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Idarucizumab for Dabigatran Reversal - Full Cohort Analysis.
Pollack CV Jr, Reilly PA, van Ryn J, Eikelboom JW, Glund S, Bernstein RA, Dubiel R, Huisman MV, Hylek EM, Kam CW, Kamphuisen PW, Kreuzer J, Levy JH, Royle G, Sellke FW, Stangier J, Steiner T, Verhamme P, Wang B, Young L, Weitz JI.
N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 11.

Rationale for inclusion: Multicenter, prospective study determined that idarucizumab rapidly reversed dabigatran anticoagulation in patients with uncontrolled bleeding or required reversal for an urgent procedure.

CAVEAT: This study was funded by Boehringer Ingelheim.

Citations - 0 (as of July 2017)

Impact of Volume Change Over Time on Trauma Mortality in the United States.
Brown JB, Rosengart MR, Kahn JM, Mohan D, Zuckerbraun BS, Billiar TR, Peitzman AB, Angus DC, Sperry JL.
Ann Surg. 2017 Jul;266(1):173-178.

Rationale for inclusion: NTDB study of severely injured patients (ISS>15) determined that each 1% increase in volume was associated with a 73% increased odd of improvement in a center-level standardized mortality ratio at level I and II centers.

Citations: 3 (as of July 2017)

Novel oral anticoagulants and trauma: The results of a prospective American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multi-Institutional Trial.
Kobayashi L, Barmparas G, Bosarge P, Brown CV, Bukur M, Carrick MM, Catalano RD, Holly-Nicolas J, Inaba K, Kaminski S, Klein AL, Kopelman T, Ley EJ, Martinez EM, Moore FO, Murry J, Nirula R, Paul D, Quick J, Rivera O, Schreiber M, Coimbra R; AAST Multicenter Prospective Observational Study of Trauma Patients on Novel Oral Anticoagulants Study Group.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 May;82(5):827-835.

Rationale for inclusion: The effect of novel anticoagulants was examined in the prospective observational report from 16 trauma centers.  Patients on novel anticoagulants were not at higher risk for ICH, progression, or death.

Citations - 0 (as of July 2017)

Long-term outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair: A single institution's 11-year experience.
Brenner M, Teeter W, Hadud M, Hoehn M, O'Connor J, Stein D, Scalea T.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Apr;82(4):687-693.

Rationale for inclusion: Access specific and long-term outcomes were followed in trauma patients who underwent percutaneous TEVAR.

CAVEAT: Followup was limited at 62%, 25% and 14% at 1, 3 and 5 years respectively.

Citations - 184 (as of July 2017)

Persistent Fibrinolysis Shutdown Is Associated with Increased Mortality in Severely Injured Trauma Patients.
Meizoso JP, Karcutskie CA, Ray JJ, Namias N, Schulman CI, Proctor KG.
J Am Coll Surg. 2017 Apr;224(4):575-582.

Rationale for inclusion:  TEG was performed upon ICU admission in 181 trauma patients to find that persistent fibrinolsysis shutdown was associated with late mortality.

Citations - 1 (as of July 2017)

Damage control resuscitation in patients with severe traumatic hemorrhage: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma.
Cannon JW, Khan MA, Raja AS, Cohen MJ, Como JJ, Cotton BA, Dubose JJ, Fox EE, Inaba K, Rodriguez CJ, Holcomb JB, Duchesne JC.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Mar;82(3):605-617.

Rationale for inclusion: Quantitative meta-analysis using GRADE methodology of 31 studies.  Mortality improved with massive transfusion protocols and high plasma and platelet to red cell transfusion ratios.

Citations - 6 (as of July 2017)

Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of Peritoneal Resuscitation in the Management of Trauma Patients Undergoing Damage Control Surgery.
Smith JW, Matheson PJ, Franklin GA, Harbrecht BG, Richardson JD, Garrison RN.
J Am Coll Surg. 2017 Apr;224(4):396-404.

Rationale for inclusion:  103 patients who underwent damage control surgery were randomized to peritoneal verus conventional resuscitation.  Peritoneal resuscitation patients had more rapid definitive closure, less intra-abedominal infection and improved mortality.

Citations - 0 (as of July 2017)

Preperitoneal pelvic packing reduces mortality in patients with life-threatening hemorrhage due to unstable pelvic fractures.
Burlew CC, Moore EE, Stahel PF, Geddes AE, Wagenaar AE, Pieracci FM, Fox CJ, Campion EM, Johnson JL, Mauffrey C.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Feb;82(2):233-242.

Rationale for inclusion: In 128 patients who underwent preperitoneal packing, the authors demonstrated shorter time to intervention and decreased mortality when compared to other contemporary series.

