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Injury Prevention

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Trauma Recidivism Predicts Long-term Mortality: Missed Opportunities for Prevention (Retrospective Cohort Study).
Strong BL, Greene CR, Smith GS.
Ann Surg. 2017 May;265(5):847-853.

Rationale for inclusion: Urban trauma center recidivists were compared to nonrecidivists and determined that recidivists were more likely to be male, Black, or intoxicated with alcohol.  In turn, recidivists were then more likely to die any cause including injury and disease.

Citations: 1 (as of September 2017)

Association Between Gun Law Reforms and Intentional Firearm Deaths in Australia, 1979-2013.
Chapman S, Alpers P, Jones M.
JAMA. 2016 Jul 19;316(3):291-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Observational study using Australian government statistics on deaths caused by firearms (1979-2013) and compared changes in intentional firearm death rates before and after gun legislation reforms in 1996.  After gun law reforms, firearm deaths decreased and there were no mass killings with firearms.

CAVEAT: Australia only

Citations - 19 (as of May 2018)

The impact of pedestrian countdown signals on pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions: a reanalysis of data from a quasi-experimental study.
Richmond SA, Willan AR, Rothman L, Camden A, Buliung R, Macarthur C, Howard A.
Inj Prev. 2014 Jun;20(3):155-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Pedestrian countdown signals INCREASED pedestrian-MVC's by 26% in Toronto.

CAVEAT: Re-review of previous data showing no difference

Citations - 12 (as of July 2017)

Distracted driving and risk of road crashes among novice and experienced drivers.
Klauer SG, Guo F, Simons-Morton BG, Ouimet MC, Lee SE, Dingus TA.
N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 2;370(1):54-9.

Rationale for inclusion:  This New England of Journal of Medicine article is the only study that analyzed crashes between novice and experienced drivers (167 and 518), to analyze the comparison of crashes that included drivers attempting to accomplish secondary tasks (e.g. texting), and found that the risk of crashing among novice drivers trying to accomplish secondary tasks was increased. 

Citations - 246 (as of July 2017)

Pedestrian behavior at signalized pedestrian crossings.
Krsto Lipovac; Milan Vujanic; Bojan Maric; and Miladin Nesic.
J Transp Eng , February 2013, Vol. 139, No. 2 : pp. 165-172.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted increased jaywalking at signals without countdown timers than with.  Most effective with female pedestrians and those over 40.

Citations - 31 (as of July 2017)

Are pedestrian countdown signals effective in reducing crashes?
Pulugurtha SS, Desai A, Pulugurtha NM.
Traffic Inj Prev. 2010 Dec;11(6):632-41.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted decrease in both pedestrian-vehicle collisions AND vehicle-vehicle collisions at intersections in Charlotte, North Carolina.

CAVEAT: Small single-city study

Citations - 24 (as of July 2017)

Median barrier crash severity: some new insights.
Hu W, Donnell ET.
Accid Anal Prev. 2010 Nov;42(6):1697-704.

Rationale for inclusion:  Statistical analysis of median types with regards to injury outcomes - cable barriers and increased distance to barrier causing less injury than concrete dividers.

Citations - 52 (as of July 2017)

Long-term effects of repealing the national maximum speed limit in the United States.
Friedman LS1, Hedeker D, Richter ED.
Am J Public Health. 2009 Sep;99(9):1626-31.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted 3.2% increase in fatalities over all types of roadways time since repeal of 55mph limit.

Citations - 61 (as of July 2017)

Traffic risk behaviors at nightlife: drinking, taking drugs, driving, and use of public transport by young people.
Calafat A, Blay N, Juan M, Adrover D, Bellis MA, Hughes K, Stocco P, Siamou I, Mendes F, Bohrn K.
Traffic Inj Prev. 2009 Apr;10(2):162-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Attempt to address behaviors related to nightlife and travel patterns, with relationship to public transport.

Citations - 56 (as of July 2017)

A meta-analysis of the effects of cell phones on driver performance.
Caird JK, Willness CR, Steel P, Scialfa C.
Accid Anal Prev. 2008 Jul;40(4):1282-93.

Rationale for inclusion: Large Meta analysis demonstrated decreased reaction times with mobile phone use, with good inter-lab reliability and large sample size.

