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Acid-Suppressive Therapy and Risk of Infections: Pros and Cons.
Fisher L, Fisher A.
Clin Drug Investig. 2017 Jul;37(7):587-624.

Rationale for inclusion: This is a narrative review of several current controversies regarding stress ulcer prophylaxis.  

Citations - 1  (as of July 2017)

Early enteral nutrition in critically ill patients: ESICM clinical practice guidelines.
Reintam Blaser A, Starkopf J, Alhazzani W, Berger MM, Casaer MP, Deane AM, Fruhwald S, Hiesmayr M, Ichai C, Jakob SM, Loudet CI, Malbrain ML, Montejo González JC, Paugam-Burtz C, Poeze M, Preiser JC, Singer P, van Zanten AR, De Waele J, Wendon J, Wernerman J, Whitehouse T, Wilmer A, Oudemans-van Straaten HM; ESICM Working Group on Gastrointestinal Function.
Intensive Care Med. 2017 Mar;43(3):380-398.

Rationale for inclusion: This is a very recent CPG from ESICM. It has 17 recommendations using the GRADE format, with 5 meta-analyses covering TBI, severe acute pancreatitis, GI procedures, abdominal trauma, and the general ICU population.

Citations - 5 (as of July 2017)

Suboptimal Implementation of Evidence-based Therapy for Acute Variceal Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies.
Tapper EB, Beste L, Curry M, Bonder A, Waljee A, Saini S.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Feb 27. pii: S1542-3565(17)30198-2.

Rationale for inclusion: This is a survey that demonstrates "suboptimal implementation" of the evidence-based practices for critical management of variceal bleeding.

Citations - 0 (as of July 2017)

Early, goal-directed mobilisation in the surgical intensive care unit: a randomised controlled trial.
Schaller SJ, Anstey M, Blobner M, Edrich T, Grabitz SD, Gradwohl-Matis I, Heim M, Houle T, Kurth T, Latronico N, Lee J, Meyer MJ, Peponis T, Talmor D, Velmahos GC, Waak K, Walz JM, Zafonte R, Eikermann M; International Early SOMS-guided Mobilization Research Initiative.
Lancet. 2016 Oct 1;388(10052):1377-1388.

Rationale for inclusion: Although no definitive study exists in the broadly accepted practice, this study adequately describes the practice with positive results.

Citations - 37 (as of July 2017)

Executive Summary: Management of Adults With Hospital-acquired and Ventilator-associated Pneumonia: 2016 Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society.
Kalil AC, Metersky ML, Klompas M, Muscedere J, Sweeney DA, Palmer LB, Napolitano LM, O'Grady NP, Bartlett JG, Carratalà J, El Solh AA, Ewig S, Fey PD, File TM Jr, Restrepo MI, Roberts JA, Waterer GW, Cruse P, Knight SL, Brozek JL.
Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 1;63(5):575-82.

Rationale for inclusion: IDSA guidelines for management of pneumonia. 

Citations - 200 (as of July 2017)

Early TIPS versus endoscopic therapy for secondary prophylaxis after management of acute esophageal variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Halabi SA, Sawas T, Sadat B, Jandali A, Halabi HA, Halabi FA, Kapoor B, Carey WD.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Sep;31(9):1519-26.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated superiority of TIPS in prevention of repeat bleeding after treatment of variceal bleeds.

Citations - 7 (as of July 2017)

Five-Year Mortality and Hospital Costs Associated with Surviving Intensive Care.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Jul 15;194(2):198-208.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Jul 15;194(2):198-208.

Rationale for inclusion: Most contemporary but highly referenced paper on 5 year outcomes following critical illness

Citations - 25 (as of July 2017)

Efficacy and safety of proton pump inhibitors for stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.
Alshamsi F, Belley-Cote E, Cook D, Almenawer SA, Alqahtani Z, Perri D, Thabane L, Al-Omari A, Lewis K, Guyatt G, Alhazzani W.
Crit Care. 2016 May 4;20(1):120.

Rationale for inclusion: This is in a new and less-notable journal.  This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs.  Overall the data favors PPI. 

Citations - 22 (as of July 2017)

ACG Clinical Guideline: Management of Patients With Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding.
Strate LL, Gralnek IM.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Apr;111(4):459-74.

Rationale for inclusion: Most up-to-date guidelines available on PubMed for acute lower GI bleeding.

Citations - 39 (as of July 2017)

Indications for Use of Damage Control Surgery in Civilian Trauma Patients: A Content Analysis and Expert Appropriateness Rating Study.
Roberts DJ, Bobrovitz N, Zygun DA, Ball CG, Kirkpatrick AW, Faris PD, Brohi K, D'Amours S, Fabian TC, Inaba K, Leppäniemi AK, Moore EE, Navsaria PH, Nicol AJ, Parry N, Stelfox HT.
Ann Surg. 2016 May;263(5):1018-27.

Rationale for inclusion: A constellation of well-known researchers used an interesting statistical alternative to meta-analysis to evaluate 175 articles (out of 23,000) between 1983 and 2014.  They found 123 distinct indications for DCL, but the most common were the lethal triad and inability to close the abdomen.

Citations - 24 (as of July 2017)

Interventions for necrotising pancreatitis.
Gurusamy KS, Belgaumkar AP, Haswell A, Pereira SP, Davidson BR.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Apr 16;4:CD011383.

Rationale for inclusion: 8 RCT were included, none of which were considered high quality by the authors.  The suggestion was that minimally invasive procedures with step-up to more invasive ones (e.g. drains followed by sinus tract endoscopic necrosectomy) were probably safer than open necrosectomy.  We await the TENSION trial from the Netherlands.

Citations - 7 (as of July 2017)

A multicentre, randomised controlled trial comparing the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of early nutritional support via the parenteral versus the enteral route in critically ill patients (CALORIES).
Harvey SE, Parrott F, Harrison DA, Sadique MZ, Grieve RD, Canter RR, McLennan BK, Tan JC, Bear DE, Segaran E, Beale R, Bellingan G, Leonard R, Mythen MG, Rowan KM.
Health Technol Assess. 2016 Apr;20(28):1-144.

Rationale for inclusion: The CALORIES trial is likely the largest of its kind, with 1200 patients in each arm.  Patients were studied for the first week of their ICU stay (randomized within 36 hours of admission to a 5-day trial of early nutritional support via either parenteral or enteral routes.  30-day mortality and 90-day net cost benefit were the primary outcomes; no change in mortality, slightly higher cost in the TPN arm.  It's a long read with excellent discussion and references.

Citations - 13 (as of July 2017)

Recent Critical Care Nutrition Trials and the Revised Guidelines: Do They Reconcile?
McCarthy MS, Warren M, Roberts PR.
Nutr Clin Pract. 2016 Apr;31(2):150-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Good summary of the most important nutrition trials since the 2016 ASPEN guidelines (which stopped including studies in December 2013).  Includes analysis of the CALORIES trial.  GRADE methodology was used.

Citations - 2 (as of July 2017)

Developing a New Definition and Assessing New Clinical Criteria for Septic Shock: For the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3).
Shankar-Hari M, Phillips GS, Levy ML, Seymour CW, Liu VX, Deutschman CS, Angus DC, Rubenfeld GD, Singer M; Sepsis Definitions Task Force.
JAMA. 2016 Feb 23;315(8):775-87.

Rationale for inclusion: SEPSIS 3 explained!

Citations - 262 (as of July 2017)

Mean Arterial Blood Pressure Correlates with Neurological Recovery after Human Spinal Cord Injury: Analysis of High Frequency Physiologic Data.
Hawryluk G, Whetstone W, Saigal R, Ferguson A, Talbott J, Bresnahan J, Dhall S, Pan J, Beattie M, Manley G.
J Neurotrauma. 2015 Dec 15;32(24):1958-67.

Rationale for inclusion: Use of MAPs to optimize spinal cord perfusion and optimize recovery from injury is studied in this paper.

Citations - 29 (as of July 2017)

Hepatorenal syndrome: Update on diagnosis and treatment.
Baraldi O, Valentini C, Donati G, Comai G, Cuna V, Capelli I, Angelini ML, Moretti MI, Angeletti A, Piscaglia F, La Manna G.
World J Nephrol. 2015 Nov 6;4(5):511-20.

Rationale for inclusion: Good summary of current treatment modalities (the usual standbys of terlipressin and albumin).

Citations - 14 (as of July 2017)

Effect of a Buffered Crystalloid Solution vs Saline on Acute Kidney Injury Among Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: The SPLIT Randomized Clinical Trial.
Young P, Bailey M, Beasley R, Henderson S, Mackle D, McArthur C, McGuinness S, Mehrtens J, Myburgh J, Psirides A, Reddy S, Bellomo R; SPLIT Investigators; ANZICS CTG.
JAMA. 2015 Oct 27;314(16):1701-10.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective trial: Buffered crystalloids did not reduce risk of AKI compared to NS.

Citations - 177 (as of July 2017)

Effect of a Buffered Crystalloid Solution vs Saline on Acute Kidney Injury Among Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: The SPLIT Randomized Clinical Trial.
Young P, Bailey M, Beasley R, Henderson S, Mackle D, McArthur C, McGuinness S, Mehrtens J, Myburgh J, Psirides A, Reddy S, Bellomo R; SPLIT Investigators; ANZICS CTG.
JAMA. 2015 Oct 27;314(16):1701-10.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective trial: Buffered crystalloids did not reduce risk of AKI compared to NS.

Citations - 177 (as of July 2017)

Effect of a Buffered Crystalloid Solution vs Saline on Acute Kidney Injury Among Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: The SPLIT Randomized Clinical Trial.
Young P, Bailey M, Beasley R, Henderson S, Mackle D, McArthur C, McGuinness S, Mehrtens J, Myburgh J, Psirides A, Reddy S, Bellomo R; SPLIT Investigators; ANZICS CTG.
JAMA. 2015 Oct 27;314(16):1701-10.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective trial: Buffered crystalloids did not reduce risk of AKI compared to NS.

Citations - 177 (as of July 2017)

Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.
Sklar MC, Beloncle F, Katsios CM, Brochard L, Friedrich JO.
Intensive Care Med. 2015 Oct;41(10):1752-62.

Rationale for inclusion: Systemic review of ECCO2R.

Citations - 30 (as of July 2017)

Diagnosis and management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline.
Gralnek IM, Dumonceau JM, Kuipers EJ, Lanas A, Sanders DS, Kurien M, Rotondano G, Hucl T, Dinis-Ribeiro M, Marmo R, Racz I, Arezzo A, Hoffmann RT, Lesur G, de Franchis R, Aabakken L, Veitch A, Radaelli F, Salgueiro P, Cardoso R, Maia L, Zullo A, Cipolletta L, Hassan C.
Endoscopy. 2015 Oct;47(10):a1-46.

Rationale for inclusion: Most up-to-date guidelines available for nonvariceal upper GI bleeding - same author as the lower GI bleed.

Citations - 120 (as of July 2017)

Early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.
Deltenre P, Trépo E, Rudler M, Monescillo A, Fraga M, Denys A, Doerig C, Fournier N, Moreno C, Moradpour D, Bureau C, Thabut D.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Sep;27(9):e1-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Review and meta-analysis of outcomes.

Citations - 9 (as of July 2017)

Perioperative Bridging Anticoagulation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.
Douketis JD, Spyropoulos AC, Kaatz S, Becker RC, Caprini JA, Dunn AS, Garcia DA, Jacobson A, Jaffer AK, Kong DF, Schulman S, Turpie AG, Hasselblad V, Ortel TL; BRIDGE Investigators
N Engl J Med. 2015 Aug 27;373(9):823-33.

Rationale for inclusion: Anticoagulation for AFIB.

Citations - 301 (as of July 2017)

Trial of early, goal-directed resuscitation for septic shock.
Mouncey PR, Osborn TM, Power GS, Harrison DA, Sadique MZ, Grieve RD, Jahan R, Harvey SE, Bell D, Bion JF, Coats TJ, Singer M, Young JD, Rowan KM; ProMISe Trial Investigators.
N Engl J Med. 2015 Apr 2;372(14):1301-11.

Rationale for inclusion: Challenge of effect on outcomes of EGDT in septic shock.

Citations - 608 (as of July 2017)

Updates and current recommendations for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: what it means for clinical practice.
Cayla G, Silvain J, Collet JP, Montalescot G.
Am J Cardiol. 2015 Mar 14;115(5 Suppl):10A-22A.

Rationale for inclusion: Management of NSTEMI.

Citations - 10 (as of July 2017)

Thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) for trauma induced coagulopathy in adult trauma patients with bleeding.
Hunt H, Stanworth S, Curry N, Woolley T, Cooper C, Ukoumunne O, Zhelev Z, Hyde C.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Feb 16;(2):CD010438.

Rationale for inclusion: Excellent review on the use of TEG / ROTEM in defining traumatic coagulopathy.

Citations - 81 (as of July 2017)

Transfusion of plasma, platelets, and red blood cells in a 1:1:1 vs a 1:1:2 ratio and mortality in patients with severe trauma: the PROPPR randomized clinical trial.
Holcomb JB, Tilley BC, Baraniuk S, Fox EE, Wade CE, Podbielski JM, del Junco DJ, Brasel KJ, Bulger EM, Callcut RA, Cohen MJ, Cotton BA, Fabian TC, Inaba K, Kerby JD, Muskat P, O'Keeffe T, Rizoli S, Robinson BR, Scalea TM, Schreiber MA, Stein DM, Weinberg JA, Callum JL, Hess JR, Matijevic N, Miller CN, Pittet JF, Hoyt DB, Pearson GD, Leroux B, van Belle G; PROPPR Study Group.
JAMA. 2015 Feb 3;313(5):471-82.

Rationale for inclusion: PROPPR trial that included patelet ratios in massive transfusion protocols

Citations - 455 (as of July 2017)

The preventability of ventilator-associated events. The CDC Prevention Epicenters Wake Up and Breathe Collaborative.
Klompas M, Anderson D, Trick W, Babcock H, Kerlin MP, Li L, Sinkowitz-Cochran R, Ely EW, Jernigan J, Magill S, Lyles R, O'Neil C, Kitch BT, Arrington E, Balas MC, Kleinman K, Bruce C, Lankiewicz J, Murphy MV, E Cox C, Lautenbach E, Sexton D, Fraser V, Weinstein RA, Platt R; CDC Prevention Epicenters.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb 1;191(3):292-301

Rationale for inclusion: A large multi center trial on the ABC approach to vent liberation.

Citations - 63 (as of July 2017)

Refractory cardiac arrest treated with mechanical CPR, hypothermia, ECMO and early reperfusion (the CHEER trial).
Stub D, Bernard S, Pellegrino V, Smith K, Walker T, Sheldrake J, Hockings L, Shaw J, Duffy SJ, Burrell A, Cameron P, Smit de V, Kaye DM.
Resuscitation. 2015 Jan;86:88-94.

Rationale for inclusion: Multi-component approach to cardiac arrest including ECMO.

Citations - 166 (as of July 2017)

Consensus on circulatory shock and hemodynamic monitoring. Task force of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine.
Cecconi M, De Backer D, Antonelli M, Beale R, Bakker J, Hofer C, Jaeschke R, Mebazaa A, Pinsky MR, Teboul JL, Vincent JL, Rhodes A.
Intensive Care Med. 2014 Dec;40(12):1795-815.

Rationale for inclusion: 44 statements on the monitoring of shock in the ICU.

Citations - 323 (as of July 2017)

Dexmedetomidine reduces the risk of delirium, agitation and confusion in critically Ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Pasin L, Landoni G, Nardelli P, Belletti A, Di Prima AL, Taddeo D, Isella F, Zangrillo A.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2014 Dec;28(6):1459-66.

Rationale for inclusion: This is one of many (but a more definitive) articles on value of dexmedetomidine use in the severely aggitated.

Citations - 46 (as of July 2017)

Surge capacity principles: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.
Hick JL, Einav S, Hanfling D, Kissoon N, Dichter JR, Devereaux AV, Christian MD; Task Force for Mass Critical Care; Task Force for Mass Critical Care.
Chest. 2014 Oct;146(4 Suppl):e1S-e16S.

