries (PICO 1) and against the use of concealed carry laws to reduce firearm-related injuries  (PICO 2).

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Hospital-based violence intervention programs targeting adult populations: an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma evidence-based review.
Affinati S, Patton D, Hansen L, Ranney M, Christmas AB, Violano P, Sodhi A, Robinson B, Crandall M
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2016 Sep 28;1(1):e000024.

Rationale for Inclusion: EAST evidence-based review on HVIPs for adults; found insufficient evidence to recommend HVIP for adults based on 10 articles meeting inclusion criteria

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Addition of a Non-immersive virtual reality component to treadmill training to reduce fall risk in older adults (v-time): a randomized controlled trial
Anat Mirelman, lynn Rochester, Inbal Maiden, Silvia Del Din, Lisa Alcock, Freek Nieuwhof, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Bastiaan R Bloem, Elisa Pelosin, Laura Avanzino, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Kim Dockx, Esther Bekkers, Nir Giladi, Alice Nieuwboer, Jeffrey M Hausdorff
Lancet. 2016 Sep 17;388(10050):1170-82.

Rationale for Inclusion: Randomized Trial adding virtual reality to treadmill training with reduction in fall rates

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Association Between Gun Law Reforms and Intentional Firearm Deaths in Australia, 1979-2013.
Chapman S, Alpers P, Jones M.
JAMA. 2016 Jul 19;316(3):291-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Observational study using Australian government statistics on deaths caused by firearms (1979-2013) and compared changes in intentional firearm death rates before and after gun legislation reforms in 1996.  After gun law reforms, firearm deaths decreased and there were no mass killings with firearms.

CAVEAT: Australia only

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Injury prevention programs against distracted driving: Are they effective?
Joseph B, Zangbar B, Bains S, Kulvatunyou N, Khalil M, Mahmoud D, Friese RS, O'Keeffe T, Pandit V, Rhee P.
Traffic Inj Prev. 2016 Jul 3;17(5):460-4.

Rationale for Inclusion: Demonstrated a 32% reduction in the incidence of distracted driving postintervention.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

"Traumatic Injury in the United States: In-Patient Epidemiology 2000–2011 "
DiMaggio C, Ayoung-Chee P, Shinseki M, et al.
Injury. 2016 Jul; 47(7): 1393–1403.

Rationale for Inclusion: Retrospective descriptive and analytic epidemiologic study of an inpatient database with >20 million traumatic injury discharges from US hospitals between 2000-2011

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Multicenter external validation of the Geriatric Trauma Outcome Score: A study by the Prognostic Assessment of Life and Limitations After Trauma in the Elderly (PALLIATE) consortium
Cook A, Joseph B, Inaba K, et al.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 Feb;80(2):204-9.

Rationale for Inclusion: Multi-center study validating the Geriatric Trauma Outcome Score (GTOS), a prognostic tool for geriatric mortality after injury; incorporates age, ISS and PRBCs given as parameters

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The company you keep? The spillover effects of gang membership on individual gunshot victimization in a co-offending network: gang membership, networks, & victimization
Papachristos AV, Braga AV, Piza E, Grossman LS
Criminology. 2015 Oct 20;53(4):624-649.

Rationale for Inclusion: One of the key studies of violence as a social contagion, this paper maps the relationship between gunshot victimization and an individual's social network, showing that social proximity to a gang member is a high risk factor for non-members.

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School-based prevention program associated with increased short- and long-term retention of safety knowledge
Klas KS, Vlahos PG, McCully MJ, Piche DR, Wang SC
J Burn Care Res. 2015 May-Jun;36(3):387-93.

Rationale for inclusion: It’s a great structure in which focused on how to Validate the  effectiveness of a program. Very easily replicable

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Saving lives and saving money: Hospital-based violence intervention is cost-effective.
Juillard C, Smith R, Anaya N, Garcia A, Kahn JG, Dicker RA.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Feb;78(2):252-7; discussion 257-8.

Rationale for Inclusion: Cost simulation analysis demonstrating cost savings and QALY savings associated with HVIP, depending on baseline rate of recurrent trauma.

