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Child Safety Restraints

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Effectiveness of child safety seats vs seat belts in reducing risk for death in children in passenger vehicle crashes.
Elliott MR, Kallan MJ, Durbin DR, Winston FK.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Jun;160(6):617-21.

Rationale for inclusion: Large NTSA study demonstrated 28% reduction in mortality when child seats are used to restrain children.

Citations - 170 (as of July 2017)

Effects of seating position and appropriate restraint use on the risk of injury to children in motor vehicle crashes.
Durbin DR, Chen I, Smith R, Elliott MR, Winston FK.
Pediatrics. 2005 Mar;115(3):e305-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the synergistic effects of rear seat positioning and proper child restraints in reducing childhood MVC injuries.

Citations - 189 (as of July 2017)

Belt-positioning booster seats and reduction in risk of injury among children in vehicle crashes.
Durbin DR, Elliott MR, Winston FK.
JAMA. 2003 Jun 4;289(21):2835-40.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated benefit of booster seats in older children.

Citations - 346 (as of July 2017)

Children in car crashes - analysis of data for injury and use of restraints.
Johnston C, Rivara FP, Soderberg R.
Pediatrics. 1994 Jun;93(6 Pt 1):960-5.

Rationale for inclusion: First discussed need for stepwise restraint systems as children grow.

Citations - 174 (as of July 2017)

The lap belt complex: intestinal and lumbar spine injury in children.
Newman KD, Bowman LM, Eichelberger MR, Gotschall CS, Taylor GA, Johnson DL, Thomas M.
J Trauma. 1990 Sep;30(9):1133-8; discussion 1138-40.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes intestinal injury and lumbar spine fractures associated with lap belt use in children.

Citations - 146 (as of July 2017)

Restraint systems for the prevention of injury to children in automobile accidents.
Scherz RG.
Am J Public Health. 1976 May;66(5):451-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes restraints (of any kind) as being effective in reducing childhood MVC injury.

Citations - 108 (as of July 2017)

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