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Firearm Injury Prevention

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Association Between Gun Law Reforms and Intentional Firearm Deaths in Australia, 1979-2013.
Chapman S, Alpers P, Jones M.
JAMA. 2016 Jul 19;316(3):291-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Observational study using Australian government statistics on deaths caused by firearms (1979-2013) and compared changes in intentional firearm death rates before and after gun legislation reforms in 1996.  After gun law reforms, firearm deaths decreased and there were no mass killings with firearms.

CAVEAT: Australia only

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Guns in the home and risk of a violent death in the home: findings from a national study.
Dahlberg LL, Ikeda RM, Kresnow MJ.
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Nov 15;160(10):929-36.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated that in homes where a firearm of any kind or in any number is present, there is almost a 2 fold increased risk of dying a violent death of all causes - homicide or suicide - by firearm than in homes without a firearm.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Seeing is believing: what do boys do when they find a real gun?
Jackman GA, Farah MM, Kellermann AL, Simon HK.
Pediatrics. 2001 Jun;107(6):1247-50.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated that boys placed in a room with a firearm routinely find, play with, and attempt to fire the firearm, regardless of parental guidance on the issue of firearm handling or perceived interest or knowledge of firearm handling by the parents.

CAVEAT: Small sample size

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Homicide and suicide rates associated with implementation of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act.
Ludwig J, Cook PJ.
JAMA. 2000 Aug 2;284(5):585-91.

Rationale for inclusion: Compared firearm homicide and suicide rates between states after implementation of background checks and a waiting period. 

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

State gun safe storage laws and child mortality due to firearms.
Cummings P, Grossman DC, Rivara FP, Koepsell TD.
JAMA. 1997 Oct 1;278(13):1084-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated a 23% reduction of child deaths due to firearm in states with laws that hold gun owners responsible for storing firearms in a manner that makes them inaccessible to children.

CAVEAT: Retrospective

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Gun ownership as a risk factor for homicide in the home.
Kellermann AL, Rivara FP, Rushforth NB, Banton JG, Reay DT, Francisco JT, Locci AB, Prodzinski J, Hackman BB, Somes G.
N Engl J Med. 1993 Oct 7;329(15):1084-91.

Rationale for inclusion: Case control study demonstrating 3x increased risk of homicide in homes with firearms.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Suicide in the home in relation to gun ownership.
Kellermann AL, Rivara FP, Somes G, Reay DT, Francisco J, Banton JG, Prodzinski J, Fligner C, Hackman BB.
N Engl J Med. 1992 Aug 13;327(7):467-72.

Rationale for inclusion: Case-control study demonstrating 5x increased risk of suicide in homes with firearms.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

The presence and accessibility of firearms in the homes of adolescent suicides. A case-control study.
Brent DA, Perper JA, Allman CJ, Moritz GM, Wartella ME, Zelenak JP.
JAMA. 1991 Dec 4;266(21):2989-95.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated increased risk of suicide in homes of adolescents in which there is a firearm.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

Gun storage practices and risk of youth suicide and unintentional firearm injuries.
Grossman DC, Mueller BA, Riedy C, Dowd MD, Villaveces A, Prodzinski J, Nakagawara J, Howard J, Thiersch N, Harruff R.
JAMA. 2005 Feb 9;293(6):707-14.

Rationale for inclusion: Case control study demonstrating up to 70% reduction in the risk of youth suicide and unintentional injuries in homes where firearms were safely stored.

Citations  - To review the number of citations for this landmark paper, visit Google Scholar.

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