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Home modifications to reduce injuries from falls in the Home Injury Prevention Intervention (HIPI) study: a cluster-randomized controlled trial
Michael D Keall, Nevil Pierse, Philippa Howden-Chapman, Chris Cunningham, Malcolm Cunningham, Jagadish Guria, Michael G Baker
Lancet. 2015 Jan 17;385(9964):231-8.

Rationale for Inclusion: Randomized Trial showing injury reduction with home modifications

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The impact of pedestrian countdown signals on pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions: a reanalysis of data from a quasi-experimental study.
Richmond SA, Willan AR, Rothman L, Camden A, Buliung R, Macarthur C, Howard A.
Inj Prev. 2014 Jun;20(3):155-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Pedestrian countdown signals INCREASED pedestrian-MVC's by 26% in Toronto.

CAVEAT: Re-review of previous data showing no difference

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Distracted driving and risk of road crashes among novice and experienced drivers.
Klauer SG, Guo F, Simons-Morton BG, Ouimet MC, Lee SE, Dingus TA.
N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 2;370(1):54-9.

Rationale for inclusion:  This New England of Journal of Medicine article is the only study that analyzed crashes between novice and experienced drivers (167 and 518), to analyze the comparison of crashes that included drivers attempting to accomplish secondary tasks (e.g. texting), and found that the risk of crashing among novice drivers trying to accomplish secondary tasks was increased. 

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Dating violence: outcomes following a brief motivational interviewing intervention among at-risk adolescents in an urban emergency department.
Cunningham RM, Whiteside LK, Chermack ST, Zimmerman MA, Shope JT, Bingham CR, Blow FC, Walton MA.
Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Jun;20(6):562-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Young adult patients (14-18) were randomized to one of 3 arms (computerized brief intervention, therapist with brief intervention, and control). Subjects were followed for one year, this program showed moderate reduction in repeat victimization at 3 and 6 months in both intervention arms.

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Pedestrian behavior at signalized pedestrian crossings.
Krsto Lipovac; Milan Vujanic; Bojan Maric; and Miladin Nesic.
J Transp Eng , February 2013, Vol. 139, No. 2 : pp. 165-172.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted increased jaywalking at signals without countdown timers than with.  Most effective with female pedestrians and those over 40.

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Effects of Baltimore's safe streets program on gun violence: a replication of Chicago's CeaseFire program
Webster DW, Whitehill JM, Vernic JS, Curriero FC
J Urban Health. 2013 Feb;90(1):27-40.

Rationale for Inclusion: Identified significant decreases in fatal and nonfatal shootings associated with the implementation of a violence interruption model using credible messengers for emergent crisis resolution.

CAVEAT: Uneven effects in some treated neighborhoods

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Video Capture of the Circumstances of Falls in Elderly People Residing in Long-Term Care: An Observational Study
Stephen N Robinovich, Fabio Feldman, Yijian Yang, Rebecca Schonnop, Pet Ming Leung, Thiago Sarraf, Jaonie Sims-Gould, Mari Loughin
Lancet. 2013 Jan 5;381(9860):47-54.

Rationale for Inclusion: Novel Video Analysis for mechanisms of falls

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The effects of focused deterrence strategies on crime: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the empirical evidence
Braga AA, Wisburd DL
J Res Crime Delinquency. 2011 Sept 13;49(3):323-258

Rationale for Inclusion: Systematic review of the evidence on focused deterrence strategies for violence prevention.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Are pedestrian countdown signals effective in reducing crashes?
Pulugurtha SS, Desai A, Pulugurtha NM.
Traffic Inj Prev. 2010 Dec;11(6):632-41.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted decrease in both pedestrian-vehicle collisions AND vehicle-vehicle collisions at intersections in Charlotte, North Carolina.

CAVEAT: Small single-city study

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Median barrier crash severity: some new insights.
Hu W, Donnell ET.
Accid Anal Prev. 2010 Nov;42(6):1697-704.

Rationale for inclusion:  Statistical analysis of median types with regards to injury outcomes - cable barriers and increased distance to barrier causing less injury than concrete dividers.

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Violence prevention: the evidence
World Health Organization
World Health Organization. 2010.