Rationale for inclusion: Excellent discussion of critical care surge capacity during disasters

Citations - 18 (as of July 2017)

Position paper for the organization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation programs for acute respiratory failure in adult patients.
Combes A, Brodie D, Bartlett R, Brochard L, Brower R, Conrad S, De Backer D, Fan E, Ferguson N, Fortenberry J, Fraser J, Gattinoni L, Lynch W, MacLaren G, Mercat A, Mueller T, Ogino M, Peek G, Pellegrino V, Pesenti A, Ranieri M, Slutsky A, Vuylsteke A; International ECMO Network (ECMONet).
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Sep 1;190(5):488-96.

Rationale for inclusion: Position paper for ECMO in ARDS.

Citations - 124 (as of July 2017)

Infections and use of antibiotics in patients admitted for severe acute pancreatitis: data from the EPIC II study.
De Waele JJ, Rello J, Anzueto A, Moreno R, Lipman J, Sakr Y, Pickkers P, Leone M, Ferguson A, Oud L, Vincent JL; EPIC II Investigators.
Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2014 Aug;15(4):394-8.

Rationale for inclusion: EPIC II data on Abx for sterile pancreatitis.

Citations - 9 (as of July 2017)

Relationship between acid-base status and inflammation in the critically ill.
Zampieri FG, Kellum JA, Park M, Ranzani OT, Barbeiro HV, de Souza HP, da Cruz Neto LM, da Silva FP.
Crit Care. 2014 Jul 17;18(4):R154.

Rationale for inclusion: AB imbalances associated with immunologic activation

Citations - 13 (as of July 2017)

Association between the choice of IV crystalloid and in-hospital mortality among critically ill adults with sepsis*.
Raghunathan K, Shaw A, Nathanson B, Stürmer T, Brookhart A, Stefan MS, Setoguchi S, Beadles C, Lindenauer PK.
Crit Care Med. 2014 Jul;42(7):1585-91.

Rationale for inclusion: Balanced fluids (e.g. LR) was associated with improved mortality compared to normal saline - retrospective, propensity-matched

Citations - 159 (as of July 2017)

Association between the choice of IV crystalloid and in-hospital mortality among critically ill adults with sepsis*.
Raghunathan K, Shaw A, Nathanson B, Stürmer T, Brookhart A, Stefan MS, Setoguchi S, Beadles C, Lindenauer PK.
Crit Care Med. 2014 Jul;42(7):1585-91.

Rationale for inclusion: Balanced fluids (e.g. LR) was associated with improved mortlity compared to normal saline - retrospective, propensity-matched.

Citations - 159 (as of July 2017)

Strategies to prevent surgical site infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 update.
Anderson DJ, Podgorny K, Berríos-Torres SI, Bratzler DW, Dellinger EP, Greene L, Nyquist AC, Saiman L, Yokoe DS, Maragakis LL, Kaye KS.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014 Jun;35(6):605-27.

Rationale for inclusion: Contemporary guidelines for the prevention of SSIs: a highly-sited article.

Citations - 1225 (as of July 2017)

Predicting survival after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe acute respiratory failure. The Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction (RESP) score.
Schmidt M, Bailey M, Sheldrake J, Hodgson C, Aubron C, Rycus PT, Scheinkestel C, Cooper DJ, Brodie D, Pellegrino V, Combes A, Pilcher D.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jun 1;189(11):1374-82.

Rationale for inclusion: Development of RESP score to predict survivability after ECMO.

Citations - 144 (as of July 2017)

Advances in management and prognostication in critically ill cirrhotic patients.
Karvellas CJ, Bagshaw SM.
Curr Opin Crit Care. 2014 Apr;20(2):210-7

Rationale for inclusion: This is a really comprehensive survey of the latest therapies for cirrhotic patients presenting with sepsis, variceal bleeds, hepatorenal syndrome, as well as scoring systems.  The CANONIC, HELIOS, and RELIEF trials are discussed.

Citations - 16 (as of July 2017)

Monitoring of spinal cord perfusion pressure in acute spinal cord injury: initial findings of the injured spinal cord pressure evaluation study*.
Werndle MC, Saadoun S, Phang I, Czosnyka M, Varsos GV, Czosnyka ZH, Smielewski P, Jamous A, Bell BA, Zoumprouli A, Papadopoulos MC.
Crit Care Med. 2014 Mar;42(3):646-55.

Rationale for inclusion: Similar to cerebral perfusion pressure, spinal cord perfusion pressure is evaluated in this study, supporting its use.

Citations - 41 (as of July 2017)

Complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for treatment of cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest: a meta-analysis of 1,866 adult patients.
Cheng R, Hachamovitch R, Kittleson M, Patel J, Arabia F, Moriguchi J, Esmailian F, Azarbal B.
Ann Thorac Surg. 2014 Feb;97(2):610-6.

Rationale of inclusion: Meta-analysis of complications related to ECMO.

Citations - 182 (as of July 2017)

Targeted temperature management at 33°C versus 36°C after cardiac arrest.
Nielsen N, Wetterslev J, Cronberg T, Erlinge D, Gasche Y, Hassager C, Horn J, Hovdenes J, Kjaergaard J, Kuiper M, Pellis T, Stammet P, Wanscher M, Wise MP, Åneman A, Al-Subaie N, Boesgaard S, Bro-Jeppesen J, Brunetti I, Bugge JF, Hingston CD, Juffermans NP, Koopmans M, Køber L, Langørgen J, Lilja G, Møller JE, Rundgren M, Rylander C, Smid O, Werer C, Winkel P, Friberg H; TTM Trial Investigators.
N Engl J Med. 2013 Dec 5;369(23):2197-206.

Rationale for inclusion: A well referenced paper helping to dial in the perfect temperature goal.  Its findings suggested perhaps the real goals of targeted temperature management are to simply prevent hyperthermia.

Citations - 1275 (as of July 2017)

Short- vs long-duration antibiotic regimens for ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Dimopoulos G, Poulakou G, Pneumatikos IA, Armaganidis A, Kollef MH, Matthaiou DK.
Chest. 2013 Dec;144(6):1759-67.

Rationale for inclusion: Meta analysis for the duration of antibiotics in VAP (more antibiotics free days, less relapse, no difference in mortality).

Citations - 63 (as of July 2017)

Postoperative adverse outcomes after non-hepatic surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis.
Lin CS, Lin SY, Chang CC, Wang HH, Liao CC, Chen TL.
Br J Surg. 2013 Dec;100(13):1784-90.

Rationale for inclusion: This is a very large population study based on reimbursement data (24,000 cirrhotics with a control group of 97,000) which shows the expected outcomes (increased mortality, increased complications including sepsis, and renal failure). 

Citations - 17 (as of July 2017)

Revised Atlanta and determinant-based classification: application in a prospective cohort of acute pancreatitis patients.
Nawaz H, Mounzer R, Yadav D, Yabes JG, Slivka A, Whitcomb DC, Papachristou GI.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Dec;108(12):1911-7.

Rationale for inclusion: This is a comparison of the Atlanta 1992, Atlanta 2012, and determinant-based (PANCREA) classification groups in a prospective cohort.  Not surprisingly, DBC and Atlanta 2012 outperformed Atlanta 1992.

Citations - 76 (as of July 2017)

Effects of fluid resuscitation with colloids vs crystalloids on mortality in critically ill patients presenting with hypovolemic shock: the CRISTAL randomized trial.
Annane D, Siami S, Jaber S, Martin C, Elatrous S, Declère AD, Preiser JC, Outin H, Troché G, Charpentier C, Trouillet JL, Kimmoun A, Forceville X, Darmon M, Lesur O, Reignier J, Abroug F, Berger P, Clec'h C, Cousson J, Thibault L, Chevret S; CRISTAL Investigators.
JAMA. 2013 Nov 6;310(17):1809-17.

Rationale for inclusion: CRISTAL trial: No difference in mortality between colloids and crystalloids.

Citations - 367 (as of July 2017)

Effects of fluid resuscitation with colloids vs crystalloids on mortality in critically ill patients presenting with hypovolemic shock: the CRISTAL randomized trial.
Annane D, Siami S, Jaber S, Martin C, Elatrous S, Declère AD, Preiser JC, Outin H, Troché G, Charpentier C, Trouillet JL, Kimmoun A, Forceville X, Darmon M, Lesur O, Reignier J, Abroug F, Berger P, Clec'h C, Cousson J, Thibault L, Chevret S; CRISTAL Investigators.
JAMA. 2013 Nov 6;310(17):1809-17.

Rationale for inclusion: CRISTAL trial: No difference in mortality between colloids and crystalloids

Citations - 367 (as of July 2017)

Effects of fluid resuscitation with colloids vs crystalloids on mortality in critically ill patients presenting with hypovolemic shock: the CRISTAL randomized trial.
Annane D, Siami S, Jaber S, Martin C, Elatrous S, Declère AD, Preiser JC, Outin H, Troché G, Charpentier C, Trouillet JL, Kimmoun A, Forceville X, Darmon M, Lesur O, Reignier J, Abroug F, Berger P, Clec'h C, Cousson J, Thibault L, Chevret S; CRISTAL Investigators.
JAMA. 2013 Nov 6;310(17):1809-17.

Rationale for inclusion: Colloids vs crystalloid for resuscitation of patients in hypovolemic shock.

Citations - 367 (as of July 2017)

The PRESERVE mortality risk score and analysis of long-term outcomes after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Schmidt M, Zogheib E, Rozé H, Repesse X, Lebreton G, Luyt CE, Trouillet JL, Bréchot N, Nieszkowska A, Dupont H, Ouattara A, Leprince P, Chastre J, Combes A.
Intensive Care Med. 2013 Oct;39(10):1704-13.

Rationale for inclusion: Mortality and long term outcome after ECMO for ARDS.

Citations -178 (as of July 2017)

Duration of antibiotic therapy for critically ill patients with bloodstream infections: A retrospective cohort study.
Havey TC, Fowler RA, Pinto R, Elligsen M, Daneman N.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2013 Fall;24(3):129-37.

Rationale for inclusion: Solid article on length of treatment following bacteremia.

Citations - 11 (as of July 2017)

Implementing the awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring/management, and early exercise/mobility bundle into everyday care: opportunities, challenges, and lessons learned for implementing the ICU Pain, Agitation, and Delirium Guidelines.
Balas MC, Burke WJ, Gannon D, Cohen MZ, Colburn L, Bevil C, Franz D, Olsen KM, Ely EW, Vasilevskis EE.
Crit Care Med. 2013 Sep;41(9 Suppl 1):S116-27.

Rationale for inclusion: Important follow up study of the "wake up and breath" campaign to show efficacy.

Citations - 82 (as of July 2017)

Damage-control laparotomy in nontrauma patients: review of indications and outcomes.
Khan A, Hsee L, Mathur S, Civil I.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Sep;75(3):365-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Already on the list as an excellent overview.

Citations - 36 (as of July 2017)

American College of Gastroenterology guideline: management of acute pancreatitis.
Tenner S, Baillie J, DeWitt J, Vege SS; American College of Gastroenterology.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep;108(9):1400-15; 1416.

Rationale for inclusion: Good general overview, covering resuscitation, imaging, post-ERCP care, timing and appropriateness of interventions on fluid collections.

Citations - 774 (as of July 2017)

IAP/APA evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis.
Working Group IAP/APA Acute Pancreatitis Guidelines
Pancreatology. 2013 Jul-Aug;13(4 Suppl 2):e1-15.

Rationale for inclusion: 38 recommendations (most 'strong' per GRADE) on 12 topics - diagnostics/prognostics, imaging, fluids, ICU management, prevention of infection, nutritional support, biliary tract management, indications/timing/strategies for intervention, timing of cholecyestecomy.

Citations - 39 (as of July 2017)

Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for refractory cardiovascular dysfunction during severe bacterial septic shock.
Bréchot N, Luyt CE, Schmidt M, Leprince P, Trouillet JL, Léger P, Pavie A, Chastre J, Combes A.
Crit Care Med. 2013 Jul;41(7):1616-26. d

Rationale for inclusion: VA ECMO in cardiac failure due to septic shock.

Citations - 108 (as of July 2017)

Prone positioning in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Guérin C, Reignier J, Richard JC, Beuret P, Gacouin A, Boulain T, Mercier E, Badet M, Mercat A, Baudin O, Clavel M, Chatellier D, Jaber S, Rosselli S, Mancebo J, Sirodot M, Hilbert G, Bengler C, Richecoeur J, Gainnier M, Bayle F, Bourdin G, Leray V, Girard R, Baboi L, Ayzac L; PROSEVA Study Group.
N Engl J Med. 2013 Jun 6;368(23):2159-68.

Rationale for inclusion: The last word on prone positioning - in favor of early prone positioning for ARDS.

Citations - 975 (as of July 2017)

Effect of early vs late tracheostomy placement on survival in patients receiving mechanical ventilation: the TracMan randomized trial.
Young D, Harrison DA, Cuthbertson BH, Rowan K; TracMan Collaborators.
JAMA. 2013 May 22;309(20):2121-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Already #1 on the list in this area.

Citations - 219 (as of July 2017)

Postoperative complications in obstructive sleep apnea.
Mador MJ, Goplani S, Gottumukkala VA, El-Solh AA, Akashdeep K, Khadka G, Abo-Khamis M.
Sleep Breath. 2013 May;17(2):727-34.

Rationale for inclusion: This study describes the importance of OSA and its ill-toward effects on ICU outcome.

Citations - 30 (as of July 2017)

Extracorporeal albumin dialysis with the molecular adsorbent recirculating system in acute-on-chronic liver failure: the RELIEF trial.
Bañares R, Nevens F, Larsen FS, Jalan R, Albillos A, Dollinger M, Saliba F, Sauerbruch T, Klammt S, Ockenga J, Pares A, Wendon J, Brünnler T, Kramer L, Mathurin P, de la Mata M, Gasbarrini A, Müllhaupt B, Wilmer A, Laleman W, Eefsen M, Sen S, Zipprich A, Tenorio T, Pavesi M, Schmidt HH, Mitzner S, Williams R, Arroyo V; RELIEF study group.
Hepatology. 2013 Mar;57(3):1153-62.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the RELIEF trial, which showed no change in 28 day mortality from ACLF.

Citations - 227 (as of July 2017)

Severe sepsis and septic shock in pregnancy: indications for delivery and maternal and perinatal outcomes.
Snyder CC, Barton JR, Habli M, Sibai BM.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Mar;26(5):503-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Observational study of sepsis in pregnancy

Citations - 21 (as of July 2017)

Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients.
Perel P, Roberts I, Ker K.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Feb 28;(2):CD000567.

Rationale for inclusion: Recent Cochrane review of RCT evaluating crystalloids vs colloids.

Citations - 647 (as of July 2017)

High-frequency oscillation in early acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Ferguson ND, Cook DJ, Guyatt GH, Mehta S, Hand L, Austin P, Zhou Q, Matte A, Walter SD, Lamontagne F, Granton JT, Arabi YM, Arroliga AC, Stewart TE, Slutsky AS, Meade MO; OSCILLATE Trial Investigators; Canadian Critical Care Trials Group.
N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 28;368(9):795-805.

Rationale for inclusion: With the Young study, one of the articles that ended trials on HFOV.

Citations - 471 (as of July 2017)

Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012.
Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A, Annane D, Gerlach H, Opal SM, Sevransky JE, Sprung CL, Douglas IS, Jaeschke R, Osborn TM, Nunnally ME, Townsend SR, Reinhart K, Kleinpell RM, Angus DC, Deutschman CS, Machado FR, Rubenfeld GD, Webb SA, Beale RJ, Vincent JL, Moreno R; Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including the Pediatric Subgroup.
Crit Care Med. 2013 Feb;41(2):580-637.

Rationale for inclusion: Contemporary (2013) comprehensive sepsis guidelines by the socitey of critical care medicine.

Citations - 7163 (as of July 2017)

Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a distinct syndrome that develops in patients with acute decompensation of cirrhosis.
Moreau R, Jalan R, Gines P, Pavesi M, Angeli P, Cordoba J, Durand F, Gustot T, Saliba F, Domenicali M, Gerbes A, Wendon J, Alessandria C, Laleman W, Zeuzem S, Trebicka J, Bernardi M, Arroyo V; CANONIC Study Investigators of the EASL–CLIF Consortium.
Gastroenterology. 2013 Jun;144(7):1426-37, 1437.e1-9.

