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GI - GI Bleeding

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Acid-Suppressive Therapy and Risk of Infections: Pros and Cons.
Fisher L, Fisher A.
Clin Drug Investig. 2017 Jul;37(7):587-624.

Rationale for inclusion: This is a narrative review of several current controversies regarding stress ulcer prophylaxis.  

Citations - 1  (as of July 2017)

Early TIPS versus endoscopic therapy for secondary prophylaxis after management of acute esophageal variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Halabi SA, Sawas T, Sadat B, Jandali A, Halabi HA, Halabi FA, Kapoor B, Carey WD.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Sep;31(9):1519-26.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrated superiority of TIPS in prevention of repeat bleeding after treatment of variceal bleeds.

Citations - 7 (as of July 2017)

Efficacy and safety of proton pump inhibitors for stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.
Alshamsi F, Belley-Cote E, Cook D, Almenawer SA, Alqahtani Z, Perri D, Thabane L, Al-Omari A, Lewis K, Guyatt G, Alhazzani W.
Crit Care. 2016 May 4;20(1):120.

Rationale for inclusion: This is in a new and less-notable journal.  This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs.  Overall the data favors PPI. 

Citations - 22 (as of July 2017)

ACG Clinical Guideline: Management of Patients With Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding.
Strate LL, Gralnek IM.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Apr;111(4):459-74.

Rationale for inclusion: Most up-to-date guidelines available on PubMed for acute lower GI bleeding.

Citations - 39 (as of July 2017)

Diagnosis and management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline.
Gralnek IM, Dumonceau JM, Kuipers EJ, Lanas A, Sanders DS, Kurien M, Rotondano G, Hucl T, Dinis-Ribeiro M, Marmo R, Racz I, Arezzo A, Hoffmann RT, Lesur G, de Franchis R, Aabakken L, Veitch A, Radaelli F, Salgueiro P, Cardoso R, Maia L, Zullo A, Cipolletta L, Hassan C.
Endoscopy. 2015 Oct;47(10):a1-46.

Rationale for inclusion: Most up-to-date guidelines available for nonvariceal upper GI bleeding - same author as the lower GI bleed.

Citations - 120 (as of July 2017)

Early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.
Deltenre P, Trépo E, Rudler M, Monescillo A, Fraga M, Denys A, Doerig C, Fournier N, Moreno C, Moradpour D, Bureau C, Thabut D.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Sep;27(9):e1-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Review and meta-analysis of outcomes.

Citations - 9 (as of July 2017)

Early use of TIPS in patients with cirrhosis and variceal bleeding.
García-Pagán JC, Bosch J.
Ann Intern Med. 2010 Nov 16;153(10):JC5-13; author reply JC5-13.

Rationale for inclusion: Early randomized trial on TIPS, showing decreased treatment failure and decreased mortality.

Citations - 668 (as of July 2017)

The efficacy and safety of proton pump inhibitors vs histamine-2 receptor antagonists for stress ulcer bleeding prophylaxis among critical care patients: a meta-analysis.
Lin PC, Chang CH, Hsu PI, Tseng PL, Huang YB.
Crit Care Med. 2010 Apr;38(4):1197-205.

Rationale for inclusion: The most recent meta-analysis on PPI versus H2B.

Citations - 161 (as of July 2017)

Endoscopic retreatment compared with surgery in patients with recurrent bleeding after initial endoscopic control of bleeding ulcers.
Lau JY, Sung JJ, Lam YH, Chan AC, Ng EK, Lee DW, Chan FK, Suen RC, Chung SC.
N Engl J Med. 1999 Mar 11;340(10):751-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Repeat endoscopic control of bleeding peptic ulcers is safer than surgical intervention (no change in mortality but many fewer complications).

Citations - 505 (as of July 2017)

BLEED: a classification tool to predict outcomes in patients with acute upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
Kollef MH, O'Brien JD, Zuckerman GR, Shannon W.
Crit Care Med. 1997 Jul;25(7):1125-32.

Rationale for inclusion: Does not predict response to treatment but does predict need for ICU stay, blood transfusion.

Citations - 186 (as of July 2017)

Risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill patients. Canadian Critical Care Trials Group.
Cook DJ, Fuller HD, Guyatt GH, Marshall JC, Leasa D, Hall R, Winton TL, Rutledge F, Todd TJ, Roy P, et al.
N Engl J Med. 1994 Feb 10;330(6):377-81.

Rationale for inclusion: Early work on GI bleeding risk factors from one of the leaders in the field (DJ Cook).

Citations - 1121 (as of July 2017)

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in the management of variceal bleeding: indications and clinical results.
Martin M, Zajko AB, Orons PD, Dodd G, Wright H, Colangelo J, Tartar R.
Surgery. 1993 Oct;114(4):719-26; discussion 726-7.

Rationale for inclusion: This, along with an article in Am. J. Surg by Helton, et al, are the earliest references to TIPS for variceal bleeding.

Citations - 95 (as of July 2017)

Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-induced intestinal disease.
Mulligan ME.
Rev Infect Dis. 1984 Mar-Apr;6 Suppl 1:S222-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Early review of the state of knowledge in the early 80's. 

Citations - 53 (as of July 2017)

Selective arterial embolization. A new method for control of acute gastrointestinal bleeding.
Rösch J, Dotter CT, Brown MJ.
Radiology. 1972 Feb;102(2):303-6.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the historical landmark article describing embolization.

Citations - 500 (as of July 2017)

Prevention of stress ulcer by reducing gastric tissue histamine.
Ritchie WP Jr, Breen JJ, Grigg DI.
Surgery. 1967 Oct;62(4):596-600.

Rationale for inclusion: There was a fair amount of research into the connection between histamine and gastric ulcers at the time.  But this paper by a titan of surgery deserves special mention.

Citations - 19 (as of July 2017)

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