Rationale for Inclusion: Review of evidence for preventing violence through developing stable and nurturing parent-child relationships; developing life skills in children and adolescents; reducing harmful alcohol use; reducing access to lethal means; promoting gender equality; changing cultural and social norms; and supporting victims

CAVEAT: Gray literature; not peer reviewed

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Long-term effects of repealing the national maximum speed limit in the United States.
Friedman LS1, Hedeker D, Richter ED.
Am J Public Health. 2009 Sep;99(9):1626-31.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted 3.2% increase in fatalities over all types of roadways time since repeal of 55mph limit.

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Impact of motorcycle helmets and state laws on society's burden: a national study.
Croce MA, Zarzaur BL, Magnotti LJ, Fabian TC.
Ann Surg. 2009 Sep;250(3):390-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Expanded on the earlier study by Hundely et al, this was a more extensive analysis of helmeted vs. unhelmeted MCC patients from the NTDB and included more than 76,000 patients. For all injury severity measures included, the unhelmeted group suffered more severe injuries, most importantly head injuries which conferred a significant burden on the healthcare system. Additionally, the authors' analysis concluded that a potential $32 million of healthcare dollars could be saved by helmet use alone.

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Traffic risk behaviors at nightlife: drinking, taking drugs, driving, and use of public transport by young people.
Calafat A, Blay N, Juan M, Adrover D, Bellis MA, Hughes K, Stocco P, Siamou I, Mendes F, Bohrn K.
Traffic Inj Prev. 2009 Apr;10(2):162-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Attempt to address behaviors related to nightlife and travel patterns, with relationship to public transport.

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A meta-analysis of the effects of cell phones on driver performance.
Caird JK, Willness CR, Steel P, Scialfa C.
Accid Anal Prev. 2008 Jul;40(4):1282-93.

Rationale for inclusion: Large meta-analysis demonstrated decreased reaction times with mobile phone use, with good inter-lab reliability and large sample size.

CAVEAT: Meta-analysis

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Comparison of roadside crash injury metrics using event data recorders.
Gabauer DJ, Gabler HC.
Accid Anal Prev. 2008 Mar;40(2):548-58.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison of data from in-vehicle event recorders vs. crashes with known changes in velocity (delta-V) indicates that delta-V alone is sufficient to predict injury.

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Probabilistic models of motorcyclists' injury severities in single- and multi-vehicle crashes.
Savolainen P, Mannering F.
Accid Anal Prev. 2007 Sep;39(5):955-63.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated in regression modeling that helmet use, among other factors, is associated with injury severity.

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An evaluation of crisis hotline outcomes. Part 2: Suicidal callers.
Gould MS, Kalafat J, Harrismunfakh JL, Kleinman M.
Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2007 Jun;37(3):338-52.

Rationale for inclusion:  Used a standardized assessment to show effectiveness of suicide hotline in over 1000 patients. 

CAVEAT: Excluded callers "too high risk"

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Hospital-based violence intervention programs work.
Cooper C, Eslinger DM, Stolley PD.
J Trauma. 2006 Sep;61(3):534-7; discussion 537-40.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the first paper with prospective randomized evaluation of hospital based violence intervention programs showing a significant reduction in violent crime as well as overall cost.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Effectiveness of child safety seats vs seat belts in reducing risk for death in children in passenger vehicle crashes.
Elliott MR, Kallan MJ, Durbin DR, Winston FK.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Jun;160(6):617-21.

Rationale for inclusion: Large NTSA study demonstrated 28% reduction in mortality when child seats are used to restrain children.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Evaluation of variable speed limits for real-time freeway safety improvement.
Abdel-Aty M, Dilmore J, Dhindsa A.
Accid Anal Prev. 2006 Mar;38(2):335-45.

Rationale for inclusion: Introduces concept of real-time changes in speed limits with relation to on-road events (e.g. crashes).

CAVEAT: Unclear of cost of implementation of real-time signage

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Trauma center brief interventions for alcohol disorders decrease subsequent driving under the influence arrests.
Schermer CR, Moyers TB, Miller WR, Bloomfield LA.
J Trauma. 2006 Jan;60(1):29-34.

Rationale for inclusion:  One of the only studies to examine the effects of brief interventions for patients who were driving under the influence of alcohol. Brief interventions were found to be effective in reducing the risk of being arrested for DUI within 3 years of discharge. 