Rationale for inclusion: This article established the criteria and staging scores for ACLF - this is a paper from the EASL-CLIF consortium.

Citations - 608 (as of July 2017)

Fluctuations in serum sodium level are associated with an increased risk of death in surgical ICU patients.
Sakr Y, Rother S, Ferreira AM, Ewald C, Dünisch P, Riedemmann N, Reinhart K.
Crit Care Med. 2013 Jan;41(1):133-42.

Rationale for inclusion: Dysnatremia associated with increased mortality risk in SICU.

Citations - 56 (as of July 2017)

Determinant-based classification of acute pancreatitis severity: an international multidisciplinary consultation.
Dellinger EP, Forsmark CE, Layer P, Lévy P, Maraví-Poma E, Petrov MS, Shimosegawa T, Siriwardena AK, Uomo G, Whitcomb DC, Windsor JA; Pancreatitis Across Nations Clinical Research and Education Alliance (PANCREA).
Ann Surg. 2012 Dec;256(6):875-80.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the PANCREA group's determinant-based classification (or DBC in some references) for acute pancreatitis.  Classification (mild, moderate, severe, and critical) is based on the presence or absence of infected pancreatic necrosis and organ failure.

Citations - 249 (as of July 2017)

Hydroxyethyl starch or saline for fluid resuscitation in intensive care.
Myburgh JA, Finfer S, Bellomo R, Billot L, Cass A, Gattas D, Glass P, Lipman J, Liu B, McArthur C, McGuinness S, Rajbhandari D, Taylor CB, Webb SA; CHEST Investigators; Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group.
N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 15;367(20):1901-11.

Rationale for inclusion: HES associated with increased need for CRRT but not mortality.

Citations - 1057 (as of July 2017)

Hydroxyethyl starch or saline for fluid resuscitation in intensive care.
Myburgh JA, Finfer S, Bellomo R, Billot L, Cass A, Gattas D, Glass P, Lipman J, Liu B, McArthur C, McGuinness S, Rajbhandari D, Taylor CB, Webb SA; CHEST Investigators; Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group.
N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 15;367(20):1901-11.

Rationale for inclusion: HES associated with increased need for CRRT but not mortality

Citations - 1057 (as of July 2017)

Hydroxyethyl starch or saline for fluid resuscitation in intensive care.
Myburgh JA, Finfer S, Bellomo R, Billot L, Cass A, Gattas D, Glass P, Lipman J, Liu B, McArthur C, McGuinness S, Rajbhandari D, Taylor CB, Webb SA; CHEST Investigators; Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group.
N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 15;367(20):1901-11.

Rationale for inclusion: No difference in mortality but increase RRT in HES patients.

Citations - 1057 (as of July 2017)

Evaluation and management of geriatric trauma: an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline.
Calland JF, Ingraham AM, Martin N, Marshall GT, Schulman CI, Stapleton T, Barraco RD; Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Nov;73(5 Suppl 4):S345-50.

Rationale for inclusion: EAST guideline on geriatric trauma which discusses the induced coagulopathies of pharmacy.

Citations - 82 (as of July 2017)

Fluid overload is associated with an increased risk for 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with renal replacement therapy: data from the prospective FINNAKI study.
Vaara ST, Korhonen AM, Kaukonen KM, Nisula S, Inkinen O, Hoppu S, Laurila JJ, Mildh L, Reinikainen M, Lund V, Parviainen I, Pettilä V; FINNAKI Study Group.
Crit Care. 2012 Oct 17;16(5):R197.

Rationale for inclusion: Significant increase in mortality in ICU patients with volume overload at initiation of CRRT.

Citations - 147 (as of July 2017)

Fluid overload is associated with an increased risk for 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with renal replacement therapy: data from the prospective FINNAKI study.
Vaara ST, Korhonen AM, Kaukonen KM, Nisula S, Inkinen O, Hoppu S, Laurila JJ, Mildh L, Reinikainen M, Lund V, Parviainen I, Pettilä V; FINNAKI Study Group.
Crit Care. 2012 Oct 17;16(5):R197.

Rationale for inclusion: Significant increase in mortality in ICU patients with volume overload at initiation of CRRT.

Citations - 148 (as of July 2017)

Association between a chloride-liberal vs chloride-restrictive intravenous fluid administration strategy and kidney injury in critically ill adults.
Yunos NM, Bellomo R, Hegarty C, Story D, Ho L, Bailey M.
JAMA. 2012 Oct 17;308(15):1566-72.

Rationale for inclusion: Chloride restrictive IVF associated with decreased risk of AKI and CRRT.

Citations - 591 (as of July 2017)

The Berlin definition of ARDS: an expanded rationale, justification, and supplementary material.
Ferguson ND, Fan E, Camporota L, Antonelli M, Anzueto A, Beale R, Brochard L, Brower R, Esteban A, Gattinoni L, Rhodes A, Slutsky AS, Vincent JL, Rubenfeld GD, Thompson BT, Ranieri VM.
Intensive Care Med. 2012 Oct;38(10):1573-82.

Rationale for inclusion: The Berlin criteria for ALI and ARDS.

Citations - 535 (as of July 2017)

Hypoglycemia and risk of death in critically ill patients.
NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators, Finfer S, Liu B, Chittock DR, Norton R, Myburgh JA, McArthur C, Mitchell I, Foster D, Dhingra V, Henderson WR, Ronco JJ, Bellomo R, Cook D, McDonald E, Dodek P, Hébert PC, Heyland DK, Robinson BG.
N Engl J Med. 2012 Sep 20;367(12):1108-18.

Rationale for inclusion: Association between hypoglycemia seen in intensive glycemic control and mortality.

Citations - 479 (as of July 2017)

Procalcitonin usefulness for the initiation of antibiotic treatment in intensive care unit patients.
Layios N, Lambermont B, Canivet JL, Morimont P, Preiser JC, Garweg C, Ledoux D, Frippiat F, Piret S, Giot JB, Wiesen P, Meuris C, Massion P, Leonard P, Nys M, Lancellotti P, Chapelle JP, Damas P.
Crit Care Med. 2012 Aug;40(8):2304-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Landmark article describing the use of Procalcitonin and determination for need of antibiotics in the critical care setting.

Citations - 65 (as of July 2017)

Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer's acetate in severe sepsis.
Perner A, Haase N, Guttormsen AB, Tenhunen J, Klemenzson G, Åneman A, Madsen KR, Møller MH, Elkjær JM, Poulsen LM, Bendtsen A, Winding R, Steensen M, Berezowicz P, Søe-Jensen P, Bestle M, Strand K, Wiis J, White JO, Thornberg KJ, Quist L, Nielsen J, Andersen LH, Holst LB, Thormar K, Kjældgaard AL, Fabritius ML, Mondrup F, Pott FC, Møller TP, Winkel P, Wetterslev J; 6S Trial Group; Scandinavian Critical Care Trials Group.
N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 12;367(2):124-34.

Rationale for inclusion: HES associated with increased mortality and renal failure.

Citations - 1224 (as of July 2017)

Regional citrate versus heparin anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Wu MY, Hsu YH, Bai CH, Lin YF, Wu CH, Tam KW.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2012 Jun;59(6):810-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Citrate is associated with decreased bleeding in patients requiring CRRT.

Citations - 126 (as of July 2017)

Acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in obstetrics: a tertiary centre population review (1980 to 2009).
Rattray DD, O'Connell CM, Baskett TF.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2012 Apr;34(4):341-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Risk factors of DIC in pregnancy

Citations - 50 (as of July 2017)

Effects of fractionated plasma separation and adsorption on survival in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.
Kribben A, Gerken G, Haag S, Herget-Rosenthal S, Treichel U, Betz C, Sarrazin C, Hoste E, Van Vlierberghe H, Escorsell A, Hafer C, Schreiner O, Galle PR, Mancini E, Caraceni P, Karvellas CJ, Salmhofer H, Knotek M, Ginès P, Kozik-Jaromin J, Rifai K; HELIOS Study Group.
Gastroenterology. 2012 Apr;142(4):782-789.e3.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the HELIOS trial - which showed no change in 28 day or 90 day mortality from ACLF.

Citations - 189 (as of July 2017)

Economic impact of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a large matched cohort.
Kollef MH, Hamilton CW, Ernst FR.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012 Mar;33(3):250-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Well done description of the cost of VAP to the hospital admission.

Citations - 169 (as of July 2017)

2012 HRS/EHRA/ECAS expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: recommendations for patient selection, procedural techniques, patient management and follow-up, definitions, endpoints, and research trial design.
Calkins H, Kuck KH, Cappato R, Brugada J, Camm AJ, Chen SA, Crijns HJ, Damiano RJ Jr, Davies DW, DiMarco J, Edgerton J, Ellenbogen K, Ezekowitz MD, Haines DE, Haissaguerre M, Hindricks G, Iesaka Y, Jackman W, Jalife J, Jais P, Kalman J, Keane D, Kim YH, Kirchhof P, Klein G, Kottkamp H, Kumagai K, Lindsay BD, Mansour M, Marchlinski FE, McCarthy PM, Mont JL, Morady F, Nademanee K, Nakagawa H, Natale A, Nattel S, Packer DL, Pappone C, Prystowsky E, Raviele A, Reddy V, Ruskin JN, Shemin RJ, Tsao HM, Wilber D.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2012 Mar;33(2):171-257.

Rationale for inclusion: Guidelines for surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation. 

Citations - 2388 (as of July 2017)

Prevention of VTE in orthopedic surgery patients: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines.
Falck-Ytter Y, Francis CW, Johanson NA, Curley C, Dahl OE, Schulman S, Ortel TL, Pauker SG, Colwell CW Jr.
Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 Suppl):e278S-325S.

Rationale for inclusion: Chest guidelines for prevention of VTE in ortho patients.

Citations - 1020 (as of July 2017)

Prevention of VTE in nonorthopedic surgical patients: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines.
Gould MK, Garcia DA, Wren SM, Karanicolas PJ, Arcelus JI, Heit JA, Samama CM.
Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 Suppl):e227S-77S.

Rationale for inclusion: Chest guidelines for prevention of VTE in non-ortho patients.

Citations - 934 (as of July 2017)

Immunosuppression in patients who die of sepsis and multiple organ failure.
Boomer JS, To K, Chang KC, Takasu O, Osborne DF, Walton AH, Bricker TL, Jarman SD 2nd, Kreisel D, Krupnick AS, Srivastava A, Swanson PE, Green JM, Hotchkiss RS.
JAMA. 2011 Dec 21;306(23):2594-605.

Rationale for inclusion: Immunosuppression in sepsis that resulted in death

Citations - 666 (as of July 2017)

Effectiveness of classroom based crew resource management training in the intensive care unit: study design of a controlled trial.
Kemper PF, de Bruijne M, van Dyck C, Wagner C.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2011 Nov 10;11:304.

Rationale for inclusion: Crew resource management strategies in the ICU

Citations - 23 (as of July 2017)

Predictors of successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) weaning after assistance for refractory cardiogenic shock.
Aissaoui N, Luyt CE, Leprince P, Trouillet JL, Léger P, Pavie A, Diebold B, Chastre J, Combes A.
Intensive Care Med. 2011 Nov;37(11):1738-45.

Rationale for inclusion: Predictors for successful weaning off ECMO for cardiogenic shock.

Citations - 100 (as of July 2017)

Reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care: impact of implementing a care bundle.
Morris AC, Hay AW, Swann DG, Everingham K, McCulloch C, McNulty J, Brooks O, Laurenson IF, Cook B, Walsh TS.
Crit Care Med. 2011 Oct;39(10):2218-24.

Rationale for inclusion: VAP Bundle in the ICU.

Citations - 176 (as of July 2017)

Position article for the use of extracorporeal life support in adult patients.
Beckmann A, Benk C, Beyersdorf F, Haimerl G, Merkle F, Mestres C, Pepper J, Wahba A; ECLS Working Group.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011 Sep;40(3):676-80.

Rationale for inclusion: Position article for the use of extracorporeal life support in adult patients.

Citations - 84 (as of July 2017)

Characteristics and outcomes of ventilated patients according to time to liberation from mechanical ventilation.
Peñuelas O, Frutos-Vivar F, Fernández C, Anzueto A, Epstein SK, Apezteguía C, González M, Nin N, Raymondos K, Tomicic V, Desmery P, Arabi Y, Pelosi P, Kuiper M, Jibaja M, Matamis D, Ferguson ND, Esteban A; Ventila Group.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Aug 15;184(4):430-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Organizes patient outcomes by weaning classification (2400 patients in multicenter trial).

Citations - 148 (as of July 2017)

Long-term impact of damage control laparotomy: a prospective study.
Brenner M, Bochicchio G, Bochicchio K, Ilahi O, Rodriguez E, Henry S, Joshi M, Scalea T.
Arch Surg. 2011 Apr;146(4):395-9.

Rationale for inclusion: 5-year prospective follow up of 88 patients (63 survivors, 58 who had mesh).  66 ventral hernia repairs done.  51 of 63 returned to full work and ADLs.  Notable also for many historic references.

Citations - 39 (as of July 2017)

Fluid resuscitation in septic shock: a positive fluid balance and elevated central venous pressure are associated with increased mortality.
Boyd JH, Forbes J, Nakada TA, Walley KR, Russell JA.
Crit Care Med. 2011 Feb;39(2):259-65.

Rationale for inclusion: Positive fluid balance associated with increased mortality.

Citations - 818 (as of July 2017)

Fluid resuscitation in septic shock: a positive fluid balance and elevated central venous pressure are associated with increased mortality.
Boyd JH, Forbes J, Nakada TA, Walley KR, Russell JA.
Crit Care Med. 2011 Feb;39(2):259-65.

Rationale for inclusion: Over-resuscitation is bad!

Citations - 818 (as of July 2017)

Fluid resuscitation in septic shock: a positive fluid balance and elevated central venous pressure are associated with increased mortality.
Boyd JH1, Forbes J, Nakada TA, Walley KR, Russell JA.
Crit Care Med. 2011 Feb;39(2):259-65.

Rationale for inclusion:  Positive fluid balance associated with increased mortality

Citations - 818 (as of July 217)

One thousand bedside percutaneous tracheostomies in the surgical intensive care unit: time to change the gold standard.
Kornblith LZ, Burlew CC, Moore EE, Haenel JB, Kashuk JL, Biffl WL, Barnett CC, Johnson JL.
J Am Coll Surg. 2011 Feb;212(2):163-70.

Rationale for inclusion: Very large patient cohort of perc trachs. The last word.

Citations - 88 (as of July 2017)

Fluid resuscitation in septic shock: a positive fluid balance and elevated central venous pressure are associated with increased mortality.
Boyd JH, Forbes J, Nakada TA, Walley KR, Russell JA.
Crit Care Med. 2011 Feb;39(2):259-65.

Rationale for inclusion: Effect of positive fluids balance in the ICU on mortality.

Citations - 818 (as of July 2017)

Incidence and clinical predictors for tracheostomy after cervical spinal cord injury: a National Trauma Databank review.
Branco BC, Plurad D, Green DJ, Inaba K, Lam L, Cestero R, Bukur M, Demetriades D.
J Trauma. 2011 Jan;70(1):111-5.

Rationale for inclusion: NTDB review giving light to tracheostomy needs following SCI.

Citations - 54 (as of July 2017)

Early use of TIPS in patients with cirrhosis and variceal bleeding.
García-Pagán JC, Bosch J.
Ann Intern Med. 2010 Nov 16;153(10):JC5-13; author reply JC5-13.

Rationale for inclusion: Early randomized trial on TIPS, showing decreased treatment failure and decreased mortality.

Citations - 668 (as of July 2017)

"Damage control" in the elderly: futile endeavor or fruitful enterprise?
Newell MA, Schlitzkus LL, Waibel BH, White MA, Schenarts PJ, Rotondo MF.
J Trauma. 2010 Nov;69(5):1049-53.

Rationale for inclusion: "Elderly" was defined as age 55 or older.  In a single center survey of 62 patients, the elderly had similar ISS, RBC, and complications but a mortality of 43%.  This was actually encouraging to the study group, who had expected far higher mortality.