CAVEAT: Meta analysis

Citations - 429 (as of July 2017)

Comparison of roadside crash injury metrics using event data recorders.
Gabauer DJ, Gabler HC.
Accid Anal Prev. 2008 Mar;40(2):548-58.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison of data from in-vehicle event recorders vs. crashes with known changes in velocity (delta-V) indicates that delta-V alone is sufficient to predict injury.

Citations - 65 (as of July 2017)

Probabilistic models of motorcyclists' injury severities in single- and multi-vehicle crashes.
Savolainen P, Mannering F.
Accid Anal Prev. 2007 Sep;39(5):955-63.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated in regression modeling that helmet use, among other factors, is associated with injury severity.

Citations - 250 (as of July 2017)

An evaluation of crisis hotline outcomes. Part 2: Suicidal callers.
Gould MS, Kalafat J, Harrismunfakh JL, Kleinman M.
Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2007 Jun;37(3):338-52.

Rationale for inclusion:  Used a standardized assessment to show effectiveness of suicide hotline in over 1000 patients. 

CAVEAT: Excluded callers "too high risk"

Citations - 124 (as of July 2017)

Effectiveness of child safety seats vs seat belts in reducing risk for death in children in passenger vehicle crashes.
Elliott MR, Kallan MJ, Durbin DR, Winston FK.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Jun;160(6):617-21.

Rationale for inclusion: Large NTSA study demonstrated 28% reduction in mortality when child seats are used to restrain children.

Citations - 170 (as of July 2017)

Evaluation of variable speed limits for real-time freeway safety improvement.
Abdel-Aty M, Dilmore J, Dhindsa A.
Accid Anal Prev. 2006 Mar;38(2):335-45.

Rationale for inclusion: Introduces concept of real-time changes in speed limits with relation to on-road events (e.g. crashes).

CAVEAT: Unclear of cost of implementation of real-time signage

Citations - 188 (as of July 2017)

Trauma center brief interventions for alcohol disorders decrease subsequent driving under the influence arrests.
Schermer CR, Moyers TB, Miller WR, Bloomfield LA.
J Trauma. 2006 Jan;60(1):29-34.

Rationale for inclusion:  One of the only studies to examine the effects of brief interventions for patients who were driving under the influence of alcohol. Brief interventions were found to be effective in reducing the risk of being arrested for DUI within 3 years of discharge. 

Citations - 135 (as of July 2017)

Intelligent speed adaptation: accident savings and cost-benefit analysis.
Carsten OM, Tate FN.
Accid Anal Prev. 2005 May;37(3):407-16.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted enforcing compliance with speed limits had a cost-benefit ratio of 7.9 to 15.4:1.

CAVEAT: UK study, recommended mandatory speed limit devices for vehicles

Citations - 225 (as of July 2017)

Exploring the overall and specific crash severity levels at signalized intersections.
Abdel-Aty M, Keller J.
Accid Anal Prev. 2005 May;37(3):417-25.

Rationale for inclusion: Statistical review of highway intersections with regards to traffic signals.

Citations - 147 (as of July 2017)

Effects of seating position and appropriate restraint use on the risk of injury to children in motor vehicle crashes.
Durbin DR, Chen I, Smith R, Elliott MR, Winston FK.
Pediatrics. 2005 Mar;115(3):e305-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the synergistic effects of rear seat positioning and proper child restraints in reducing childhood MVC injuries.

Citations - 189 (as of July 2017)

The crash severity impacts of fixed roadside objects.
Holdridge JM, Shankar VN, Ulfarsson GF.
J Safety Res. 2005;36(2):139-47.

Rationale for inclusion: Statistical analysis of roadside barriers - indicating that design of the end-caps on highway barriers matter.

Citations - 96 (as of July 2017)

Guns in the home and risk of a violent death in the home: findings from a national study.
Dahlberg LL, Ikeda RM, Kresnow MJ.
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Nov 15;160(10):929-36.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated that in homes where a firearm of any kind or in any number is present, there is almost a 2 fold increased risk of dying a violent death of all causes - homicide or suicide - by firearm than in homes without a firearm.

Citations - 153 (as of July 2017)

Drivers' compliance with speed limits: an application of the theory of planned behavior.
Elliott MA, Armitage CJ, Baughan CJ.
J Appl Psychol. 2003 Oct;88(5):964-72.

Rationale for inclusion: Potential way to influence compliance with speed limits.