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Prevention of falls and consequent injuries in elderly people.
Kannus P, Sievänen H, Palvanen M, Järvinen T, Parkkari J.
Lancet. 2005 Nov 26;366(9500):1885-93.

Rationale for inclusion: Excellent review article on the causes, prevention studies, and injury patterns of falls in elderly patient.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Intelligent speed adaptation: accident savings and cost-benefit analysis.
Carsten OM, Tate FN.
Accid Anal Prev. 2005 May;37(3):407-16.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted enforcing compliance with speed limits had a cost-benefit ratio of 7.9 to 15.4:1.

CAVEAT: UK study, recommended mandatory speed limit devices for vehicles

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Exploring the overall and specific crash severity levels at signalized intersections.
Abdel-Aty M, Keller J.
Accid Anal Prev. 2005 May;37(3):417-25.

Rationale for inclusion: Statistical review of highway intersections with regards to traffic signals.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Effects of seating position and appropriate restraint use on the risk of injury to children in motor vehicle crashes.
Durbin DR, Chen I, Smith R, Elliott MR, Winston FK.
Pediatrics. 2005 Mar;115(3):e305-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the synergistic effects of rear seat positioning and proper child restraints in reducing childhood MVC injuries.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Gun storage practices and risk of youth suicide and unintentional firearm injuries.
Grossman DC, Mueller BA, Riedy C, Dowd MD, Villaveces A, Prodzinski J, Nakagawara J, Howard J, Thiersch N, Hurruff R.
JAMA. 2005 Feb 9;293(6):707-14.

Rationale for inclusion: Case-control study demonstrating association of safe firearm storage with decreased rates of unintentional injury and/or suicide by firearm in young adults.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The crash severity impacts of fixed roadside objects.
Holdridge JM, Shankar VN, Ulfarsson GF.
J Safety Res. 2005;36(2):139-47.

Rationale for inclusion: Statistical analysis of roadside barriers - indicating that design of the end-caps on highway barriers matter.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Guns in the home and risk of a violent death in the home: findings from a national study.
Dahlberg LL, Ikeda RM, Kresnow MJ.
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Nov 15;160(10):929-36.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated that in homes where a firearm of any kind or in any number is present, there is almost a 2 fold increased risk of dying a violent death of all causes - homicide or suicide - by firearm than in homes without a firearm.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Non-helmeted motorcyclists: a burden to society? A study using the National Trauma Data Bank.
Hundley JC, Kilgo PD, Miller PR, Chang MC, Hensberry RA, Meredith JW, Hoth JJ.
J Trauma. 2004 Nov;57(5):944-9.

Rationale for inclusion: One of the first studies to address the issue of helmet usage and directly address the criticisms that previous studies showing the benefits of helmet use did not control for other important confounders (namely alcohol and drugs). Using the NTDB database, 8 years of data were collected, and helmeted and non-helmeted injured patient cohorts were compared. Results support that unhelmeted MCC suffer higher injury burden and the costs of their care is significantly more expensive than their helmeted counterparts. 

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Strengthening the prevention and care of injuries worldwide.
Mock C, Quansah R, Krishnan R, Arreola-Risa C, Rivara F.
Lancet. 2004 Jun 26;363(9427):2172-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Review of existing research regarding risk factors for injury as well as policy implementation; puts forth recommendations for addressing challenges of implementing injury and violence prevention strategies in low income countries.

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Drivers' compliance with speed limits: an application of the theory of planned behavior.
Elliott MA, Armitage CJ, Baughan CJ.
J Appl Psychol. 2003 Oct;88(5):964-72.

Rationale for inclusion: Potential way to influence compliance with speed limits.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Belt-positioning booster seats and reduction in risk of injury among children in vehicle crashes.
Durbin DR, Elliott MR, Winston FK.
JAMA. 2003 Jun 4;289(21):2835-40.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated benefit of booster seats in older children.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Speed control in developing countries: issues, challenges and opportunities in reducing road traffic injuries.
Afukaar FK.
Inj Control Saf Promot. 2003 Mar-Jun;10(1-2):77-81.