Citations - 2 (as of July 2017)

Utilizing Group-based Trajectory Modeling to Understand Patterns of Hemorrhage and Resuscitation.
Savage SA, Sumislawski JJ, Bell TM, Zarzaur BL.
Ann Surg. 2016 Dec;264(6):1135-1141.

Rationale for inclusion:  The authors conducted a prospective observational study of 316 patients to define 6 distinct transfusion trajectories that are important in clinical course and trajectory.

Citations - 1 (as of July 2017)

Cervical spinal clearance: A prospective Western Trauma Association Multi-institutional Trial.
Inaba K, Byerly S, Bush LD, Martin MJ, Martin DT, Peck KA, Barmparas G, Bradley MJ, Hazelton JP, Coimbra R, Choudhry AJ, Brown CV, Ball CG, Cherry-Bukowiec JR, Burlew CC, Joseph B, Dunn J, Minshall CT, Carrick MM, Berg GM, Demetriades D; WTA C-Spine Study Group.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 Dec;81(6):1122-1130.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective, observational study of 10,765 patients requiring acute imaging for their C-spine after blunt trauma.  CT was effective for ruling out clinically significant injury with 98.5% sensitivity.

Citations - 1 (as of July 2017)

Effect of Short-Term vs. Long-Term Blood Storage on Mortality after Transfusion.
Heddle NM, Cook RJ, Arnold DM, Liu Y, Barty R, Crowther MA, Devereaux PJ, Hirsh J, Warkentin TE, Webert KE, Roxby D, Sobieraj-Teague M, Kurz A, Sessler DI, Figueroa P, Ellis M, Eikelboom JW.
N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 17;375(20):1937-1945.

Rationale for inclusion:  Randomized, controlled, multicenter trial comparing outcomes after transfusion of short-term (mean 13d) vs. long-term storage (24d) RBCs.  No difference in hospital mortality was detected between groups.

CAVEAT: Not a trauma but a general hospital population

Citations - 41 (as of July 2017)

Association Between Enoxaparin Dosage Adjusted by Anti-Factor Xa Trough Level and Clinically Evident Venous Thromboembolism After Trauma.
Ko A, Harada MY, Barmparas G, Chung K, Mason R, Yim DA, Dhillon N, Margulies DR, Gewertz BL, Ley EJ.
JAMA Surg. 2016 Nov 1;151(11):1006-1013.

Rationale for inclusion: Trauma patients who received enoxaparin adjusted by anti-Xa trough levels were compared to standard 30mg BID dosing.  Subprophylactic anti-Xa levels and VTE were more common in the standard dosing group.

Citations - 5 (as of July 2017)

Timing of Pharmacologic Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.
Byrne JP, Mason SA, Gomez D, Hoeft C, Subacius H, Xiong W, Neal M, Pirouzmand F, Nathens AB.
J Am Coll Surg. 2016 Oct;223(4):621-631.e5.

Rationale for inclusion: TQIP patients with severe TBI (GCS≤8) were compared with respect to initiation of VTE prophylaxis before or after 72hrs.  Early VTE prophylaxis was associated with decreased PE, DVT but no increase in late neurosurgical intervention or death.

Citations - 4 (as of July 2017)

Evaluation of Cervical Spine Clearance by Computed Tomographic Scan Alone in Intoxicated Patients With Blunt Trauma.
Bush L, Brookshire R, Roche B, Johnson A, Cole F, Karmy-Jones R, Long W, Martin MJ.
JAMA Surg. 2016 Sep 1;151(9):807-13.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective, observational study of 1668 intoxicated patients who underwent cervical spine CTs.  CT alone had a 99.8% negative predictive value for ruling out injury requiring immobilization or stabalization.

Citations - 1 (as of July 2017)

The AAST prospective Aortic Occlusion for Resuscitation in Trauma and Acute Care Surgery (AORTA) registry: Data on contemporary utilization and outcomes of aortic occlusion and resuscitative balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA).
DuBose JJ, Scalea TM, Brenner M, Skiada D, Inaba K, Cannon J, Moore L, Holcomb J, Turay D, Arbabi CN, Kirkpatrick A, Xiao J, Skarupa D, Poulin N; AAST AORTA Study Group.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 Sep;81(3):409-19.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective multi-center trial of REBOA initial results, suggesting that REBOA is a viable alternative to open aortic occlusion for centers who are able to perform the technique.

Citations - 31 (as of July 2017)

Immediate total-body CT scanning versus conventional imaging and selective CT scanning in patients with severe trauma (REACT-2): a randomised controlled trial.
Sierink JC, Treskes K, Edwards MJ, Beuker BJ, den Hartog D, Hohmann J, Dijkgraaf MG, Luitse JS, Beenen LF, Hollmann MW, Goslings JC; REACT-2 study group.
Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):673-83.