Citations - 304 (as of July 2017)

Belt-positioning booster seats and reduction in risk of injury among children in vehicle crashes.
Durbin DR, Elliott MR, Winston FK.
JAMA. 2003 Jun 4;289(21):2835-40.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated benefit of booster seats in older children.

Citations - 346 (as of July 2017)

Speed control in developing countries: issues, challenges and opportunities in reducing road traffic injuries.
Afukaar FK.
Inj Control Saf Promot. 2003 Mar-Jun;10(1-2):77-81.

Rationale for inclusion: Addresses road safety in developing countries - noted ~50% of deaths in Ghana related to speed.

Citations - 142 (as of July 2017)

The independent contribution of driver, crash, and vehicle characteristics to driver fatalities.
Bedard M, Guyatt GH, Stones MJ, Hirdes JP.
Accid Anal Prev. 2002 Nov;34(6):717-27.

Rationale for inclusion: Multivariate analysis noting seat belts protective against fatal injuries (OR: 0.49, 99% CI: 0.39-0.53).

Citations - 368 (as of July 2017)

Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 2001.
Grunbaum JA, Kann L, Kinchen SA, Williams B, Ross JG, Lowry R, Kolbe L.
J Sch Health. 2002 Oct;72(8):313-28.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted scope of problem with youth - 14.1% of high-school youth  rarely/never used seat belts.

Citations - 1101 (as of July 2017)

Seeing is believing: what do boys do when they find a real gun?
Jackman GA, Farah MM, Kellermann AL, Simon HK.
Pediatrics. 2001 Jun;107(6):1247-50.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated that boys placed in a room with a firearm routinely find, play with, and attempt to fire the firearm, regardless of parental guidance on the issue of firearm handling or perceived interest or knowledge of firearm handling by the parents.

CAVEAT: Small sample size

Citations - 93 (as of July 2017)

Homicide and suicide rates associated with implementation of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act.
Ludwig J, Cook PJ.
JAMA. 2000 Aug 2;284(5):585-91.

Rationale for inclusion: Compared firearm homicide and suicide rates between states after implementation of background checks and a waiting period. 

Citations - 228 (as of July 2017)

The relationship of alcohol safety laws to drinking drivers in fatal crashes.
Voas RB, Tippetts AS, Fell J.
Accid Anal Prev. 2000 Jul;32(4):483-92.

Rationale for inclusion: Prepared for the Department of Transportation, this regression analysis studied alcohol safety laws over 16 years and indicates that laws regarding license revocation and blood alcohol level have contributed to a decrease in alcohol-related fatal crashes.

Citations - 194 (as of July 2017)

Changes in motor vehicle occupant fatalities after repeal of the national maximum speed limit.
Farmer CM, Retting RA, Lund AK.
Accid Anal Prev. 1999 Sep;31(5):537-43.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted an increase in fatalities in those States that increased their speed limits over the 8 years from repeal of the 55 mph limit.

Citations - 110 (as of July 2017)

Seating positions and children's risk of dying in motor vehicle crashes.
Braver ER, Whitfield R, Ferguson SA.
Inj Prev. 1998 Sep;4(3):181-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted children were safest in the back seat.

Citations - 172 (as of July 2017)

State gun safe storage laws and child mortality due to firearms.
Cummings P, Grossman DC, Rivara FP, Koepsell TD.
JAMA. 1997 Oct 1;278(13):1084-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated a 23% reduction of child deaths due to firearm in states with laws that hold gun owners responsible for storing firearms in a manner that makes them inaccessible to children.

CAVEAT: Retrospective

Citations - 172 (as of July 2017)

Effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing head injuries. A case-control study.
Thompson DC, Rivara FP, Thompson RS.
JAMA. 1996 Dec 25;276(24):1968-73.

Rationale for inclusion: Since the original study in 1989, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, this is one of the only prospective case-control studies examining bicyclists with head injuries. This study of 3390 bicyclists, found a significant (69% to 74%) protective effect for head injuries for bicyclists who wear them. 

Citations - 343 (as of July 2017)

Accident prediction models for roads with minor junctions.
Mountain L, Fawaz B, Jarrett D.
Accid Anal Prev. 1996 Nov;28(6):695-707.

Rationale for inclusion: Statistical analysis of highway intersections with secondary roads.


Citations - 118 (as of July 2017)

Surveillance and prevention of residential-fire injuries.
Mallonee S, Istre GR, Rosenberg M, Reddish-Douglas M, Jordan F, Silverstein P, Tunell W.
N Engl J Med. 1996 Jul 4;335(1):27-31.