Rationale for inclusion: Addresses road safety in developing countries - noted ~50% of deaths in Ghana related to speed.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The independent contribution of driver, crash, and vehicle characteristics to driver fatalities.
Bedard M, Guyatt GH, Stones MJ, Hirdes JP.
Accid Anal Prev. 2002 Nov;34(6):717-27.

Rationale for inclusion: Multivariate analysis noting seat belts protective against fatal injuries (OR: 0.49, 99% CI: 0.39-0.53).

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 2001.
Grunbaum JA, Kann L, Kinchen SA, Williams B, Ross JG, Lowry R, Kolbe L.
J Sch Health. 2002 Oct;72(8):313-28.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted scope of problem with youth - 14.1% of high-school youth  rarely/never used seat belts.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Seeing is believing: what do boys do when they find a real gun?
Jackman GA, Farah MM, Kellermann AL, Simon HK.
Pediatrics. 2001 Jun;107(6):1247-50.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated that boys placed in a room with a firearm routinely find, play with, and attempt to fire the firearm, regardless of parental guidance on the issue of firearm handling or perceived interest or knowledge of firearm handling by the parents.

CAVEAT: Small sample size

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Homicide and suicide rates associated with implementation of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act.
Ludwig J, Cook PJ.
JAMA. 2000 Aug 2;284(5):585-91.

Rationale for inclusion: Compared firearm homicide and suicide rates between states after implementation of background checks and a waiting period. 

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The relationship of alcohol safety laws to drinking drivers in fatal crashes.
Voas RB, Tippetts AS, Fell J.
Accid Anal Prev. 2000 Jul;32(4):483-92.

Rationale for inclusion: Prepared for the Department of Transportation, this regression analysis studied alcohol safety laws over 16 years and indicates that laws regarding license revocation and blood alcohol level have contributed to a decrease in alcohol-related fatal crashes.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists.
Thompson DC, Rivara FP, Thompson R.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001855.

Rationale for inclusion: Cochrane Review to determine whether bicycle helmets reduce head, brain and facial injury for bicyclists of all ages involved in a bicycle crash or fall. Study found that helmets reduce bicycle-related head and facial injuries for bicyclists of all ages involved in all types of crashes including those involving motor vehicles.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Changes in motor vehicle occupant fatalities after repeal of the national maximum speed limit.
Farmer CM, Retting RA, Lund AK.
Accid Anal Prev. 1999 Sep;31(5):537-43.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted an increase in fatalities in those States that increased their speed limits over the 8 years from repeal of the 55 mph limit.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Seating positions and children's risk of dying in motor vehicle crashes.
Braver ER, Whitfield R, Ferguson SA.
Inj Prev. 1998 Sep;4(3):181-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted children were safest in the back seat.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

State gun safe storage laws and child mortality due to firearms.
Cummings P, Grossman DC, Rivara FP, Koepsell TD.
JAMA. 1997 Oct 1;278(13):1084-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated a 23% reduction of child deaths due to firearm in states with laws that hold gun owners responsible for storing firearms in a manner that makes them inaccessible to children.

CAVEAT: Retrospective

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Effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing head injuries. A case-control study.
Thompson DC, Rivara FP, Thompson RS.
JAMA. 1996 Dec 25;276(24):1968-73.

Rationale for inclusion: Since the original study in 1989, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, this is one of the only prospective case-control studies examining bicyclists with head injuries. This study of 3390 bicyclists, found a significant (69% to 74%) protective effect for head injuries for bicyclists who wear them. 

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Accident prediction models for roads with minor junctions.
Mountain L, Fawaz B, Jarrett D.
Accid Anal Prev. 1996 Nov;28(6):695-707.

Rationale for inclusion: Statistical analysis of highway intersections with secondary roads.

CAVEAT: UK Study

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Surveillance and prevention of residential-fire injuries.
Mallonee S, Istre GR, Rosenberg M, Reddish-Douglas M, Jordan F, Silverstein P, Tunell W.
N Engl J Med. 1996 Jul 4;335(1):27-31.

Rationale for inclusion: An impressive example of fire-injury prevention by providing a smoke-alarm-away program to an at-risk community.

