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Trauma Systems

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Impact of Volume Change Over Time on Trauma Mortality in the United States.
Brown JB, Rosengart MR, Kahn JM, Mohan D, Zuckerbraun BS, Billiar TR, Peitzman AB, Angus DC, Sperry JL.
Ann Surg. 2017 Jul;266(1):173-178.

Rationale for inclusion: NTDB study of severely injured patients (ISS>15) determined that each 1% increase in volume was associated with a 73% increased odd of improvement in a center-level standardized mortality ratio at level I and II centers.

Citations: 3 (as of July 2017)

Development and Validation of the Air Medical Prehospital Triage Score for Helicopter Transport of Trauma Patients.
Brown JB, Gestring ML, Guyette FX, Rosengart MR, Stassen NA, Forsythe RM, Billiar TR, Peitzman AB, Sperry JL.
Ann Surg. 2016 Aug;264(2):378-85.

Rationale for inclusion: NTDB study used to develop an Air Medical Prehospital Triage score with an optimal cutpoint for HEMS transport of ≥2.

Citations: 4 (as of July 2017)

Improved functional outcomes for major trauma patients in a regionalized, inclusive trauma system.
Gabbe BJ, Simpson PM, Sutherland AM, Wolfe R, Fitzgerald MC, Judson R, Cameron PA.
Ann Surg. 2012 Jun;255(6):1009-15.

Rationale for inclusion: Major trauma survivors had better functional outcomes if managed at Level 1 Trauma Centers.

Citations - 108 (as of July 2017)

Helicopters and the civilian trauma system: national utilization patterns demonstrate improved outcomes after traumatic injury.
Brown JB, Stassen NA, Bankey PE, Sangosanya AT, Cheng JD, Gestring ML.
J Trauma. 2010 Nov;69(5):1030-4; discussion 1034-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Helicopter transport was associated with improved survival despite higher severity injuries and longer transport times.

Citations - 112 (as of July 2017)

Trauma mortality in mature trauma systems: are we doing better? An analysis of trauma mortality patterns, 1997-2008.
Dutton RP, Stansbury LG, Leone S, Kramer E, Hess JR, Scalea TM.
J Trauma. 2010 Sep;69(3):620-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Improvements in trauma care over a 12-year period in one trauma center kept pace with increasing age and injury severity as measured by mortality.

Citations - 233 (as of July 2017)

Epidemiology of traumatic deaths: comprehensive population-based assessment.
Evans JA, van Wessem KJ, McDougall D, Lee KA, Lyons T, Balogh ZJ.
World J Surg. 2010 Jan;34(1):158-63.

Rationale for inclusion: Epidemiology of deaths after trauma now show a skew towards early deaths when compared to trimodal distribution of death found in earlier, American studies.  This contemporary study shows that low level falls now cause 41% of mortalities in Australia.

Citations - 241 (as of July 2017)

Incidence and lifetime costs of injuries in the United States.
Corso P, Finkelstein E, Miller T, Fiebelkorn I, Zaloshnja E.
Inj Prev. 2006 Aug;12(4):212-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Economic analysis demonstrating the large burden of injury in the United States.

Citations - 339 (as of July 2017)

A national evaluation of the effect of trauma-center care on mortality.
MacKenzie EJ, Rivara FP, Jurkovich GJ, Nathens AB, Frey KP, Egleston BL, Salkever DS, Scharfstein DO.
N Engl J Med. 2006 Jan 26;354(4):366-78.

Rationale for inclusion: Multi-center analysis showing improved outcomes for patients treated at trauma centers when compared to non-trauma centers.

Citations - 1472 (as of July 2017)

Trends in head injury outcome from 1989 to 2003 and the effect of neurosurgical care: an observational study.
Patel HC, Bouamra O, Woodford M, King AT, Yates DW, Lecky FE; Trauma Audit and Research Network.
Lancet. 2005 Oct 29-Nov 4;366(9496):1538-44.

Rationale for inclusion: Treatment of brain injury in a neurosurgical center in England and Wales led to improved outcomes.