Citations - 6 (as of July 2017)

Transfusion requirements after cardiac surgery: the TRACS randomized controlled trial.
Hajjar LA, Vincent JL, Galas FR, Nakamura RE, Silva CM, Santos MH, Fukushima J, Kalil Filho R, Sierra DB, Lopes NH, Mauad T, Roquim AC, Sundin MR, Leão WC, Almeida JP, Pomerantzeff PM, Dallan LO, Jatene FB, Stolf NA, Auler JO Jr.
JAMA. 2010 Oct 13;304(14):1559-67.

Rationale for inclusion: The TRACS trial, the cardiac surgery version of the TRICC trial

Citations - 619 (as of July 2017)

Multicenter analysis of diaphragm pacing in tetraplegics with cardiac pacemakers: positive implications for ventilator weaning in intensive care units.
Onders RP, Khansarinia S, Weiser T, Chin C, Hungness E, Soper N, Dehoyos A, Cole T, Ducko C.
Surgery. 2010 Oct;148(4):893-7; discussion 897-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Diaphragmatic pacing following SCI is at its infancy in terms of use but this paper describes its use.

Citations - 35 (as of July 2017)

A systematic method for follow-up improves removal rates for retrievable inferior vena cava filters in a trauma patient population.
Irwin E, Byrnes M, Schultz S, Chipman J, Beal A, Ahrendt M, Beilman G, Croston JK.
J Trauma. 2010 Oct;69(4):866-9.

Rationale for inclusion: A patient safety approach to IVC filter manegment to ensure timely removal when no longer indicated

Citations - 26 (as of July 2017)

Neuromuscular blockers in early acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Papazian L, Forel JM, Gacouin A, Penot-Ragon C, Perrin G, Loundou A, Jaber S, Arnal JM, Perez D, Seghboyan JM, Constantin JM, Courant P, Lefrant JY, Guérin C, Prat G, Morange S, Roch A; ACURASYS Study Investigators.
N Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 16;363(12):1107-16.

Rationale for inclusion: Early use of NMBA decreases vent days, mortality and has no effect on ICU acquired weakness.

Citations - 1084 (as of July 2017)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes: the future of COPD.
Han MK, Agusti A, Calverley PM, Celli BR, Criner G, Curtis JL, Fabbri LM, Goldin JG, Jones PW, Macnee W, Make BJ, Rabe KF, Rennard SI, Sciurba FC, Silverman EK, Vestbo J, Washko GR, Wouters EF, Martinez FJ.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Sep 1;182(5):598-604.

Rationale for inclusion: Excellent description of the different phenotypes of COPD.

Citations - 812 (as of July 2017)

Results of the CONTROL trial: efficacy and safety of recombinant activated Factor VII in the management of refractory traumatic hemorrhage.
Hauser CJ, Boffard K, Dutton R, Bernard GR, Croce MA, Holcomb JB, Leppaniemi A, Parr M, Vincent JL, Tortella BJ, Dimsits J, Bouillon B; CONTROL Study Group.
J Trauma. 2010 Sep;69(3):489-500.

Rationale for inclusion: Highly referenced article on the use of Factor VII in traumatic hemmorrhage

Citations - 285 (as of July 2017)

A prospective multicenter study of adrenal function in critically ill children.
Menon K, Ward RE, Lawson ML, Gaboury I, Hutchison JS, Hébert PC; Canadian Critical Care Trials Group.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Jul 15;182(2):246-51.

Rationale for inclusion: PEDIATRICS: Prospective observational study - prevalence 30.2% in peds ICU patients

Citations - 78 (as of July 2017)

Delirium as a predictor of long-term cognitive impairment in survivors of critical illness.
Girard TD, Jackson JC, Pandharipande PP, Pun BT, Thompson JL, Shintani AK, Gordon SM, Canonico AE, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW.
Crit Care Med. 2010 Jul;38(7):1513-20.

Rationale for inclusion: Most referenced paper on how delerium predicts PICS

Citations - 569 (as of July 2017)

Standard prophylactic enoxaparin dosing leads to inadequate anti-Xa levels and increased deep venous thrombosis rates in critically ill trauma and surgical patients.
Malinoski D, Jafari F, Ewing T, Ardary C, Conniff H, Baje M, Kong A, Lekawa ME, Dolich MO, Cinat ME, Barrios C, Hoyt DB.
J Trauma. 2010 Apr;68(4):874-80.

Rationale for inclusion: Highly referenced article on the use of Factor VII in traumatic hemmorrhage

Citations - 72 (as of July 2017)

Standard prophylactic enoxaparin dosing leads to inadequate anti-Xa levels and increased deep venous thrombosis rates in critically ill trauma and surgical patients.
Malinoski D, Jafari F, Ewing T, Ardary C, Conniff H, Baje M, Kong A, Lekawa ME, Dolich MO, Cinat ME, Barrios C, Hoyt DB.
J Trauma. 2010 Apr;68(4):874-80.

Rationale for inclusion: Standard lovenox dosing may not be adaquate; this paper describes the use of tracking Xa levels

Citations - 72 (as of July 2017)

The efficacy and safety of proton pump inhibitors vs histamine-2 receptor antagonists for stress ulcer bleeding prophylaxis among critical care patients: a meta-analysis.
Lin PC, Chang CH, Hsu PI, Tseng PL, Huang YB.
Crit Care Med. 2010 Apr;38(4):1197-205.

Rationale for inclusion: The most recent meta-analysis on PPI versus H2B.

Citations - 161 (as of July 2017)

Glucose variability is associated with intensive care unit mortality.
Hermanides J, Vriesendorp TM, Bosman RJ, Zandstra DF, Hoekstra JB, Devries JH.
Crit Care Med. 2010 Mar;38(3):838-42.

Rationale for inclusion: Strong association of glucose variability and mortality.

Citations - 264 (as of July 2017)

Agreement between central venous and arterial blood gas measurements in the intensive care unit.
Treger R, Pirouz S, Kamangar N, Corry D.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Mar;5(3):390-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison between venous and arterial ABG measurements and develoment of equations to predict arterial ABG from venous ABG.

Citations - 57 (as of July 20017)

Intensive care diaries reduce new onset post traumatic stress disorder following critical illness: a randomised, controlled trial.
Jones C, Bäckman C, Capuzzo M, Egerod I, Flaatten H, Granja C, Rylander C, Griffiths RD; RACHEL group.
Crit Care. 2010;14(5):R168.

Rationale for inclusion: This article likely popularized the common practices of journaling during an ICU stay to decrease PICS.

Citations - 224 (as of July 2017)

Thrombocytopenia in the intensive care unit patient.
Greinacher A, Selleng K.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2010;2010:135-43.

Rationale for inclusion: Well-referenced paper on thrombocytopenia and the management thereof

Citations - 105 (as of July 2017)

Haemodynamic optimisation improves tissue microvascular flow and oxygenation after major surgery: a randomised controlled trial.
Jhanji S, Vivian-Smith A, Lucena-Amaro S, Watson D, Hinds CJ, Pearse RM.
Crit Care. 2010;14(4):R151.

Citations - 128 (as of July 2017)

Maternal and fetal outcome of pregnancy complicated by HELLP syndrome.
Gasem T, Al Jama FE, Burshaid S, Rahman J, Al Suleiman SA, Rahman MS.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009 Dec;22(12):1140-3.

Rationale for inclusion: Observational study of pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome

Citations - 37 (as of July 2017)

A ten-year review of enterocutaneous fistulas after laparotomy for trauma.
Fischer PE, Fabian TC, Magnotti LJ, Schroeppel TJ, Bee TK, Maish GO 3rd, Savage SA, Laing AE, Barker AB, Croce MA.
J Trauma. 2009 Nov;67(5):924-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Similar to LA County's nearly simultaneous review but slightly larger (2,224 patients who had survived 96 hours).  Overall ECF rate was 2%, which rose to 8% in the open abdomen population.  ECF patients had 14% mortality and an average ICU stay of 59 days.

Citations - 66 (as of July 2017)

Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for adults in cardiac arrest (E-CPR): a meta-analysis of observational studies.
Cardarelli MG, Young AJ, Griffith B.
ASAIO J. 2009 Nov-Dec;55(6):581-6.

Rationale for inclusion: ECPR metaanalysis.

Citations - 101 (as of July 2017)

Tidal volume lower than 6 ml/kg enhances lung protection: role of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal.
Terragni PP, Del Sorbo L, Mascia L, Urbino R, Martin EL, Birocco A, Faggiano C, Quintel M, Gattinoni L, Ranieri VM.
Anesthesiology. 2009 Oct;111(4):826-35.

Rationale for inclusion: Lung protection with low volume ventilation during ECCO2R.

Citations - 383 (as of July 2017)

Early exercise in critically ill patients enhances short-term functional recovery.
Burtin C, Clerckx B, Robbeets C, Ferdinande P, Langer D, Troosters T, Hermans G, Decramer M, Gosselink R.
Crit Care Med. 2009 Sep;37(9):2499-505.

Rationale for inclusion: Early mobilization in the ICU improves functional recovery after critical illness.

Citations - 605 (as of July 2017)

A fate worse than death? Long-term outcome of trauma patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit.
Livingston DH1, Tripp T, Biggs C, Lavery RF.
J Trauma. 2009 Aug;67(2):341-8; discussion 348-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Trauma specific paper on long-term outcomes following prolonged ICU stays

Citations - 109 (as of July 2017)

Thromboelastography as a better indicator of hypercoagulable state after injury than prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time.
Park MS, Martini WZ, Dubick MA, Salinas J, Butenas S, Kheirabadi BS, Pusateri AE, Vos JA, Guymon CH, Wolf SE, Mann KG, Holcomb JB.
J Trauma. 2009 Aug;67(2):266-75; discussion 275-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Excellent description on discerning hypercoagulable states using TEG

Citations - 228 (as of July 2017)

Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a randomised controlled trial.
Schweickert WD, Pohlman MC, Pohlman AS, Nigos C, Pawlik AJ, Esbrook CL, Spears L, Miller M, Franczyk M, Deprizio D, Schmidt GA, Bowman A, Barr R, McCallister KE, Hall JB, Kress JP.
Lancet. 2009 May 30;373(9678):1874-82.

Rationale for inclusion: Best early evidence for mobility in the ICU.

Citations - 1750 (as of July 2017)

American College of Chest Physicians/La Société de Réanimation de Langue Française statement on competence in critical care ultrasonography.
Mayo PH, Beaulieu Y, Doelken P, Feller-Kopman D, Harrod C, Kaplan A, Oropello J, Vieillard-Baron A, Axler O, Lichtenstein D, Maury E, Slama M, Vignon P.
Chest. 2009 Apr;135(4):1050-60.

Rationale for inclusion: Guidelines for use of bedside US in the assessment of resuscitation of ICU patients. 

Citations - 386 (as of July 2017)

A physicochemical approach to acid-base balance in critically ill trauma patients minimizes errors and reduces inappropriate plasma volume expansion.
Kaplan LJ, Cheung NH, Maerz L, Lui F, Schuster K, Luckianow G, Davis K.
J Trauma. 2009 Apr;66(4):1045-51.

Rationale for inclusion: Convential and physiochemical approach to acid base balance assessment in critically ill trauma patients.

Citations - 21 (as of July 2017)

Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients.
NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators, Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, Blair D, Foster D, Dhingra V, Bellomo R, Cook D, Dodek P, Henderson WR, Hébert PC, Heritier S, Heyland DK, McArthur C, McDonald E, Mitchell I, Myburgh JA, Norton R, Potter J, Robinson BG, Ronco JJ.
N Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13):1283-97.

Rationale for inclusion: NICE-SUGAR study: increased mortality in intensive glucose control.

Citations - 3909 (as of July 2017)

Timing of renal replacement therapy and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury.
Bagshaw SM, Uchino S, Bellomo R, Morimatsu H, Morgera S, Schetz M, Tan I, Bouman C, Macedo E, Gibney N, Tolwani A, Oudemans-van Straaten HM, Ronco C, Kellum JA; Beginning and Ending Supportive Therapy for the Kidney (BEST Kidney) Investigators.
J Crit Care. 2009 Mar;24(1):129-40.

Rationale for inclusion: Delayed initiation of RRT is associated with increased mortality, longer duration of RRT, LOS and dialysis dependence.

Citations - 289 (as of July 2017)

Dexmedetomidine vs midazolam for sedation of critically ill patients: a randomized trial.
Riker RR, Shehabi Y, Bokesch PM, Ceraso D, Wisemandle W, Koura F, Whitten P, Margolis BD, Byrne DW, Ely EW, Rocha MG; SEDCOM (Safety and Efficacy of Dexmedetomidine Compared With Midazolam) Study Group.
JAMA. 2009 Feb 4;301(5):489-99.

Rationale for inclusion: One of the better head-to-head trials of dexmedetomidine vs versed in a RCT.

Citations - 1132 (as of July 2017)

Intermittent versus continuous renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury patients admitted to the intensive care unit: results of a randomized clinical trial.
Lins RL, Elseviers MM, Van der Niepen P, Hoste E, Malbrain ML, Damas P, Devriendt J; SHARF investigators.
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009 Feb;24(2):512-8.

Rationale for inclusion: RCT: No difference in mortality between HD and CRR.

Citations - 218 (as of July 2017)

Mechanical ventilation guided by esophageal pressure in acute lung injury.
Talmor D, Sarge T, Malhotra A, O'Donnell CR, Ritz R, Lisbon A, Novack V, Loring SH.
N Engl J Med. 2008 Nov 13;359(20):2095-104.

Rationale for inclusion: Strong early study on measurement of transpulmonary pressures to guide PEEP.

Citations - 599 (as of July 2017)

Glycemic variability: a strong independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients.
Krinsley JS.
Crit Care Med. 2008 Nov;36(11):3008-13.

Rationale for inclusion: Variation in glucose levels is independent factor of mortality in ICU  

Citations - 578 (as of July 2017)

Posttraumatic stress disorder in general intensive care unit survivors: a systematic review.
Davydow DS, Gifford JM, Desai SV, Needham DM, Bienvenu OJ.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2008 Sep-Oct;30(5):421-34.

Rationale for inclusion: Excellent correlation study between critical illness and PTSD

Citations - 404 (as of July 2017)

Adrenal suppression following a single dose of etomidate for rapid sequence induction: a prospective randomized study.
Hildreth AN, Mejia VA, Maxwell RA, Smith PW, Dart BW, Barker DE.
J Trauma. 2008 Sep;65(3):573-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Single dose Etomidate associated with adrenal inhibition, ICU stay, and vent days in trauma patients.

Citations - 162 (as of July 2017)

Benefits and risks of tight glucose control in critically ill adults: a meta-analysis.
Wiener RS, Wiener DC, Larson RJ.
JAMA. 2008 Aug 27;300(8):933-44.

Rationale for inclusion: Meta analysis showing effect of tight glycemic control on episodes of hypoglycemia and no decreased mortality.

Citations - 1062 (as of July 2017)

Silver-coated endotracheal tubes and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia: the NASCENT randomized trial.
Kollef MH, Afessa B, Anzueto A, Veremakis C, Kerr KM, Margolis BD, Craven DE, Roberts PR, Arroliga AC, Hubmayr RD, Restrepo MI, Auger WR, Schinner R; NASCENT Investigation Group.
JAMA. 2008 Aug 20;300(7):805-13.

Rationale for inclusion: Silver coated ET tubes reduce risk of pneumonia.

Citations - 470 (as of July 2017)

Timing of renal replacement therapy initiation in acute renal failure: a meta-analysis.
Seabra VF, Balk EM, Liangos O, Sosa MA, Cendoroglo M, Jaber BL.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2008 Aug;52(2):272-84.

Rationale for inclusion: Meta-analysis: Improved survival in early RRT.

Citations - 268 (as of July 2017)

Early complications of high-dose methylprednisolone in acute spinal cord injury patients.
Suberviola B, González-Castro A, Llorca J, Ortiz-Melón F, Miñambres E.
Injury. 2008 Jul;39(7):748-52.

Rationale for inclusion: This paper supported the major change in practice away from giving steroids to all SCI patients.

Citations - 91 (as of July 2017)

Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine.
Marik PE, Pastores SM, Annane D, Meduri GU, Sprung CL, Arlt W, Keh D, Briegel J, Beishuizen A, Dimopoulou I, Tsagarakis S, Singer M, Chrousos GP, Zaloga G, Bokhari F, Vogeser M; American College of Critical Care Medicine.
Crit Care Med. 2008 Jun;36(6):1937-49.

