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GI - Open Abdomen

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Indications for Use of Damage Control Surgery in Civilian Trauma Patients: A Content Analysis and Expert Appropriateness Rating Study.
Roberts DJ, Bobrovitz N, Zygun DA, Ball CG, Kirkpatrick AW, Faris PD, Brohi K, D'Amours S, Fabian TC, Inaba K, Leppäniemi AK, Moore EE, Navsaria PH, Nicol AJ, Parry N, Stelfox HT.
Ann Surg. 2016 May;263(5):1018-27.

Rationale for inclusion: A constellation of well-known researchers used an interesting statistical alternative to meta-analysis to evaluate 175 articles (out of 23,000) between 1983 and 2014.  They found 123 distinct indications for DCL, but the most common were the lethal triad and inability to close the abdomen.

Citations - 24 (as of July 2017)

Damage-control laparotomy in nontrauma patients: review of indications and outcomes.
Khan A, Hsee L, Mathur S, Civil I.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Sep;75(3):365-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Already on the list as an excellent overview.

Citations - 36 (as of July 2017)

Long-term impact of damage control laparotomy: a prospective study.
Brenner M, Bochicchio G, Bochicchio K, Ilahi O, Rodriguez E, Henry S, Joshi M, Scalea T.
Arch Surg. 2011 Apr;146(4):395-9.

Rationale for inclusion: 5-year prospective follow up of 88 patients (63 survivors, 58 who had mesh).  66 ventral hernia repairs done.  51 of 63 returned to full work and ADLs.  Notable also for many historic references.

Citations - 39 (as of July 2017)

"Damage control" in the elderly: futile endeavor or fruitful enterprise?
Newell MA, Schlitzkus LL, Waibel BH, White MA, Schenarts PJ, Rotondo MF.
J Trauma. 2010 Nov;69(5):1049-53.

Rationale for inclusion: "Elderly" was defined as age 55 or older.  In a single center survey of 62 patients, the elderly had similar ISS, RBC, and complications but a mortality of 43%.  This was actually encouraging to the study group, who had expected far higher mortality.

Citations - 6 (as of July 2017)

A ten-year review of enterocutaneous fistulas after laparotomy for trauma.
Fischer PE, Fabian TC, Magnotti LJ, Schroeppel TJ, Bee TK, Maish GO 3rd, Savage SA, Laing AE, Barker AB, Croce MA.
J Trauma. 2009 Nov;67(5):924-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Similar to LA County's nearly simultaneous review but slightly larger (2,224 patients who had survived 96 hours).  Overall ECF rate was 2%, which rose to 8% in the open abdomen population.  ECF patients had 14% mortality and an average ICU stay of 59 days.

Citations - 66 (as of July 2017)

Vacuum-assisted wound closure achieves early fascial closure of open abdomens after severe trauma.
Suliburk JW, Ware DN, Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Cocanour CS, Kozar RA, Moore FA, Ivatury RR.
J Trauma. 2003 Dec;55(6):1155-60; discussion 1160-1.

Rationale for inclusion: This is a fairly early discussion of VAC for fascial closure after open abdomen.  35 patients were included with 29 survivors.  25 were able to be closed.  2 patients developed fistulae.

Citations - 168 (as of July 2017)

Reclosure of the open abdomen.
Sleeman D, Sosa JL, Gonzalez A, McKenney M, Puente I, Matos L, Martin L.
J Am Coll Surg. 1995 Feb;180(2):200-4.

Rationale for inclusion: This is an early discussion on methods of closure of the open abdomen.  Closure obtained with zippered mesh; coverage of the viscera with STSG, with or without mesh.

Citations - 36 (as of July 2017)

'Damage control': an approach for improved survival in exsanguinating penetrating abdominal injury.
Rotondo MF, Schwab CW, McGonigal MD, Phillips GR 3rd, Fruchterman TM, Kauder DR, Latenser BA, Angood PA.
J Trauma. 1993 Sep;35(3):375-82; discussion 382-3.

Rationale for inclusion: One of the landmark papers in damage control surgery.  Already on the list.

Citations - 1599 (as of July 2017)

Packing and re-exploration for patients with nonhepatic injuries.
Talbert S, Trooskin SZ, Scalea T, Vieux E, Atweh N, Duncan A, Sclafani S.
J Trauma. 1992 Jul;33(1):121-4; discussion 124-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Earlier than the 1993 landmark - retrospective review of 11 patients at King's County in NY.  All had the lethal triad.

Citations - 86 (as of July 2017)

Temporary abdominal closure (TAC) for planned relaparotomy (etappenlavage) in trauma.
Aprahamian C, Wittmann DH, Bergstein JM, Quebbeman EJ.
J Trauma. 1990 Jun;30(6):719-23.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the first description of the Wittmann patch (Wittmann is one of the authors) in trauma.  It predates the landmark article by Rotondo by 3 years.

Citations - 143 (as of July 2017)

Management of the major coagulopathy with onset during laparotomy.
Stone HH, Strom PR, Mullins RJ.
Ann Surg. 1983 May;197(5):532-5.

Rationale for inclusion: 31 patients were studies, 14 of them received standard therapy (continued surgery with massive transfusion) and 17  had their abdomens packed and closed with resuscitation in the ICU.  11 of 17 survived what was otherwise a uniformly mortal event.

Citations - 767 (as of July 2017)

Prospective evaluation of hemostatic techniques for liver injuries.
Lucas CE, Ledgerwood AM.
J Trauma. 1976 Jun;16(6):442-51.

Rationale for inclusion: One of the first modern mentions of packing for liver injuries with planned second look.  637 patients seen at Detroit Receiving over 5 years (!).

Citations - 188 (as of July 2017)

V. Notes on the Arrest of Hepatic Hemorrhage Due to Trauma.
Pringle JH.
Ann Surg. 1908 Oct;48(4):541-9.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the description of the Pringle Maneuver.  The author also notes the utility of packing liver injuries with planned second look...in 1908.  Has good historical references for liver suturing technique as well.

Citations - 1315 (as of July 2017)

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