Rationale for inclusion: Randomized, controlled, multicenter trial comparing patients randomized to immediate, total body CT scanning or standard workup and found no difference in hospital mortality. 

CAVEAT: 46% of standard workup group eventually underwent total body CT by sequential scans.  Median times to imaging completion and diagnosis were both decreased in the total body CT group.

Citations - 27 (as of July 2017)

Development and Validation of the Air Medical Prehospital Triage Score for Helicopter Transport of Trauma Patients.
Brown JB, Gestring ML, Guyette FX, Rosengart MR, Stassen NA, Forsythe RM, Billiar TR, Peitzman AB, Sperry JL.
Ann Surg. 2016 Aug;264(2):378-85.

Rationale for inclusion: NTDB study used to develop an Air Medical Prehospital Triage score with an optimal cutpoint for HEMS transport of ≥2.

Citations: 4 (as of July 2017)

Initial safety and feasibility of cold-stored uncrossmatched whole blood transfusion in civilian trauma patients.
Yazer MH, Jackson B, Sperry JL, Alarcon L, Triulzi DJ, Murdock AD.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 Jul;81(1):21-6.

Rationale for inclusion:  Initial report of safety and feasibility of uncrossed whole blood transfusion in the civilian trauma population.

CAVEAT: Small study

Citations - 11 (as of July 2017)

A Trial of Wound Irrigation in the Initial Management of Open Fracture Wounds.
FLOW Investigators, Bhandari M, Jeray KJ, Petrisor BA, Devereaux PJ, Heels-Ansdell D, Schemitsch EH, Anglen J, Della Rocca GJ, Jones C, Kreder H, Liew S, McKay P, Papp S, Sancheti P, Sprague S, Stone TB, Sun X, Tanner SL, Tornetta P 3rd, Tufescu T, Walter S, Guyatt GH.
N Engl J Med. 2015 Dec 31;373(27):2629-41

Rationale for inclusion: Published in NEJM, this prospective randomized multi-institutional trial of 2551 patients with open fractures found no difference in high or low pressure irrigation systems with respect to need for reoperation.  In addition, compared to castile soap, irrigation with normal saline had a lower rate of reoperation within 12 months of injury.

Citations - 37 (as of July 2017)

Hypothermia for hypertension after traumatic brain injury.
Andrews PJ, Sinclair HL, Rodriguez A, Harris BA, Battison CG, Rhodes JK, Murray GD; Eurotherm3235 Trial Collaborators.
N Engl J Med. 2015 Dec 17;373(25):2403-12.

Rationale for inclusion: 387 patients with intracranial hypertension randomized to standard care or hypothermia + standard care.  The addition of hypothermia did not improve functional outcomes at 6 months from injury.

Citations - 136 (as of July 2017)

Implementation of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta as an alternative to resuscitative thoracotomy for noncompressible truncal hemorrhage.
Moore LJ, Brenner M, Kozar RA, Pasley J, Wade CE, Baraniuk MS, Scalea T, Holcomb JB.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Oct;79(4):523-30; discussion 530-2.

Rationale for inclusion: REBOA compared with resuscitative thoracotomy for truncal hemorrhage showed improved survival with REBOA.

Citations - 49 (as of July 2017)

FAST ultrasound examination as a predictor of outcomes after resuscitative thoracotomy: a prospective evaluation.
Inaba K, Chouliaras K, Zakaluzny S, Swadron S, Mailhot T, Seif D, Teixeira P, Sivrikoz E, Ives C, Barmparas G, Koronakis N, Demetriades D.
Ann Surg. 2015 Sep;262(3):512-8; discussion 516-8.

Rationale for inclusion: FAST ultrasound can help discriminate potential survivors of ED thoracotomy; Cardiac motion on FAST was 100% sensitive and 74% specific for survivors and organ donors.

Citations - 17 (as of July 2017)

An evidence-based approach to patient selection for emergency department thoracotomy: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma.
Seamon MJ, Haut ER, Van Arendonk K, Barbosa RR, Chiu WC, Dente CJ, Fox N, Jawa RS, Khwaja K, Lee JK, Magnotti LJ, Mayglothling JA, McDonald AA, Rowell S, To KB, Falck-Ytter Y, Rhee P.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jul;79(1):159-73

Rationale for inclusion: EAST practice management guideline synthesizing 72 studies of ED thoracotomy. Not primary data but important synthesis of important information.

Citations - 39 (as of July 2017)

Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate versus plasma for rapid vitamin K antagonist reversal in patients needing urgent surgical or invasive interventions: a phase 3b, open-label, non-inferiority, randomised trial.
Goldstein JN, Refaai MA, Milling TJ Jr, Lewis B, Goldberg-Alberts R, Hug BA, Sarode R.
Lancet. 2015 May 23;385(9982):2077-87.