Rationale for inclusion: A concensus statement on the diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency.

Citations - 776 (as of July 2017)

Changing the culture around end-of-life care in the trauma intensive care unit.
Mosenthal AC, Murphy PA, Barker LK, Lavery R, Retano A, Livingston DH.
J Trauma. 2008 Jun;64(6):1587-93.

Rationale for inclusion: Trauma -specific paper on end-of-life care in the ICU

Citations - 125 (as of July 2017)

Duration of adrenal inhibition following a single dose of etomidate in critically ill patients.
Vinclair M, Broux C, Faure P, Brun J, Genty C, Jacquot C, Chabre O, Payen JF.
Intensive Care Med. 2008 Apr;34(4):714-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Single dose Etomidate associated with adrenal inhibition for 48 hours.

Citations - 167 (as of July 2017)

Randomized trial of combination versus monotherapy for the empiric treatment of suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Heyland DK, Dodek P, Muscedere J, Day A, Cook D; Canadian Critical Care Trials Group.
Crit Care Med. 2008 Mar;36(3):737-44.

Rationale for inclusion: Adequacy of monotherapy in VAP with low risk of difficult to treat gram negative infection. 

Citations - 193 (as of July 2017)

Impact of inappropriate antibiotic therapy on mortality in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and blood stream infection: a meta-analysis.
Kuti EL, Patel AA, Coleman CI.
J Crit Care. 2008 Mar;23(1):91-100.

Rationale for inclusion: Meta-analysis of the impact of inappropriate initial antibiotics on mortality.

Citations - 110 (as of July 2017)

Ventilation strategy using low tidal volumes, recruitment maneuvers, and high positive end-expiratory pressure for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.
Meade MO, Cook DJ, Guyatt GH, Slutsky AS, Arabi YM, Cooper DJ, Davies AR, Hand LE, Zhou Q, Thabane L, Austin P, Lapinsky S, Baxter A, Russell J, Skrobik Y, Ronco JJ, Stewart TE; Lung Open Ventilation Study Investigators.
JAMA. 2008 Feb 13;299(6):637-45.

Rationale for inclusion: The study which sums up the open lung approach to date.

Citations - 988 (as of July 2017)

Efficacy and safety of a paired sedation and ventilator weaning protocol for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care (Awakening and Breathing Controlled trial): a randomised controlled trial.
Girard TD, Kress JP, Fuchs BD, Thomason JW, Schweickert WD, Pun BT, Taichman DB, Dunn JG, Pohlman AS, Kinniry PA, Jackson JC, Canonico AE, Light RW, Shintani AK, Thompson JL, Gordon SM, Hall JB, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW.
Lancet. 2008 Jan 12;371(9607):126-34.

Rationale for inclusion: Sedation cessation paired with spontaneous breathing trials - the backbone of today's ICU liberation protocols.

Citations - 1426 (as of July 2017)

Efficacy and safety of a paired sedation and ventilator weaning protocol for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care (Awakening and Breathing Controlled trial): a randomised controlled trial.
Girard TD, Kress JP, Fuchs BD, Thomason JW, Schweickert WD, Pun BT, Taichman DB, Dunn JG, Pohlman AS, Kinniry PA, Jackson JC, Canonico AE, Light RW, Shintani AK, Thompson JL, Gordon SM, Hall JB, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW.
Lancet. 2008 Jan 12;371(9607):126-34.

Rationale for inclusion: Original "Wake up and Breath" trial.

Citations - 1426 (as of July 2017)

Fresh whole blood transfusions in coalition military, foreign national, and enemy combatant patients during Operation Iraqi Freedom at a U.S. combat support hospital.
Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Grathwohl KW, Repine T, Beekley AC, Sebesta J, Jenkins D, Azarow K, Holcomb JB; 31st CSH Research Working Group.
World J Surg. 2008 Jan;32(1):2-6. Epub 2007 Nov 9.

Rationale for inclusion: Excellent results of fresh whole blood for hemmorrhage resuscitation in the military

Citations - 58 (as of July 2017)

2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Health Care Settings.
Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L; Health Care Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee.
Am J Infect Control. 2007 Dec;35(10 Suppl 2):S65-164.

Rationale for inclusion: This article is the basis for today's broadly accepted Isolation Precautions.

Citations - 1625 (as of July 2017)

Oral or IV prednisolone in the treatment of COPD exacerbations: a randomized, controlled, double-blind study.
de Jong YP, Uil SM, Grotjohan HP, Postma DS, Kerstjens HA, van den Berg JW.
Chest. 2007 Dec;132(6):1741-7.

Rationale for inclusion: This study defines the role of steroids during a COPD exacerbation.

Citations - 123 (as of July 2017)

Acid-base disturbances in critically ill patients with cirrhosis.
Funk GC, Doberer D, Kneidinger N, Lindner G, Holzinger U, Schneeweiss B.
Liver Int. 2007 Sep;27(7):901-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Patients with cirrhosis have an AB equillibrium which is lost in critical illness - the resulting acidosis disturbance is associated with increased mortality.

Citations - 46 (as of July 2017)

Echocardiographic prediction of volume responsiveness in critically ill patients with spontaneously breathing activity.
Lamia B, Ochagavia A, Monnet X, Chemla D, Richard C, Teboul JL.
Intensive Care Med. 2007 Jul;33(7):1125-32.

Rationale for inclusion: Monitoring of volume responsiveness using echo and raise leg test. 

Citations - 237 (as of July 2017)

Continuous renal replacement therapy is associated with less chronic renal failure than intermittent haemodialysis after acute renal failure.
Bell M; SWING, Granath F, Schön S, Ekbom A, Martling CR.
Intensive Care Med. 2007 May;33(5):773-80.

Rationale for inclusion: Improved renal recovery in CRRT compared to IHD. No difference in mortality.

Citations - 209 (as of July 2017)

Relative adrenal insufficiency: an identifiable entity in nonseptic critically ill patients?
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 May;66(5):732-9. Epub 2007 Mar 23.
de Jong MF, Beishuizen A, Spijkstra JJ, Girbes AR, Groeneveld AB.

Rationale for inclusion: Steroid treatment did not change outcome in relative adrenal insufficiency in nonseptic ICU patients.

Citations - 12 (as of July 2017)

Adrenal function in sepsis: the retrospective Corticus cohort study.
Lipiner-Friedman D, Sprung CL, Laterre PF, Weiss Y, Goodman SV, Vogeser M, Briegel J, Keh D, Singer M, Moreno R, Bellissant E, Annane D; Corticus Study Group.
Crit Care Med. 2007 Apr;35(4):1012-8.

Rationale for inclusion: The classic CORTICUS Study: baseline cortisol less than 15 or deltamax <9 had higher likelihood of dying.

Citations - 219 (as of July 2017)

ProTECT: a randomized clinical trial of progesterone for acute traumatic brain injury.
Wright DW, Kellermann AL, Hertzberg VS, Clark PL, Frankel M, Goldstein FC, Salomone JP, Dent LL, Harris OA, Ander DS, Lowery DW, Patel MM, Denson DD, Gordon AB, Wald MM, Gupta S, Hoffman SW, Stein DG.
Ann Emerg Med. 2007 Apr;49(4):391-402, 402.e1-2.

Rationale for inclusion: The ProTECT trial!  A large multi-institutional trail suggesting a role for progesterone in TBI.

Citations - 503 (as of July 2017)

The practice of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the major trauma patient.
Nathens AB, McMurray MK, Cuschieri J, Durr EA, Moore EE, Bankey PE, Freeman B, Harbrecht BG, Johnson JL, Minei JP, McKinley BA, Moore FA, Shapiro MB, West MA, Tompkins RG, Maier RV.
J Trauma. 2007 Mar;62(3):557-62; discussion 562-3.

Rationale for inclusion: Avery Nathans paper on VTE prophylaxis following major trauma

Citations - 91 (as of July 2017)

Prognostication during physician-family discussions about limiting life support in intensive care units.
White DB, Engelberg RA, Wenrich MD, Lo B, Curtis JR.
Crit Care Med. 2007 Feb;35(2):442-8.

Rationale for inclusion: On of the original yet contemporary prognositication papers in critical care

Citations - 124 (as of July 2017)

Clinical practice guidelines for support of the family in the patient-centered intensive care unit: American College of Critical Care Medicine Task Force 2004-2005.
Davidson JE, Powers K, Hedayat KM, Tieszen M, Kon AA, Shepard E, Spuhler V, Todres ID, Levy M, Barr J, Ghandi R, Hirsch G, Armstrong D; American College of Critical Care Medicine Task Force 2004-2005, Society of Critical Care Medicine.
Crit Care Med. 2007 Feb;35(2):605-22.

Rationale for inclusion: Goals for family involvement in goals of care conversations

Citations - 800 (as of July 2017)

Fresh frozen plasma should be given earlier to patients requiring massive transfusion.
Gonzalez EA, Moore FA, Holcomb JB, Miller CC, Kozar RA, Todd SR, Cocanour CS, Balldin BC, McKinley BA.
J Trauma. 2007 Jan;62(1):112-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Pinnicle article on civilian ratios of red cells to FFP; calling for 1:1 resuscitations

Citations - 538 (as of July 2017)

Early activity is feasible and safe in respiratory failure patients.
Bailey P, Thomsen GE, Spuhler VJ, Blair R, Jewkes J, Bezdjian L, Veale K, Rodriquez L, Hopkins RO.
Crit Care Med. 2007 Jan;35(1):139-45.

Rationale for inclusion: This is early work on ICU mobility from one of the founding ICUs in the IHI ventilator liberation collaborative.

Citations - 712 (as of July 2017)

CESAR: conventional ventilatory support vs extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure.
Peek GJ, Clemens F, Elbourne D, Firmin R, Hardy P, Hibbert C, Killer H, Mugford M, Thalanany M, Tiruvoipati R, Truesdale A, Wilson A.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2006 Dec 23;6:163.

Rationale for inclusion: CESAR study CM vs ECMO for ARDS.

Citations - 166 (as of July 2017)

The effects of saline or albumin resuscitation on acid-base status and serum electrolytes.
Bellomo R, Morimatsu H, French C, Cole L, Story D, Uchino S, Naka T; SAFE Study Investigators.
Crit Care Med. 2006 Dec;34(12):2891-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Ad hoc analysis of the SAFE trial - effect of type and volume of resuscitation fluid on acid base and electrolytes.

Citations - 32 (as of July 2017)

Risk factors for extubation failure in patients following a successful spontaneous breathing trial.
Frutos-Vivar F, Ferguson ND, Esteban A, Epstein SK, Arabi Y, Apezteguía C, González M, Hill NS, Nava S, D'Empaire G, Anzueto A.
Chest. 2006 Dec;130(6):1664-71.

Rationale for inclusion: Use of RSBI, patient fluid balance to predict successful extubation.

Citations - 241 (as of July 2017)

Randomized trial of atorvastatin for reduction of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: results of the ARMYDA-3 (Atorvastatin for Reduction of MYocardial Dysrhythmia After cardiac surgery) study.
Patti G, Chello M, Candura D, Pasceri V, D'Ambrosio A, Covino E, Di Sciascio G.
Circulation. 2006 Oct 3;114(14):1455-61.

Rationale for inclusion: Role of statins in the reduction of AFIB after cardiac surgery.

Citations - 698 (as of July 2017)

Continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration versus intermittent haemodialysis for acute renal failure in patients with multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome: a multicentre randomised trial.
Vinsonneau C1, Camus C, Combes A, Costa de Beauregard MA, Klouche K, Boulain T, Pallot JL, Chiche JD, Taupin P, Landais P, Dhainaut JF; Hemodiafe Study Group.
Lancet. 2006 Jul 29;368(9533):379-85.

Rationale for inclusion: No difference in mortality between HD and CRRT in patients with MOF.

Citations - 607 (as of July 2017)

Comparison of two fluid-management strategies in acute lung injury.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical Trials Network, Wiedemann HP, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, Hayden D, deBoisblanc B, Connors AF Jr, Hite RD, Harabin AL.
N Engl J Med. 2006 Jun 15;354(24):2564-75.

Rationale for inclusion: Conservative fluid management decreased duration of mechanical ventilation in acute lung injury without increase in other organs' dysfunction- though no difference in mortality at 60 days.

Citations - 1 (as of July 2017)

Oral decontamination with chlorhexidine reduces the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Koeman M, van der Ven AJ, Hak E, Joore HC, Kaasjager K, de Smet AG, Ramsay G, Dormans TP, Aarts LP, de Bel EE, Hustinx WN, van der Tweel I, Hoepelman AM, Bonten MJ.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Jun 15;173(12):1348-55.

Rationale for inclusion: Chlorhexidine oral decontamination to reduce VAP.

Citations - 465 (as of July 2017)

Lung recruitment in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Gattinoni L, Caironi P, Cressoni M, Chiumello D, Ranieri VM, Quintel M, Russo S, Patroniti N, Cornejo R, Bugedo G.
N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 27;354(17):1775-86.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the study where Gattinoni et al performed CTs on patients while recruiting the lungs at 5, 10  and 45 cm H2O.

Citations - 991 (as of July 2017)

Magnetic resonance imaging for clearing the cervical spine in unconscious intensive care trauma patients.
Ackland HM, Cooper DJ, Malham GM, Stuckey SL.
J Trauma. 2006 Mar;60(3):668-73.

Rationale for inclusion: Contributing paper to the current practice patterns of MRI in clearing the cervical spine.

Citations - 25 (as of July 2017)

Use of a Behavioural Pain Scale to assess pain in ventilated, unconscious and/or sedated patients.
Young J, Siffleet J, Nikoletti S, Shaw T.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2006 Feb;22(1):32-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Although the numerical pain scale is most common, in sedated or non-communicative patients, the BPS is the current gold standard.

Citations - 232 (as of July 2017)

Acute renal failure following liver transplantation with induction therapy.
Guitard J, Cointault O, Kamar N, Muscari F, Lavayssière L, Suc B, Ribes D, Esposito L, Barange K, Durand D, Rostaing L.
Clin Nephrol. 2006 Feb;65(2):103-12.

Rationale for inclusion: AKI after liver tranplantation

Citations - 66 (as of July 2017)

Comparison of two fluid-management strategies in acute lung injury.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical Trials Network1, Wiedemann HP, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, Hayden D, deBoisblanc B, Connors AF Jr, Hite RD, Harabin AL.
N Engl J Med. 2006 Jun 15;354(24):2564-75.

Rationale for inclusion: Conservative fluid management decreased duration of mechanical ventilation in acute lung injury without increase in other organs' dysfunction - though no difference in mortality at 60 days.

Citations - 1 (as of July 2017)

Candida colonization of the respiratory tract and subsequent pseudomonas ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Azoulay E, Timsit JF, Tafflet M, de Lassence A, Darmon M, Zahar JR, Adrie C, Garrouste-Orgeas M, Cohen Y, Mourvillier B, Schlemmer B; Outcomerea Study Group.
Chest. 2006 Jan;129(1):110-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Colonization of airway with candida in mechanical ventilation more than 2 days and associated morbidities. 

Citations - 197 (as of July 2017)

Prospective, randomized trial comparing fluids and dobutamine optimization of oxygen delivery in high-risk surgical patients.
Lobo SM, Lobo FR, Polachini CA, Patini DS, Yamamoto AE, de Oliveira NE, Serrano P, Sanches HS, Spegiorin MA, Queiroz MM, Christiano AC Jr, Savieiro EF, Alvarez PA, Teixeira SP, Cunrath GS.
Crit Care. 2006;10(3):R72.

Rationale for inclusion: Optimizing cardiac output to improve oxygen delivery in resuscitation. 

Citations - 89 (as of July 2017)

Reliability of point-of-care testing for glucose measurement in critically ill adults.
Kanji S, Buffie J, Hutton B, Bunting PS, Singh A, McDonald K, Fergusson D, McIntyre LA, Hebert PC.
Crit Care Med. 2005 Dec;33(12):2778-85.