Rationale for inclusion: An impressive example of fire-injury prevention by providing a smoke-alarm-away program to an at-risk community.

Citations - 217 (as of July 2017)

Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from crashes in Washington State.
Rowland J, Rivara F, Salzberg P, Soderberg R, Maier R, Koepsell T.
Am J Public Health. 1996 Jan;86(1):41-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated that helmet use is associated with decreased injury severity, injury burden, and hospital costs.

Citations - 141 (as of July 2017)

Driver fatalities in 1985-1993 cars with airbags.
Lund AK, Ferguson SA.
J Trauma. 1995 Apr;38(4):469-75.

Rationale for inclusion: Additional confirmatory information on the benefits of airbags- 16% reduction in fatalities for all crashes.

Citations - 119 (as of July 2017)

The effect of the 1992 California motorcycle helmet use law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries.
Kraus JF, Peek C, McArthur DL, Williams A.
JAMA. 1994 Nov 16;272(19):1506-11.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated that helmet laws decrease motorcycle fatalities.

Citations - 168 (as of July 2017)

A multifactorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community.
Tinetti ME, Baker DI, McAvay G, Claus EB, Garrett P, Gottschalk M, Koch ML, Trainor K, Horwitz RI.
N Engl J Med. 1994 Sep 29;331(13):821-7.

Rationale for inclusion:  This case-controlled study showed that targeting common risk factors for falls can reduced elderly fall risk.

Citations - 2309 (as of July 2017)

The risk of dying in alcohol-related automobile crashes among habitual drunk drivers.
Brewer RD, Morris PD, Cole TB, Watkins S, Patetta MJ, Popkin C.
N Engl J Med. 1994 Aug 25;331(8):513-7.

Rationale for inclusion: This study was a case control study of 1646 drunk drivers (those with BAC of at least 20 mg/dL) and compared them with 1474 controls. The study found that those patients who had been arrested for drunk driving were at significant increased risk of eventually dying in a alcohol-related death. 

Citations - 153 (as of July 2017)

Testing reckless drivers for cocaine and marijuana.
Brookoff D, Cook CS, Williams C, Mann CS.
N Engl J Med. 1994 Aug 25;331(8):518-22.

Rationale for inclusion: This is one of the only significant studies used to determine the chances of a finding positive drug tests in those patients who were not intoxicated with alcohol and the time of a reckless driving incident. This study of 175 subjects with reckless driving incidents found that over half who were not intoxicated with alcohol were intoxicated with other substances. 

Citations - 148 (as of July 2017)

Evaluating public transport and road safety measures.
Evans AW.
Accid Anal Prev. 1994 Aug;26(4):411-28.

Rationale for inclusion: Policy paper, discussing cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment.

CAVEAT: Policy paper

Citations - 49 (as of July 2017)

Children in car crashes - analysis of data for injury and use of restraints.
Johnston C, Rivara FP, Soderberg R.
Pediatrics. 1994 Jun;93(6 Pt 1):960-5.

Rationale for inclusion: First discussed need for stepwise restraint systems as children grow.

Citations - 174 (as of July 2017)

Did the 65 mph speed limit save lives?
Lave C, Elias P.
Accid Anal Prev. 1994 Feb;26(1):49-62.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted that the increase from 55 mph to 65 mph did NOT increase fatalities (reduced 3.4-5.1% State-wide).  Concept of transferring resources to other needs vs. 55 mph speed control.

CAVEAT: California-only study

Citations - 143 (as of July 2017)

Gun ownership as a risk factor for homicide in the home.
Kellermann AL, Rivara FP, Rushforth NB, Banton JG, Reay DT, Francisco JT, Locci AB, Prodzinski J, Hackman BB, Somes G.
N Engl J Med. 1993 Oct 7;329(15):1084-91.

Rationale for inclusion: Case control study demonstrating 3x increased risk of homicide in homes with firearms.

Citations: 268 (as of May 2018)

Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts - air bags compared with manual belts.
Zador PL, Ciccone MA.
Am J Public Health. 1993 May;83(5):661-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Early study that shows decreased fatalities in cars equipped with airbags versus seat belts, specifically in frontal crashes.

Citations - 170 (as of July 2017)

Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts - air bags compared with manual belts.
Zador PL, Ciccone MA.
Am J Public Health. 1993 May; 83(5): 661–666.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted fatality reduction with airbags - 15% w/ seat belts used, 31% with seat belts not used.