Citations - 310 (as of July 2017)

The effect of trauma center designation and trauma volume on outcome in specific severe injuries.
Demetriades D, Martin M, Salim A, Rhee P, Brown C, Chan L.
Ann Surg. 2005 Oct;242(4):512-7; discussion 517-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Level 1 Trauma Centers have better outcomes than lower-level centers, not associated with volumes.

Citations - 265 (as of July 2017)

Access to trauma centers in the United States.
Branas CC, MacKenzie EJ, Williams JC, Schwab CW, Teter HM, Flanigan MC, Blatt AJ, ReVelle CS.
JAMA. 2005 Jun 1;293(21):2626-33.

Rationale for inclusion: Analysis of distribution of trauma centers to determine the percentage of the population living within 45 or 60 minutes of a trauma center.

Citations - 325 (as of July 2017)

Development of trauma systems and effect on outcomes after injury.
Nathens AB, Brunet FP, Maier RV.
Lancet. 2004 May 29;363(9423):1794-801.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison of US vs France. In US, focus is on trauma center, and in France, focus is on prehospital care. Crude mortality rates are higher in France, although difficult to adjust for confounders.

Citations - 199 (as of July 2017)

The effect of organized systems of trauma care on motor vehicle crash mortality.
Nathens AB, Jurkovich GJ, Cummings P, Rivara FP, Maier RV.
JAMA. 2000 Apr 19;283(15):1990-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Organized trauma system improves mortality after MVC.

Citations - 386 (as of July 2017)

Effectiveness of state trauma systems in reducing injury-related mortality: a national evaluation.
Nathens AB, Jurkovich GJ, Rivara FP, Maier RV.
J Trauma. 2000 Jan;48(1):25-30; discussion 30-1.

Rationale for inclusion:  Analysis of states with trauma systems compared with states without trauma systems. A state trauma system is associated with a reduction in the risk of death caused by injury. The effect is most evident on analysis of MVC deaths.

Citations - 308 (as of July 2017)

Trauma care regionalization: a process-outcome evaluation.
Sampalis JS, Denis R, Lavoie A, Fr├ęchette P, Boukas S, Nikolis A, Benoit D, Fleiszer D, Brown R, Churchill-Smith M, Mulder D.
J Trauma. 1999 Apr;46(4):565-79; discussion 579-81.

Rationale for inclusion: Utilizing Quebec Trauma Registry; treatment of patients at a trauma center, reduced prehospital time, and treatment at a tertiary center contributed to decreased mortality.

Citations - 367 (as of July 2017)

Epidemiology of trauma deaths: a reassessment.
Sauaia A, Moore FA, Moore EE, Moser KS, Brennan R, Read RA, Pons PT.
J Trauma. 1995 Feb;38(2):185-93.

Rationale for inclusion: Analysis of epidemiology of trauma deaths in a trauma system (Denver), compared with historical epidemiology, showing improved access to the medical system and greater proportion of late deaths due to brain injury.

Citations - 1714 (as of July 2017)

Outcome of hospitalized injured patients after institution of a trauma system in an urban area.
Mullins RJ, Veum-Stone J, Helfand M, Zimmer-Gembeck M, Hedges JR, Southard PA, Trunkey DD.
JAMA. 1994 Jun 22-29;271(24):1919-24.

Rationale for inclusion: Establishment of a trauma center in an urban area shifted sicker patients to the trauma center and improved outcomes.

Citations - 342 (as of July 2017)

The effect of regionalization upon the quality of trauma care as assessed by concurrent audit before and after institution of a trauma system: a preliminary report.
Shackford SR, Hollingworth-Fridlund P, Cooper GF, Eastman AB.
J Trauma. 1986 Sep;26(9):812-20.

Rationale for inclusion: Before and after study of trauma care after a trauma system was initiated with improvement in care.

Citations - 385 (as of July 2017)

Systems of trauma care. A study of two counties.
West JG, Trunkey DD, Lim RC.
Arch Surg. 1979 Apr;114(4):455-60.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison of two counties; San Francisco county utilized one trauma hospital and Orange County utilized the closest hospital. Survival was improved in the county that utilized one trauma hospital.

Citations - 669 (as of July 2017)

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Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

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