Rationale for inclusion: Variability of glucose measurement methods

Citations - 401 (as of July 2017)

A single adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test does not reveal adrenal insufficiency in septic shock.
Loisa P, Uusaro A, Ruokonen E.
Anesth Analg. 2005 Dec;101(6):1792-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Results of ACTH stim test are not reproducible in patients with septic shock

Citations - 71 (as of  July 2017)

Survival and quality of life of patients requiring acute renal replacement therapy.
Ahlström A, Tallgren M, Peltonen S, Räsänen P, Pettilä V.
Intensive Care Med. 2005 Sep;31(9):1222-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Long term outcomes in ICU patients with ARF.

Citations - 163 (as of July 2017)

Reduced mortality rate in patients with severe traumatic brain injury treated with brain tissue oxygen monitoring.
Stiefel MF, Spiotta A, Gracias VH, Garuffe AM, Guillamondegui O, Maloney-Wilensky E, Bloom S, Grady MS, LeRoux PD.
J Neurosurg. 2005 Nov;103(5):805-11.

Rationale for inclusion: Pb02 monitoring reduces mortality in severe TBI.

Citations - 342 (as of July 2017)

A randomized, controlled trial of furosemide with or without albumin in hypoproteinemic patients with acute lung injury.
Martin GS, Moss M, Wheeler AP, Mealer M, Morris JA, Bernard GR.
Crit Care Med. 2005 Aug;33(8):1681-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Randomized double blinded trial - addition of Albumin facilitates achieving negative balance without compromising hemodynamics or oxygenation in hypoalbuminic patients.

Citations - 315 (as of July 2017)

A randomized, controlled trial of furosemide with or without albumin in hypoproteinemic patients with acute lung injury.
Martin GS, Moss M, Wheeler AP, Mealer M, Morris JA, Bernard GR.
Crit Care Med. 2005 Aug;33(8):1681-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Randomized double blinded trial - addition of Albumin facilitates achieving negative balance without compromising hemodynamics or oxygenation in hypoalbuminic patients.

Citations - 315 (as of July 2017)

Large-scale implementation of sedation and delirium monitoring in the intensive care unit: a report from two medical centers.
Pun BT, Gordon SM, Peterson JF, Shintani AK, Jackson JC, Foss J, Harding SD, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW.
Crit Care Med. 2005 Jun;33(6):1199-205.

Rationale for inclusion: Implementing large scale practice changes

Citations - 255 (as of July 2017)

The concept of "baby lung".
Gattinoni L, Pesenti A.
Intensive Care Med. 2005 Jun;31(6):776-84.

Rationale for inclusion: Early use of the term "baby lung" to describe the parts of the lung actually working in ARDS.

Citations - 478 (as of July 2017)

Using a bundle approach to improve ventilator care processes and reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Resar R, Pronovost P, Haraden C, Simmonds T, Rainey T, Nolan T.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2005 May;31(5):243-8.

Rationale for inclusion: The Joint Commission bundle for VAP prevention.

Citations - 690 (as of July 2017)

Drug-eluting stent thrombosis: results from a pooled analysis including 10 randomized studies.
Moreno R, Fernández C, Hernández R, Alfonso F, Angiolillo DJ, Sabaté M, Escaned J, Bañuelos C, Fernández-Ortiz A, Macaya C.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Mar 15;45(6):954-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Meta-analysis of the risk of stent thrombosis in DES.

Citations - 665 (as of July 2017)

Diagnosis of acid-base derangements and mortality prediction in the trauma intensive care unit: the physiochemical approach.
Martin M, Murray J, Berne T, Demetriades D, Belzberg H.
J Trauma. 2005 Feb;58(2):238-43.

Rationale for inclusion: Using the physiochemical approach to predict mortality in trauma ICU patients based on AB disturbances. 

Citations - 92 (as of July 2017)

Invasive approaches to the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis.
Shorr AF, Sherner JH, Jackson WL, Kollef MH.
Crit Care Med. 2005 Jan;33(1):46-53.

Rationale for inclusion: Meta-analysis of the invasive methods to diagnose VAP - no effect on mortality, but change in antibiotics choice. 

Citations - 190 (as of July 2017)

Transthoracic echocardiography to identify or exclude cardiac cause of shock.
Joseph MX, Disney PJ, Da Costa R, Hutchison SJ.
Chest. 2004 Nov;126(5):1592-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Sensitivity and specificity of TTE in evaluate cardiac cause of shock.

Citations - 194 (as of July 2017)

Respiratory changes in inferior vena cava diameter are helpful in predicting fluid responsiveness in ventilated septic patients.
Barbier C, Loubières Y, Schmit C, Hayon J, Ricôme JL, Jardin F, Vieillard-Baron A.
Intensive Care Med. 2004 Sep;30(9):1740-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Monitoring of volume responsiveness using IVC change in diameter. 

Citations - 573 (as of July 2017)

Early lactate clearance is associated with improved outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock.
Nguyen HB, Rivers EP, Knoblich BP, Jacobsen G, Muzzin A, Ressler JA, Tomlanovich MC.
Crit Care Med. 2004 Aug;32(8):1637-42.

Rationale for inclusion: Lactate as an indicator of sepsis resuscitation: improves outcome

Citations - 1137 (as of July 2017)

A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit.
Finfer S, Bellomo R, Boyce N, French J, Myburgh J, Norton R; SAFE Study Investigators.
N Engl J Med. 2004 May 27;350(22):2247-56.

Rationale for inclusion: SAFE Trial: Similar outcome between albumin and saline in ICU.

Citations - 2338 (as of July 2017)

A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit.
Finfer S, Bellomo R, Boyce N, French J, Myburgh J, Norton R; SAFE Study Investigators.
N Engl J Med. 2004 May 27;350(22):2247-56.

Rationale for inclusion: Classic trial comparing albumin and saline in resuscitation.

Citations - 2338 (as of July 2017)

A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit.
Finfer S, Bellomo R, Boyce N, French J, Myburgh J, Norton R; SAFE Study Investigators.
N Engl J Med. 2004 May 27;350(22):2247-56.

Rationale for inclusion: SAFE Trial: Similar outcome between albumin and saline in ICU.

Citations - 2338 (as of July 2017)

Value of the clinical pulmonary infection score for the identification and management of ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Luyt CE, Chastre J, Fagon JY.
Intensive Care Med. 2004 May;30(5):844-52.

Rationale for inclusion: CPIS should be followed by bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of VAP.

Citations - 188 (as of July 2017)

A multicenter risk index for atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery.
Mathew JP, Fontes ML, Tudor IC, Ramsay J, Duke P, Mazer CD, Barash PG, Hsu PH, Mangano DT; Investigators of the Ischemia Research and Education Foundation; Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group.
JAMA. 2004 Apr 14;291(14):1720-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Model to predict development of AFIB after CABG.

Citations - 857 (as of July 2017)

Low-dose inhaled nitric oxide in patients with acute lung injury: a randomized controlled trial.
Taylor RW, Zimmerman JL, Dellinger RP, Straube RC, Criner GJ, Davis K Jr, Kelly KM, Smith TC, Small RJ; Inhaled Nitric Oxide in ARDS Study Group.
JAMA. 2004 Apr 7;291(13):1603-9.

Rationale for inclusion: The beginning of the end for iNO studies - showed improvement in hypoxemia but not in mortality.

Citations - 431 (as of July 2017)

Prehospital hypertonic saline resuscitation of patients with hypotension and severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.
Cooper DJ, Myles PS, McDermott FT, Murray LJ, Laidlaw J, Cooper G, Tremayne AB, Bernard SS, Ponsford J; HTS Study Investigators.
JAMA. 2004 Mar 17;291(11):1350-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Well referenced publication describing the role of HTS in TBI.

Citations - 416 (as of July 2017)

Clinical pulmonary infection score for ventilator-associated pneumonia: accuracy and inter-observer variability.
Schurink CA, Van Nieuwenhoven CA, Jacobs JA, Rozenberg-Arska M, Joore HC, Buskens E, Hoepelman AI, Bonten MJ.
Intensive Care Med. 2004 Feb;30(2):217-24.

Rationale for inclusion: CPIS has low sens and spec and high inter-rater variability for dx of VAP.

Citations - 180 (as of July 2017)

Does the storage time of transfused red blood cells influence regional or global indexes of tissue oxygenation in anemic critically ill patients?
Walsh TS, McArdle F, McLellan SA, Maciver C, Maginnis M, Prescott RJ, McClelland DB.
Crit Care Med. 2004 Feb;32(2):364-71.

Rationale for inclusion: This study addresses part of the controversy of efficacy of stored blood products and oxygen delivery.

Citations - 269 (as of July 2017)

Tracheostomy placement in patients with complete cervical spinal cord injuries: American Spinal Injury Association Grade A.
Harrop JS, Sharan AD, Scheid EH Jr, Vaccaro AR, Przybylski GJ.
J Neurosurg. 2004 Jan;100(1 Suppl Spine):20-3.

Rationale for inclusion: Timing of tracheostomy is an important component of SCI management.

Citations - 98 (as of July 2017)

Vacuum-assisted wound closure achieves early fascial closure of open abdomens after severe trauma.
Suliburk JW, Ware DN, Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Cocanour CS, Kozar RA, Moore FA, Ivatury RR.
J Trauma. 2003 Dec;55(6):1155-60; discussion 1160-1.

Rationale for inclusion: This is a fairly early discussion of VAC for fascial closure after open abdomen.  35 patients were included with 29 survivors.  25 were able to be closed.  2 patients developed fistulae.

Citations - 168 (as of July 2017)

Comparison of 8 vs 15 days of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: a randomized trial.
Chastre J, Wolff M, Fagon JY, Chevret S, Thomas F, Wermert D, Clementi E, Gonzalez J, Jusserand D, Asfar P, Perrin D, Fieux F, Aubas S; PneumA Trial Group.
JAMA. 2003 Nov 19;290(19):2588-98.

Rationale for inclusion: 1 week vs 2 weeks of Abx for VAP.

Citations - 1136 (as of July 2017)

Acid-base status of critically ill patients with acute renal failure: analysis based on Stewart-Figge methodology.
Rocktaeschel J, Morimatsu H, Uchino S, Goldsmith D, Poustie S, Story D, Gutteridge G, Bellomo R.
Crit Care. 2003 Aug;7(4):R60.

Rationale for inclusion: Acidosis in critically ill patients with acute renal failure. Half of these patients have normal ABG and acidosis was detected only by the Stewart method.

Citations - 111 (as of July 2017)

Dying in the ICU: perspectives of family members.
Heyland DK, Rocker GM, O'Callaghan CJ, Dodek PM, Cook DJ.
Chest. 2003 Jul;124(1):392-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Classic paper, well quoted, on family member persectives of the ICU dying experience

Citations - 203 (as of July 2017)

Supranormal trauma resuscitation causes more cases of abdominal compartment syndrome.
Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Cocanour CS, Kozar RA, Valdivia A, Sailors RM, Moore FA.
Arch Surg. 2003 Jun;138(6):637-42; discussion 642-3.

Rationale for inclusion: Unfavorable outcomes associated with supranormal resuscitation (defined by oxygen delivery index goals).

Citations - 486 (as of July 2017)

Supranormal trauma resuscitation causes more cases of abdominal compartment syndrome.
Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Cocanour CS, Kozar RA, Valdivia A, Sailors RM, Moore FA.
Arch Surg. 2003 Jun;138(6):637-42; discussion 642-3.

Rationale for inclusion: Unfavorable outcomes associated with supranormal resuscitation (defined by oxygen delivery index goals).

Citations - 487 (as of July 2017)

Development of ionized hypomagnesemia is associated with higher mortality rates.
Soliman HM, Mercan D, Lobo SS, Mélot C, Vincent JL.
Crit Care Med. 2003 Apr;31(4):1082-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Hypomagnesemia associated with high mortality and sepsis.

Citations - 145 (as of July 2017)

Resolution of ventilator-associated pneumonia: prospective evaluation of the clinical pulmonary infection score as an early clinical predictor of outcome.
Luna CM, Blanzaco D, Niederman MS, Matarucco W, Baredes NC, Desmery P, Palizas F, Menga G, Rios F, Apezteguia C.
Crit Care Med. 2003 Mar;31(3):676-82.

Rationale for inclusion: CPIS to follow resolution of pneumonia.

Citations - 580 (as of July 2017)

Crit Care Med. 2003 Feb;31(2):359-66.
Van den Berghe G, Wouters PJ, Bouillon R, Weekers F, Verwaest C, Schetz M, Vlasselaers D, Ferdinande P, Lauwers P.
Crit Care Med. 2003 Feb;31(2):359-66.

Rationale for inclusion: Classic: Intensive glucose control is beneficial (later proven wrong).

Citations - 1364 (as of July 2017)

A randomized, controlled trial of the use of pulmonary-artery catheters in high-risk surgical patients.
Sandham JD, Hull RD, Brant RF, Knox L, Pineo GF, Doig CJ, Laporta DP, Viner S, Passerini L, Devitt H, Kirby A, Jacka M; Canadian Critical Care Clinical Trials Group.
N Engl J Med. 2003 Jan 2;348(1):5-14.

Rationale for inclusion: No benefit of Swan-Ganz catheters.

Citations - 1336 (as of July 2017)

Adrenal insufficiency during septic shock.
Marik PE, Zaloga GP.
Crit Care Med. 2003 Jan;31(1):141-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Cortisol < 25 for diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in septic shock.

Citations - 404 (as of July 2017)

The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale: validity and reliability in adult intensive care unit patients.
Sessler CN, Gosnell MS, Grap MJ, Brophy GM, O'Neal PV, Keane KA, Tesoro EP, Elswick RK.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Nov 15;166(10):1338-44.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the original paper describing the validity of RASS which is still the most used method of sedation/agitation scoring.

Citations - 1633 (as of July 2017)

Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock.
Annane D, Sébille V, Charpentier C, Bollaert PE, François B, Korach JM, Capellier G, Cohen Y, Azoulay E, Troché G, Chaumet-Riffaud P, Bellissant E.
JAMA. 2002 Aug 21;288(7):862-71.

Rationale for inclusion: Classic article on steroids and adrenal insufficiency in critical illness.

Citations - 3284 (as of July 2017)

Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia.
Bernard SA, Gray TW, Buist MD, Jones BM, Silvester W, Gutteridge G, Smith K.
N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 21;346(8):557-63.

Rationale for inclusion: This paper is the basis for therapeutic hypothermia that has been extrapolated into in-hospital and traumatic arrests as well.

Citations - 4784 (as of July 2017)

Delirium in mechanically ventilated patients: validity and reliability of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU).
Ely EW, Inouye SK, Bernard GR, Gordon S, Francis J, May L, Truman B, Speroff T, Gautam S, Margolin R, Hart RP, Dittus R.
JAMA. 2001 Dec 5;286(21):2703-10.

Rationale for inclusion: Original description of CAM-ICU and its validation.

Citations -1796 (as of July 2017)

Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock.
Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, Ressler J, Muzzin A, Knoblich B, Peterson E, Tomlanovich M; Early Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group.
N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1368-77.

Rationale for inclusion: First article describing EGDT in the resuscitation of septic patients. 

Citations - 9545 (as of July 2017)

Patterns of corticosteroid-binding globulin and the free cortisol index during septic shock and multitrauma.
Beishuizen A, Thijs LG, Vermes I.
Intensive Care Med. 2001 Oct;27(10):1584-91.

Rationale for inclusion: Decrease then normalization of binding globulin in sepsis and multitrauma patients.

Citations - 255 (as of July 2017)

A randomized clinical trial of continuous versus intermittent dialysis for acute renal failure.
Mehta RL, McDonald B, Gabbai FB, Pahl M, Pascual MT, Farkas A, Kaplan RM; Collaborative Group for Treatment of ARF in the ICU.
Kidney Int. 2001 Sep;60(3):1154-63.

Rationale for inclusion: No difference in mortality between HD and CRRT.

Citations - 631 (as of July 2017)

A prospective, randomized study comparing percutaneous with surgical tracheostomy in critically ill patients.
Freeman BD, Isabella K, Cobb JP, Boyle WA 3rd, Schmieg RE Jr, Kolleff MH, Lin N, Saak T, Thompson EC, Buchman TG.
Crit Care Med. 2001 May;29(5):926-30.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective randomized trial after a meta-analysis by the same group.