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Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from crashes in Washington State.
Rowland J, Rivara F, Salzberg P, Soderberg R, Maier R, Koepsell T.
Am J Public Health. 1996 Jan;86(1):41-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated that helmet use is associated with decreased injury severity, injury burden, and hospital costs.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The influence of the Garner decision on police use of deadly force
Tennenbaum AN
Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology. 1995 October; 85(1) 241.

Rationale for Inclusion: Analysis of impact of supreme court decision declaring police use of deadly force to apprehend fleeing, unarmed suspects to be unconstitutional

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Driver fatalities in 1985-1993 cars with airbags.
Lund AK, Ferguson SA.
J Trauma. 1995 Apr;38(4):469-75.

Rationale for inclusion: Additional confirmatory information on the benefits of airbags- 16% reduction in fatalities for all crashes.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Fatal injuries in motorcycle riders according to helmet use.
Sarkar S, Peek C, Kraus JF.
J Trauma. 1995 Feb;38(2):242-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Provides evidence that helmet use does not lead to higher incidence of cervical spine injury and that un-helmeted riders have higher frequency of severe head and neck injury.

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The effect of the 1992 California motorcycle helmet use law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries.
Kraus JF, Peek C, McArthur DL, Williams A.
JAMA. 1994 Nov 16;272(19):1506-11.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated that helmet laws decrease motorcycle fatalities.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

A multifactorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community.
Tinetti ME, Baker DI, McAvay G, Claus EB, Garrett P, Gottschalk M, Koch ML, Trainor K, Horwitz RI.
N Engl J Med. 1994 Sep 29;331(13):821-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Observational study using Australian government statistics on deaths caused by firearms (1979-2013) and compared changes in intentional firearm death rates before and after gun legislation reforms in 1996.  After gun law reforms, firearm deaths decreased and there were no mass killings with firearms.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The risk of dying in alcohol-related automobile crashes among habitual drunk drivers.
Brewer RD, Morris PD, Cole TB, Watkins S, Patetta MJ, Popkin C.
N Engl J Med. 1994 Aug 25;331(8):513-7.

Rationale for inclusion: This study was a case control study of 1646 drunk drivers (those with BAC of at least 20 mg/dL) and compared them with 1474 controls. The study found that those patients who had been arrested for drunk driving were at significant increased risk of eventually dying in an alcohol-related death. 

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Testing reckless drivers for cocaine and marijuana.
Brookoff D, Cook CS, Williams C, Mann CS.
N Engl J Med. 1994 Aug 25;331(8):518-22.

Rationale for inclusion: This is one of the only significant studies used to determine the chances of a finding positive drug tests in those patients who were not intoxicated with alcohol and the time of a reckless driving incident. This study of 175 subjects with reckless driving incidents found that over half who were not intoxicated with alcohol were intoxicated with other substances. 

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Evaluating public transport and road safety measures.
Evans AW.
Accid Anal Prev. 1994 Aug;26(4):411-28.

Rationale for inclusion: Policy paper, discussing cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment.

CAVEAT: Policy paper

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Children in car crashes - analysis of data for injury and use of restraints.
Johnston C, Rivara FP, Soderberg R.
Pediatrics. 1994 Jun;93(6 Pt 1):960-5.

Rationale for inclusion: First discussed need for stepwise restraint systems as children grow.

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Did the 65 mph speed limit save lives?
Lave C, Elias P.
Accid Anal Prev. 1994 Feb;26(1):49-62.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted that the increase from 55 mph to 65 mph did NOT increase fatalities (reduced 3.4-5.1% State-wide).  Concept of transferring resources to other needs vs. 55 mph speed control.

CAVEAT: California-only study

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Gun ownership as a risk factor for homicide in the home.
Kellermann AL, Rivara FP, Rushforth NB, Banton JG, Reay DT, Francisco JT, Locci AB, Prodzinski J, Hackman BB, Somes G.
N Engl J Med. 1993 Oct 7;329(15):1084-91.