Citations -170 (as of July 2017)

Suicide in the home in relation to gun ownership.
Kellermann AL, Rivara FP, Somes G, Reay DT, Francisco J, Banton JG, Prodzinski J, Fligner C, Hackman BB.
N Engl J Med. 1992 Aug 13;327(7):467-72.

Rationale for inclusion: Case-control study demonstrating 5x increased risk of suicide in homes with firearms.

Citations: 301 (as of May 2018)

The presence and accessibility of firearms in the homes of adolescent suicides. A case-control study.
Brent DA, Perper JA, Allman CJ, Moritz GM, Wartella ME, Zelenak JP.
JAMA. 1991 Dec 4;266(21):2989-95.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated increased risk of suicide in homes of adolescents in which there is a firearm.

Citations - 463 (as of July 2017)

The lap belt complex: intestinal and lumbar spine injury in children.
Newman KD, Bowman LM, Eichelberger MR, Gotschall CS, Taylor GA, Johnson DL, Thomas M.
J Trauma. 1990 Sep;30(9):1133-8; discussion 1138-40.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes intestinal injury and lumbar spine fractures associated with lap belt use in children.

Citations - 146 (as of July 2017)

The mortality consequences of raising the speed limit to 65 mph on rural interstates.
Baum HM, Lund AK, Wells JK.
Am J Public Health. 1989 Oct;79(10):1392-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted increased rural fatalities in States that allowed increased speed limits.

CAVEAT: Single-year post study vs historical control

Citations - 63 (as of July 2017)

Design, characteristics, and usefulness of state-based behavioral risk factor surveillance: 1981-87.
Remington PL1, Smith MY, Williamson DF, Anda RF, Gentry EM, Hogelin GC.
Public Health Rep. 1988 Jul-Aug; 103(4): 366–375.

Rationale for inclusion: Evaluated the use of random-digit-dialing telephone surveys with regards to collecting behavioral data, including seat belt usage.

CAVEAT: Only dealt with data collection method

Citations - 472 (as of July 2017)

Geographic variations in mortality from motor vehicle crashes.
Baker SP, Whitfield RA, O'Neill B.
N Engl J Med. 1987 May 28;316(22):1384-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted geographic variations in motor vehicle fatalities across US (highest in rural, low-income counties), with seatbelt use possibly a factor.

CAVEAT: Indirect evidence

Citations - 333 (as of July 2017)

The effectiveness of safety belts in preventing fatalities.
Evans L.
Accid Anal Prev. 1986 Jun;18(3):229-41.

Rationale for inclusion: Estimated effectiveness of three-point belts by comparison with pre-1974 data, using other passengers as controls.

Citations - 332 (as of July 2017)

Estimates of motor vehicle seat belt effectiveness and use: implications for occupant crash protection.
Robertson LS.
Am J Public Health. 1976 September; 66(9): 859–864.

Rationale for inclusion: Noted increased survival with seat belt usage (as well as only ~2/3 compliance with front seat belt usage).

Citations - 102 (as of July 2017)

Restraint systems for the prevention of injury to children in automobile accidents.
Scherz RG.
Am J Public Health. 1976 May;66(5):451-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes restraints (of any kind) as being effective in reducing childhood MVC injury.

Citations - 108 (as of July 2017)

The changing approach to the epidemiology, prevention, and amelioration of trauma: the transition to approaches etiologically rather than descriptively based.
Haddon W Jr.
Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1968 Aug;58(8):1431-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Introduces the Haddon Matrix as a way of analyzing potential injury prevention interventions.

Citations - 494 (as of July 2017)

The Epidemiology of Accidents
Gordon JE.
Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1949 Apr;39(4):504-15.

Rationale for inclusion: Introduces concept of injury as an epidemiological issue that can be addressed.

Citations - 326 (as of July 2017)

Gun storage practices and risk of youth suicide and unintentional firearm injuries.
Grossman DC, Mueller BA, Riedy C, Dowd MD, Villaveces A, Prodzinski J, Nakagawara J, Howard J, Thiersch N, Harruff R.
JAMA. 2005 Feb 9;293(6):707-14.

Rationale for inclusion: Case control study demonstrating up to 70% reduction in the risk of youth suicide and unintentional injuries in homes where firearms were safely stored.

Citations: 156 (as of May 2018)

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