Citations - 220 (as of July 2017)

Hypocalcemia: a pervasive metabolic abnormality in the critically ill.
Zivin JR, Gooley T, Zager RA, Ryan MJ.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2001 Apr;37(4):689-98.

Rationale for inclusion: Prevalence and effect of hypocalcemia in the ICU. .

Citations - 185 (as of July 2017)

Abnormal sleep/wake cycles and the effect of environmental noise on sleep disruption in the intensive care unit.
Freedman NS, Gazendam J, Levan L, Pack AI, Schwab RJ.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Feb;163(2):451-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Pinnacle study on the importance of sleep hygiene in the ICU setting and the prevention of delirium.

Citations - 490 (as of July 2017)

Effects of continuous haemofiltration vs intermittent haemodialysis on systemic haemodynamics and splanchnic regional perfusion in septic shock patients: a prospective, randomized clinical trial.
John S, Griesbach D, Baumgärtel M, Weihprecht H, Schmieder RE, Geiger H.
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001 Feb;16(2):320-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Better hemodynamics but no difference in organ perfusion with CVVH compared to IHD.

Citations - 153 (as of July 2017)

Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration without anticoagulation in high-risk patients.
Tan HK, Baldwin I, Bellomo R.
Intensive Care Med. 2000 Nov;26(11):1652-7.

Rationale for inclusion: No need for anticoagulation on CRRT in high-risk patients.

Citations - 163 (as of July 2017)

A meta-analysis of prospective trials comparing percutaneous and surgical tracheostomy in critically ill patients.
Freeman BD, Isabella K, Lin N, Buchman TG.
Chest. 2000 Nov;118(5):1412-8.

Rationale for inclusion: One of the last words on perc trach.  Excellent summary.

Citations- 433 (as of July 2017)

Percutaneous tracheostomy: ciaglia blue rhino versus the basic ciaglia technique of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy.
Byhahn C, Wilke HJ, Halbig S, Lischke V, Westphal K.
Anesth Analg. 2000 Oct;91(4):882-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Important way marker to the "blue rhino" technique of perc trach.

Citations - 194 (as of July 2017)

Rotation and restricted use of antibiotics in a medical intensive care unit. Impact on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria.
Gruson D, Hilbert G, Vargas F, Valentino R, Bebear C, Allery A, Bebear C, Gbikpi-Benissan G, Cardinaud JP.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Sep;162(3 Pt 1):837-43.

Rationale for inclusion: This paper introduces the concept of rotating empiric Abx for the Rx of VAP.

Citations - 382 (as of July 2017)

Percutaneous necrosectomy and sinus tract endoscopy in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis: an initial experience.
Carter CR, McKay CJ, Imrie CW.
Ann Surg. 2000 Aug;232(2):175-80.

Rationale for inclusion: First documentation of sinus tract endoscopy for pancreatic necrosectomy.

Citations - 387 (as of July 2017)

Effects of different doses in continuous veno-venous haemofiltration on outcomes of acute renal failure: a prospective randomised trial.
Ronco C1, Bellomo R, Homel P, Brendolan A, Dan M, Piccinni P, La Greca G.
Lancet. 2000 Jul 1;356(9223):26-30.

Rationale for inclusion: Higher doses of CVVH were associated with improved early mortality.

Citations - 1817 (as of July 2017)

Hypomagnesemia and hypophosphatemia at admission in patients with severe head injury.
Polderman KH, Bloemers FW, Peerdeman SM, Girbes AR.
Crit Care Med. 2000 Jun;28(6):2022-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Electrolytes disturbances in TBI.

Citations - 121 (as of July 2017)

Hypernatremia in the critically ill is an independent risk factor for mortality.
Lindner G, Funk GC, Schwarz C, Kneidinger N, Kaider A, Schneeweiss B, Kramer L, Druml W.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2007 Dec;50(6):952-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Prevalence of hypernatremia and its impact on mortality.

Citations - 183 (as of July 2017)

Daily interruption of sedative infusions in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.
Kress JP, Pohlman AS, O'Connor MF, Hall JB.
N Engl J Med. 2000 May 18;342(20):1471-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Landmark article for daily cessation of sedation.

Citations - 2746 (as of July 2017)

Daily interruption of sedative infusions in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.
Kress JP, Pohlman AS, O'Connor MF, Hall JB.
N Engl J Med. 2000 May 18;342(20):1471-7.

Rationale for inclusion: This paper describes the original "daily sedation holidays" which were popular and should be known for historic purposes.  Today, light sedation at all times is the goal, as per "the wake up and breath" campaign.

Citations - 2746 (as of July 2017)

Coagulation and anticoagulation in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
Muntean W.
Artif Organs. 1999 Nov;23(11):979-83.

Rationale for inclusion: Coagulopathy in ECMO.

Citations - 95 (as of July 2017)

Endoscopic retreatment compared with surgery in patients with recurrent bleeding after initial endoscopic control of bleeding ulcers.
Lau JY, Sung JJ, Lam YH, Chan AC, Ng EK, Lee DW, Chan FK, Suen RC, Chung SC.
N Engl J Med. 1999 Mar 11;340(10):751-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Repeat endoscopic control of bleeding peptic ulcers is safer than surgical intervention (no change in mortality but many fewer complications).

Citations - 505 (as of July 2017)

A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of transfusion requirements in critical care. Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care Investigators, Canadian Critical Care Trials Group.
Hébert PC, Wells G, Blajchman MA, Marshall J, Martin C, Pagliarello G, Tweeddale M, Schweitzer I, Yetisir E.
N Engl J Med. 1999 Feb 11;340(6):409-17.

Rationale for inclusion: The original TRICC trial that set the standard of Hb goal of 7.0.

Citations - 4256 (as of July 2017)

Crystalloids vs. colloids in fluid resuscitation: a systematic review.
Choi PT, Yip G, Quinonez LG, Cook DJ.
Crit Care Med. 1999 Jan;27(1):200-10.

Rationale for inclusion: Systemic review of studies evaluating choice of resuscitation fluids until 1999.

Citations - 778 (as of July 2017)

Crystalloids vs. colloids in fluid resuscitation: a systematic review.
Choi PT, Yip G, Quinonez LG, Cook DJ.
Crit Care Med. 1999 Jan;27(1):200-10.

Rationale for inclusion: Systemic review: no difference between crystalloids or colloids, except in trauma (favoring crystalloids).

Citations - 778 (as of July 2017)

Crystalloids vs. colloids in fluid resuscitation: a systematic review.
Choi PT1, Yip G, Quinonez LG, Cook DJ.
Crit Care Med. 1999 Jan;27(1):200-10.

Rationale for inclusion: Systemic review: no difference between crystalloids or colloids except in trauma (favoring crystalloids)

Citations - 778 (as of July 2017)

Standardized clinical care pathways for major thoracic cases reduce hospital costs.
Zehr KJ, Dawson PB, Yang SC, Heitmiller RF.
Ann Thorac Surg. 1998 Sep;66(3):914-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Why use clinical care pathways in the ICU setting?

Citations - 183 (as of July 2017)

Cystogastrotomy entirely performed under endosonography guidance for pancreatic pseudocyst: results in six patients.
Giovannini M, Bernardini D, Seitz JF.
Gastrointest Endosc. 1998 Aug;48(2):200-3.

Rationale for inclusion: Very early paper (6 patients) with EUS-guided cyst gastrostomy.

Citations - 228 (as of July 2017)

The use of continuous i.v. sedation is associated with prolongation of mechanical ventilation.
Kollef MH, Levy NT, Ahrens TS, Schaiff R, Prentice D, Sherman G.
Chest. 1998 Aug;114(2):541-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Excellent rationale for daily sedation cessation.

Citations - 971 (as of July 2017)

A "closed" medical intensive care unit (MICU) improves resource utilization when compared with an "open" MICU.
Multz AS, Chalfin DB, Samson IM, Dantzker DR, Fein AM, Steinberg HN, Niederman MS, Scharf SM.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 May;157(5 Pt 1):1468-73.

Rationale for inclusion: Open vs closed ICU models

Citations - 256 (as of July 2017)

Effect of a protective-ventilation strategy on mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Amato MB, Barbas CS, Medeiros DM, Magaldi RB, Schettino GP, Lorenzi-Filho G, Kairalla RA, Deheinzelin D, Munoz C, Oliveira R, Takagaki TY, Carvalho CR.
N Engl J Med. 1998 Feb 5;338(6):347-54.

Rationale for inclusion: ARDSNet precursor study on protective lung ventilation.

Citations - 3566 (as of July 2017)

Predictors of hospital mortality and mechanical ventilation in patients with cervical spinal cord injury.
Claxton AR, Wong DT, Chung F, Fehlings MG.
Can J Anaesth. 1998 Feb;45(2):144-9.

Rationale for inclusion: This paper gives readers key components to prognostication following acute cervical spinal cord injury.

Citations - 124 (as of July 2017)

Preoperative amiodarone as prophylaxis against atrial fibrillation after heart surgery.
Daoud EG, Strickberger SA, Man KC, Goyal R, Deeb GM, Bolling SF, Pagani FD, Bitar C, Meissner MD, Morady F.
N Engl J Med. 1997 Dec 18;337(25):1785-91.

Rationale for inclusion: One of several attempts to reduce the risk of AFIB after cardiac surgery.

Citations - 587 (as of July 2017)

Atrial fibrillation following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: predictors, outcomes, and resource utilization. MultiCenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group.
Mathew JP, Parks R, Savino JS, Friedman AS, Koch C, Mangano DT, Browner WS.
JAMA. 1996 Jul 24-31;276(4):300-6.

Rationale for inclusion: A multicenter prospective observational study on the epidemiology of atrial fibrillation after CABG.

Citations - 796 (as of July 2017)

BLEED: a classification tool to predict outcomes in patients with acute upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
Kollef MH, O'Brien JD, Zuckerman GR, Shannon W.
Crit Care Med. 1997 Jul;25(7):1125-32.

Rationale for inclusion: Does not predict response to treatment but does predict need for ICU stay, blood transfusion.

Citations - 186 (as of July 2017)

A randomized, controlled trial of protocol-directed versus physician-directed weaning from mechanical ventilation.
Kollef MH, Shapiro SD, Silver P, St John RE, Prentice D, Sauer S, Ahrens TS, Shannon W, Baker-Clinkscale D.
Crit Care Med. 1997 Apr;25(4):567-74.

Rationale for inclusion: Not only is protocolized weaning frequently superior to ad hoc methods, the use of other members of the ICU team improves results.

Citations - 804 (as of July 2017)

Impact of BAL data on the therapy and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Luna CM, Vujacich P, Niederman MS, Vay C, Gherardi C, Matera J, Jolly EC.
Chest. 1997 Mar;111(3):676-85.

Rationale for inclusion: Guiding study for use of BAL in diagnosis of VAP.

Citations - 1120 (as of July 2017)

Effect on the duration of mechanical ventilation of identifying patients capable of breathing spontaneously.
Ely EW, Baker AM, Dunagan DP, Burke HL, Smith AC, Kelly PT, Johnson MM, Browder RW, Bowton DL, Haponik EF.
N Engl J Med. 1996 Dec 19;335(25):1864-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Early spontaneous breathing trial work.

Citations - 1368 (as of July 2017)

Necrotizing soft tissue infections. Risk factors for mortality and strategies for management.
Elliott DC, Kufera JA, Myers RA.
Ann Surg. 1996 Nov;224(5):672-83.

Rationale for inclusion: Highly-sited landmark article on treatment stratagies for necrotizing soft tissue infections.

Citations - 556 (as of July 2017)

A randomized comparison of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy after the placement of coronary-artery stents.
Schömig A, Neumann FJ, Kastrati A, Schühlen H, Blasini R, Hadamitzky M, Walter H, Zitzmann-Roth EM, Richardt G, Alt E, Schmitt C, Ulm K.
N Engl J Med. 1996 Apr 25;334(17):1084-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Antiplatelets resulted in reduced incidence of cardiac events and hemorrhagic events after stent placement.

Citations - 2031 (as of July 2017)

A comparison of continuous intravenous epoprostenol (prostacyclin) with conventional therapy for primary pulmonary hypertension.
Barst RJ, Rubin LJ, Long WA, McGoon MD, Rich S, Badesch DB, Groves BM, Tapson VF, Bourge RC, Brundage BH, Koerner SK, Langleben D, Keller CA, Murali S, Uretsky BF, Clayton LM, Jöbsis MM, Blackburn SD, Shortino D, Crow JW; Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Study Group.
N Engl J Med. 1996 Feb 1;334(5):296-301.

Rationale for inclusion: This study introduces Prostacyclin for pulm HTN treatment.

Citations - 2618 (as of July 2017)

Cerebral perfusion pressure: management protocol and clinical results.
Rosner MJ, Rosner SD, Johnson AH.
J Neurosurg. 1995 Dec;83(6):949-62.

Rationale for inclusion: The original description of CPP and how its management effects outcome.

Citations - 1015 (as of July 2017)

Beneficial effects of the "open lung approach" with low distending pressures in acute respiratory distress syndrome. A prospective randomized study on mechanical ventilation.
Amato MB, Barbas CS, Medeiros DM, Schettino Gde P, Lorenzi Filho G, Kairalla RA, Deheinzelin D, Morais C, Fernandes Ede O, Takagaki TY, et al.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995 Dec;152(6 Pt 1):1835-46.

Rationale for inclusion: Early mention of open lung hypothesis.

Citations - 689 (as of July 2017)

Bronchoscopic guidance makes percutaneous tracheostomy a safe, cost-effective, and easy-to-teach procedure.
Barba CA, Angood PB, Kauder DR, Latenser B, Martin K, McGonigal MD, Phillips GR, Rotondo MF, Schwab CW.
Surgery. 1995 Nov;118(5):879-83.

Rationale for inclusion: Important innovation on perc trach, backed by very recognizable researchers.

Citations - 200 (as of July 2017)

Noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Brochard L, Mancebo J, Wysocki M, Lofaso F, Conti G, Rauss A, Simonneau G, Benito S, Gasparetto A, Lemaire F, et al.
N Engl J Med. 1995 Sep 28;333(13):817-22.

Rationale for inclusion: Well referenced NEJM article on non-invasive ventilation for COPD.

Citations - 2177 (as of July 2017)

Occult hypercarbia. An unrecognized phenomenon during percutaneous endoscopic tracheostomy.
Reilly PM, Anderson HL 3rd, Sing RF, Schwab CW, Bartlett RH.
Chest. 1995 Jun;107(6):1760-3.

Rationale for inclusion: This is not adequately recognized, even now, in practice.

Citations - 103 (as of July 2017)

Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on regional distribution of tidal volume and recruitment in adult respiratory distress syndrome.
Gattinoni L, Pelosi P, Crotti S, Valenza F.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995 Jun;151(6):1807-14.

Rationale for inclusion: Study demonstrating the effects of PEEP on lung recruitment using CT imaging.

Citations - 589 (as of July 2017)

Outcome of renal transplant recipients in the ICU.
Sadaghdar H, Chelluri L, Bowles SA, Shapiro R.
Chest. 1995 May;107(5):1402-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective cohort study of mortality in renal transplant patients admitted to SICU

Citations - 35 (as of July 2017)

A comparison of four methods of weaning patients from mechanical ventilation.
Esteban A, Frutos F, Tobin MJ, Alía I, Solsona JF, Valverdú I, Fernández R, de la Cal MA, Benito S, Tomás R, et al.
N Engl J Med. 1995 Feb 9;332(6):345-50.

Rationale for inclusion: Of the four methods, spontaneous breathing trials were superior.

Citations - 1381 (as of July 2017)

Pulmonary complications of hyponatremic encephalopathy. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and hypercapnic respiratory failure.
Ayus JC, Arieff AI.
Chest. 1995 Feb;107(2):517-21.

Rationale for inclusion: Respiratory failure due to hyponatremic encephalopathy - noncardiogenic edema and hypercarpnia.

Citations - 121 (as of July 2017)

Continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Vallés J, Artigas A, Rello J, Bonsoms N, Fontanals D, Blanch L, Fernández R, Baigorri F, Mestre J.
Ann Intern Med. 1995 Feb 1;122(3):179-86.

Rationale for inclusion: Study introducing the concept of subglottic suction port on ET tubes.