Rationale for inclusion: Case control study demonstrating 3x increased risk of homicide in homes with firearms.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts - air bags compared with manual belts.
Zador PL, Ciccone MA.
Am J Public Health. 1993 May;83(5):661-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Early study that shows decreased fatalities in cars equipped with airbags versus seat belts, specifically in frontal crashes.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts - air bags compared with manual belts.
Zador PL, Ciccone MA.
Am J Public Health. 1993 May; 83(5): 661–666.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted fatality reduction with airbags - 15% w/ seat belts used, 31% with seat belts not used.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Suicide in the home in relation to gun ownership.
Kellermann AL, Rivara FP, Somes G, Reay DT, Francisco J, Banton JG, Prodzinski J, Fligner C, Hackman BB.
N Engl J Med. 1992 Aug 13;327(7):467-72.

Rationale for inclusion: Case-control study demonstrating 5x increased risk of suicide in homes with firearms.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The presence and accessibility of firearms in the homes of adolescent suicides. A case-control study.
Brent DA, Perper JA, Allman CJ, Moritz GM, Wartella ME, Zelenak JP.
JAMA. 1991 Dec 4;266(21):2989-95.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated increased risk of suicide in homes of adolescents in which there is a firearm.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The lap belt complex: intestinal and lumbar spine injury in children.
Newman KD, Bowman LM, Eichelberger MR, Gotschall CS, Taylor GA, Johnson DL, Thomas M.
J Trauma. 1990 Sep;30(9):1133-8; discussion 1138-40.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes intestinal injury and lumbar spine fractures associated with lap belt use in children.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The mortality consequences of raising the speed limit to 65 mph on rural interstates.
Baum HM, Lund AK, Wells JK.
Am J Public Health. 1989 Oct;79(10):1392-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted increased rural fatalities in States that allowed increased speed limits.

CAVEAT: Single-year post study vs historical control

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Handgun regulations, crime, assaults, and homicide: A tale of two cities
JH Sloan, AL Kellermann, DT Reay, JA Ferris, T Koepsell, FP Rivara, C Rice, L Gray, J LoGerfo
N Engl J Med. 1988 Nov 10;319(19):1256-62.

Rationale for Inclusion: One of first papers to describe relationship between firearm restrictions and homicide.

CAVEAT: Retrospective, examining Seattle vs Vancouver

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Design, characteristics, and usefulness of state-based behavioral risk factor surveillance: 1981-87.
Remington PL, Smith MY, Williamson DF, Anda RF, Gentry EM, Hogelin GC.
Public Health Rep. 1988 Jul-Aug; 103(4): 366–375.

Rationale for inclusion: Evaluated the use of random-digit-dialing telephone surveys with regards to collecting behavioral data, including seat belt usage.

CAVEAT: Only dealt with data collection method

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Geographic variations in mortality from motor vehicle crashes.
Baker SP, Whitfield RA, O'Neill B.
N Engl J Med. 1987 May 28;316(22):1384-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted geographic variations in motor vehicle fatalities across US (highest in rural, low-income counties), with seatbelt use possibly a factor.

CAVEAT: Indirect evidence

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The effectiveness of safety belts in preventing fatalities.
Evans L.
Accid Anal Prev. 1986 Jun;18(3):229-41.

Rationale for inclusion: Estimated effectiveness of three-point belts by comparison with pre-1974 data, using other passengers as controls.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Administrative interventions on police shooting discretion: an empirical examination
Fyfe JJ
Journal of Criminal Justice. 1979:7;4 309-32

Rationale for Inclusion: Study of restrictive use of force policy on shootings of and by police in New York City

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Estimates of motor vehicle seat belt effectiveness and use: implications for occupant crash protection.
Robertson LS.
Am J Public Health. 1976 September; 66(9): 859–864.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted increased survival with seat belt usage (as well as only ~2/3 compliance with front seat belt usage).

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Restraint systems for the prevention of injury to children in automobile accidents.
Scherz RG.
Am J Public Health. 1976 May;66(5):451-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes restraints (of any kind) as being effective in reducing childhood MVC injury.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The changing approach to the epidemiology, prevention, and amelioration of trauma: the transition to approaches etiologically rather than descriptively based.
Haddon W Jr.
Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1968 Aug;58(8):1431-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Introduces the Haddon Matrix as a way of analyzing potential injury prevention interventions.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The Epidemiology of Accidents
Gordon JE.
Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1949 Apr;39(4):504-15.

Rationale for inclusion: Introduces concept of injury as an epidemiological issue that can be addressed.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

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