Citations - 675 (as of July 2017)

Reclosure of the open abdomen.
Sleeman D, Sosa JL, Gonzalez A, McKenney M, Puente I, Matos L, Martin L.
J Am Coll Surg. 1995 Feb;180(2):200-4.

Rationale for inclusion: This is an early discussion on methods of closure of the open abdomen.  Closure obtained with zippered mesh; coverage of the viscera with STSG, with or without mesh.

Citations - 36 (as of July 2017)

Risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill patients. Canadian Critical Care Trials Group.
Cook DJ, Fuller HD, Guyatt GH, Marshall JC, Leasa D, Hall R, Winton TL, Rutledge F, Todd TJ, Roy P, et al.
N Engl J Med. 1994 Feb 10;330(6):377-81.

Rationale for inclusion: Early work on GI bleeding risk factors from one of the leaders in the field (DJ Cook).

Citations - 1121 (as of July 2017)

A physical chemical approach to the analysis of acid-base balance in the clinical setting.
Gilfix BM, Bique M, Magder S.
J Crit Care. 1993 Dec;8(4):187-97.

Rationale for inclusion: Stewart method

Citations - 186 (as of July 2017)

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in the management of variceal bleeding: indications and clinical results.
Martin M, Zajko AB, Orons PD, Dodd G, Wright H, Colangelo J, Tartar R.
Surgery. 1993 Oct;114(4):719-26; discussion 726-7.

Rationale for inclusion: This, along with an article in Am. J. Surg by Helton, et al, are the earliest references to TIPS for variceal bleeding.

Citations - 95 (as of July 2017)

'Damage control': an approach for improved survival in exsanguinating penetrating abdominal injury.
Rotondo MF, Schwab CW, McGonigal MD, Phillips GR 3rd, Fruchterman TM, Kauder DR, Latenser BA, Angood PA.
J Trauma. 1993 Sep;35(3):375-82; discussion 382-3.

Rationale for inclusion: One of the landmark papers in damage control surgery.  Already on the list.

Citations - 1599 (as of July 2017)

Effect of stored-blood transfusion on oxygen delivery in patients with sepsis.
Marik PE, Sibbald WJ.
JAMA. 1993 Jun 16;269(23):3024-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Classic article on the physiology of sepsis and the effect of transfused blood on oxygen therapy.

Citations - 867 (as of July 2017)

A clinically based classification system for acute pancreatitis. Summary of the International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, Ga, September 11 through 13, 1992.
Bradley EL 3rd.
Arch Surg. 1993 May;128(5):586-90.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the original paper describing the Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis.

Citations - 3501 (as of July 2017)

Prolongation of the corrected QT and torsades de pointes cardiac arrhythmia associated with intravenous haloperidol in the medically ill.
Metzger E, Friedman R.
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1993 Apr;13(2):128-32.

Rationale for inclusion: This article is responsible for the current practice of QT tracking with the use of Haldol and other neuroleptics such as Seroquel.

Citations - 171 (as of July 2017)

Improved cardiovascular stability during continuous modes of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute hepatic and renal failure.
Davenport A, Will EJ, Davidson AM.
Crit Care Med. 1993 Mar;21(3):328-38.

Rationale for inclusion: Improved hemodynamics tolerance in CRRT compared to IHD in patients with impaired oxygen delivery.

Citations - 308 (as of July 2017)

Inhaled nitric oxide for the adult respiratory distress syndrome.
Rossaint R, Falke KJ, López F, Slama K, Pison U, Zapol WM.
N Engl J Med. 1993 Feb 11;328(6):399-405.

Rationale for inclusion: The best early study on inhaled nitric oxide; one that kicked off 20 years of research on iNO.

Citations - 1940 (as of July 2017)

Packing and re-exploration for patients with nonhepatic injuries.
Talbert S, Trooskin SZ, Scalea T, Vieux E, Atweh N, Duncan A, Sclafani S.
J Trauma. 1992 Jul;33(1):121-4; discussion 124-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Earlier than the 1993 landmark - retrospective review of 11 patients at King's County in NY.  All had the lethal triad.

Citations - 86 (as of July 2017)

Fluid balance during pulmonary edema. Is fluid gain a marker or a cause of poor outcome?
Schuller D, Mitchell JP, Calandrino FS, Schuster DP.
Chest. 1991 Oct;100(4):1068-75.

Rationale for inclusion: Importance of avoiding significant gains in fluid balances.

Citations - 262 (as of July 2017)

Fluid balance during pulmonary edema. Is fluid gain a marker or a cause of poor outcome?
Schuller D, Mitchell JP, Calandrino FS, Schuster DP.
Chest. 1991 Oct;100(4):1068-75.

Rationale for inclusion: Importance of avoiding significant gains in fluid balances.

Citations - 262 (as of July 2017)

Probiotics in human medicine.
Fuller R.
Gut. 1991 Apr;32(4):439-42.

Rationale for inclusion: This is a good historical review (at the dawn of the medical probiotic era) of altering the human microbiome with therapeutic intent.  References cited in this paper go back as far as 1921.

Citations - 1071 (as of July 2017)

Temporary abdominal closure (TAC) for planned relaparotomy (etappenlavage) in trauma.
Aprahamian C, Wittmann DH, Bergstein JM, Quebbeman EJ.
J Trauma. 1990 Jun;30(6):719-23.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the first description of the Wittmann patch (Wittmann is one of the authors) in trauma.  It predates the landmark article by Rotondo by 3 years.

Citations - 143 (as of July 2017)

Low mortality associated with low volume pressure limited ventilation with permissive hypercapnia in severe adult respiratory distress syndrome.
Hickling KG, Henderson SJ, Jackson R.
Intensive Care Med. 1990;16(6):372-7.

Rationale for inclusion: The earliest ARDSNet precursor study.

Citations - 999 (as of July 2017)

TEN versus TPN following major abdominal trauma -reduced septic morbidity.
Moore FA, Moore EE, Jones TN, McCroskey BL, Peterson VM.
J Trauma. 1989 Jul;29(7):916-22; discussion 922-3.

Rationale for inclusion: This paper (and the succeeding Adams et al paper) are two of the earliest trials addressing early enteral (via jejunostomy) nutrition in patients undergoing trauma laparotomy.  This trial (the later of the two) showed mortality and infection benefit in a small (46 pts) single center trial.

Citations - 927 (as of July 2017)

The prone position in ARDS patients. A clinical study.
Langer M, Mascheroni D, Marcolin R, Gattinoni L.
Chest. 1988 Jul;94(1):103-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Very early paper on the use of prone positioning in ARDS.

Citations - 424 (as of July 2017)

Bedside percutaneous tracheostomy: experience with 55 elective procedures.
Hazard PB, Garrett HE Jr, Adams JW, Robbins ET, Aguillard RN.
Ann Thorac Surg. 1988 Jul;46(1):63-7.

Rationale for inclusion: One of the first patient trials of perc trach.

Citations - 146 (as of July 2017)

High-dose barbiturate control of elevated intracranial pressure in patients with severe head injury.
Eisenberg HM, Frankowski RF, Contant CF, Marshall LF, Walker MD.
J Neurosurg. 1988 Jul;69(1):15-23.

Rationale for inclusion: The role of burst suppression and deep sedation to control ICP originated with this paper.

Citations - 560 (as of July 2017)

Antibiotic therapy in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Anthonisen NR, Manfreda J, Warren CP, Hershfield ES, Harding GK, Nelson NA.
Ann Intern Med. 1987 Feb;106(2):196-204.

Rationale for inclusion: Highly referenced study describing Abx during COPD exacerbations.

Citations - 2634 (as of July 2017)

The inspiratory workload of patient-initiated mechanical ventilation.
Marini JJ, Rodriguez RM, Lamb V.
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1986 Nov;134(5):902-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Early important evaluation of the work of breathing in ventilated patients.

Citations - 301 (as of July 2017)

Enteral versus parenteral nutritional support following laparotomy for trauma: a randomized prospective trial.
Adams S, Dellinger EP, Wertz MJ, Oreskovich MR, Simonowitz D, Johansen K.
J Trauma. 1986 Oct;26(10):882-91.

Rationale for inclusion: This paper (and the preceding Adams et al paper) are two of the earliest trials addressing early enteral (via jejunostomy) nutrition in patients undergoing trauma laparotomy.  This trial (the earlier of the two) showed no mortality or infection benefit in a small (60 pts) single center trial.  The goal appears to have been to establish non-inferiority with parenteral nutrition.

Citations - 224 (as of July 2017)

Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-induced intestinal disease.
Mulligan ME.
Rev Infect Dis. 1984 Mar-Apr;6 Suppl 1:S222-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Early review of the state of knowledge in the early 80's. 

Citations - 53 (as of July 2017)

Management of the major coagulopathy with onset during laparotomy.
Stone HH, Strom PR, Mullins RJ.
Ann Surg. 1983 May;197(5):532-5.

Rationale for inclusion: 31 patients were studies, 14 of them received standard therapy (continued surgery with massive transfusion) and 17  had their abdomens packed and closed with resuscitation in the ICU.  11 of 17 survived what was otherwise a uniformly mortal event.

Citations - 767 (as of July 2017)

Formation of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts using a balloon dilatation catheter: preliminary clinical experience.
Colapinto RF, Stronell RD, Gildiner M, Ritchie AC, Langer B, Taylor BR, Blendis LM.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1983 Apr;140(4):709-14.

Rationale for inclusion: This documents the first 6 patients who underwent TIPS (there was at least one dog study prior) for bleeding.  All six died of their liver failure in the next six months.  Four had autopsies; of those, three of the shunts were still patent at the time of death.

Citations - 162 (as of July 2017)

The timing of surgical treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts.
Shatney CH, Lillehei RC.
Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1981 Jun;152(6):809-12.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the first article in PubMed that I could find addressing surgical care of pseudocysts.  Optimal timing of surgery was recommended at 4 weeks out.

Citations - 42 (as of July 2017)

"Marsupialization" in the treatment of pancreatic abscess.
Davidson ED, Bradley EL 3rd.
Surgery. 1981 Feb;89(2):252-6.

Rationale for inclusion:  This is the first description of "marsupialization" - open necrosectomy with open packing and repeated staged debridements of the necrotic pancreas.

Citations - 99 (as of July 2017)

Ventilation-perfusion distributions in the adult respiratory distress syndrome.
Dantzker DR, Brook CJ, Dehart P, Lynch JP, Weg JG.
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1979 Nov;120(5):1039-52.

Rationale for inclusion: First demonstration of hypoxemia in ARDS as being due to VQ mismatch using inspired gases

Citations - 416 (as of July 2017)

Prospective evaluation of hemostatic techniques for liver injuries.
Lucas CE, Ledgerwood AM.
J Trauma. 1976 Jun;16(6):442-51.

Rationale for inclusion: One of the first modern mentions of packing for liver injuries with planned second look.  637 patients seen at Detroit Receiving over 5 years (!).

Citations - 188 (as of July 2017)

Endoscopic pancreatography in management of relapsing acute pancreatitis.
Cotton PB, Beales JS.
Br Med J. 1974 Mar 30;1(5908):608-11.

Rationale for inclusion: two very early articles from this team on the utility of ERCP in pancreatitis.

Citations - 67 (as of July 2017)

Proceedings: Endoscopy and retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of patients with relapsing pancreatitis.
Cotton PB, Beales JS.
Gut. 1973 Oct;14(10):828.

Rationale for inclusion: two very early articles from this team on the utility of ERCP in pancreatitis.

Bedside criteria for discontinuation of mechanical ventilation.
Sahn SA, Lakshminarayan S.
Chest. 1973 Jun;63(6):1002-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Use of NIF, minute volumes to predict success of extubation.

Citations - 396 (as of July 2017)

Efficacy of low doses of heparin in prevention of deep-vein thrombosis after major surgery. A double-blind, randomised trial.
Kakkar VV, Corrigan T, Spindler J, Fossard DP, Flute PT, Crellin RQ, Wessler S, Yin ET.
Lancet. 1972 Jul 15;2(7768):101-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Old but early RCT of low dose heparin in prevention of PE.

Citations - 377 (as of July 2017)

Guidelines for total parenteral nutrition.
Shils ME.
JAMA. 1972 Jun 26;220(13):1721-9.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the first set of guidelines published for TPN (in 1972!), though there are papers documenting parenteral infusion of varying combinations of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, and even alcohols in humans since the 1940's.

Citations - 92 (as of July 2017)

Selective arterial embolization. A new method for control of acute gastrointestinal bleeding.
Rösch J, Dotter CT, Brown MJ.
Radiology. 1972 Feb;102(2):303-6.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the historical landmark article describing embolization.

Citations - 500 (as of July 2017)

Heterologous extracorporeal hepatic support: haemodynamic, biochemical, and immunological observations.
Abouna GM, Ashcroft T, Muckle TJ, Skillen AW, Hull CJ, Kirkley JR, Hodson AW.
Br J Surg. 1970 Mar;57(3):213-20.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the first animal trial (calves with induced hepatic failure used pig livers as hepatic support) for articifical liver support.

Citations - 17 (as of July 2017)

Selective management of hemorrhage from gastro-esophageal varices.
Pearlman DM, Duremdes G.
Ann Surg. 1969 Jul;170(1):142-8.

Rationale for inclusion: This has a fascinating list of the interventions in use at the time and ways to measure portal hypertension (splenic pulp manometry?).  Mortality was still slightly higher than 50%.

Citations - 1 (as of July 2017)

Transplantation of cadaveric kidneys from patients with hepatorenal syndrome. Evidence for the functionalnature of renal failure in advanced liver disease.
Koppel MH, Coburn JW, Mims MM, Goldstein H, Boyle JD, Rubini ME.
N Engl J Med. 1969 Jun 19;280(25):1367-71.

Rationale for inclusion: Landmark surgical proof of concept that the kidneys are not the culprit in hepatorenal syndrome.

Citations - 322 (as of July 2017)

Prevention of stress ulcer by reducing gastric tissue histamine.
Ritchie WP Jr, Breen JJ, Grigg DI.
Surgery. 1967 Oct;62(4):596-600.

Rationale for inclusion: There was a fair amount of research into the connection between histamine and gastric ulcers at the time.  But this paper by a titan of surgery deserves special mention.

Citations - 19 (as of July 2017)

Acute respiratory distress in adults.
Ashbaugh DG, Bigelow DB, Petty TL, Levine BE.
Lancet. 1967 Aug 12;2(7511):319-23.

Rationale for inclusion: Historical value - very early description of ARDS.

Citations - 3807 (as of July 2017)

Tracheostomy and artificial ventilation in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic lung disease. A study in twenty-nine patients.
Bradley RD, Spencer GT, Semple SJ.
Lancet. 1964 Apr 18;1(7338):854-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Not the first on trach (that was in 1931), but important by virtue of combination with ventilation.

Citations - 70 (as of July 2017)

Tracheostomy in modern practice.
Watts JM.
Br J Surg. 1963 Nov;50:954-75.

Rationale for inclusion: A remarkable historic overview spanning millennia. Yes, millennia.

Citations - 81 (as of July 2017)

A critical evaluation of venous shunts for the treatment of cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices.
NACHLAS MM.
Ann Surg. 1958 Aug;148(2):169-83.

Rationale for inclusion: This is an excellent review with several references that go earlier still.

Citations - 48 (as of July 2017)

Hepatic coma; clinical and laboratory observations on 40 patients.
Murphy TL, Chalmers TC, et al.
N Engl J Med. 1948 Oct 21;239(17):605-12.

Rationale for inclusion: This is again an interesting window into our past; the first reference is to a publication from 1860, describing terminal mental status changes in patients with "acute yellow atrophy with cirrhosis"..

Citations - 71 (as of July 2017)

Liver trauma and the hepatorenal syndrome. 
Orr TG, Helwig FC.
Ann Surg. 1939 Oct;110(4):682-92.

Rationale for inclusion: This is a review of five cases of liver trauma complicated by renal failure.  Interesting also as a window into the studies and imaging available at the time.

Citations - 33 (as of July 2017)

V. Notes on the Arrest of Hepatic Hemorrhage Due to Trauma.
Pringle JH.
Ann Surg. 1908 Oct;48(4):541-9.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the description of the Pringle Maneuver.  The author also notes the utility of packing liver injuries with planned second look...in 1908.  Has good historical references for liver suturing technique as well.

Citations - 1315 (as of July 2017)

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