Rationale for inclusion: Four-factor PCC is non-inferior and superior to plasma for rapid INR reversal in patients taking vitamin K antagonists.

Citations - 124 (as of July 2017)

The role of REBOA in the control of exsanguinating torso hemorrhage.
Biffl WL, Fox CJ, Moore EE.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 May;78(5):1054-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Proposed algorithm for the use of REBOA in patients with exsanguinating torso hemorrhage.

Citations - 55 (as of July 2017)

Evaluation of the safety and feasibility of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta.
Saito N, Matsumoto H, Yagi T, Hara Y, Hayashida K, Motomura T, Mashiko K, Iida H, Yokota H, Wagatsuma Y.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 May;78(5):897-903; discussion 904.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes use of REBOA in 24 patients in Tokyo, including 3 complications. Describes increased blood pressure with use of REBOA.

Citations - 51 (as of July 2017)

Survival of severe blunt trauma patients treated with resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta compared with propensity score-adjusted untreated patients.
Norii T, Crandall C, Terasaka Y.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Apr;78(4):721-8.

Rationale for inclusion: NTDB study showed higher mortality in patients who received REBOA than propensity score matched patients who did not, although this is not fully explained

Citations - 42 (as of July 2017)

Surgical vs nonsurgical treatment of adults with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus: the PROFHER randomized clinical trial.
Rangan A, Handoll H, Brealey S, Jefferson L, Keding A, Martin BC, Goodchild L, Chuang LH, Hewitt C, Torgerson D; PROFHER Trial Collaborators.
JAMA. 2015 Mar 10;313(10):1037-47.

Rationale for inclusion: This prospective, multi-center, randomized trial compared fracture fixation or humeral head replacement to the nonsurgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures at the surgical neck, finding no difference in clinical outcomes at two years and supporting nonoperative management including sling immobilization for these patients.

Citations - 66 (as of July 2017)

Transfusion of plasma, platelets, and red blood cells in a 1:1:1 vs a 1:1:2 ratio and mortality in patients with severe trauma: the PROPPR randomized clinical trial.
Holcomb JB, Tilley BC, Baraniuk S, Fox EE, Wade CE, Podbielski JM, del Junco DJ, Brasel KJ, Bulger EM, Callcut RA, Cohen MJ, Cotton BA, Fabian TC, Inaba K, Kerby JD, Muskat P, O'Keeffe T, Rizoli S, Robinson BR, Scalea TM, Schreiber MA, Stein DM, Weinberg JA, Callum JL, Hess JR, Matijevic N, Miller CN, Pittet JF, Hoyt DB, Pearson GD, Leroux B, van Belle G; PROPPR Study Group.
JAMA. 2015 Feb 3;313(5):471-82.

Rationale for inclusion: PROPPR trial discussed ratios of blood product for resuscitation of trauma patients.

Citations - 442 (as of July 2017)

Tranexamic acid use in severely injured civilian patients and the effects on outcomes: a prospective cohort study.
Cole E, Davenport R, Willett K, Brohi K.
Ann Surg. 2015 Feb;261(2):390-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective study of TXA, use was associated with reduction in organ failure and all-cause mortality.

Citations - 46 (as of July 2017)

Cervical spine collar clearance in the obtunded adult blunt trauma patient: a systematic review and practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma.
Patel MB, Humble SS, Cullinane DC, Day MA, Jawa RS, Devin CJ, Delozier MS, Smith LM, Smith MA, Capella JM, Long AM, Cheng JS, Leath TC, Falck-Ytter Y, Haut ER, Como JJ.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Feb;78(2):430-41.

Rationale for inclusion: EAST Practice Management Guideline recommended the conditional removal of cervical collars in obtunded patients after negative, high-quality CT scans.

Citations - 32 (as of July 2017)

Prospective trial of angiography and embolization for all grade III to V blunt splenic injuries: nonoperative management success rate is significantly improved.
Miller PR, Chang MC, Hoth JJ, Mowery NT, Hildreth AN, Martin RS, Holmes JH, Meredith JW, Requarth JA.
J Am Coll Surg. 2014 Apr;218(4):644-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Implementation of a protocol utilizing angiography and embolization of all grade III, IV, and V splenic injuries decreased failure rates of nonoperative management strategies and is recommended routinely for these injuries in this manuscript.

Citations - 40 (as of July 2017)

Tourniquet use for peripheral vascular injuries in the civilian setting.
Passos E, Dingley B, Smith A, Engels PT, Ball CG, Faidi S, Nathens A, Tien H; Canadian Trauma Trials Collaborative.
Injury. 2014 Mar;45(3):573-7

Rationale for inclusion: Rare application of tourniquets in the prehospital setting in this Canadian study, however, there was death of patients from exsanguination who did not have application of a tourniquet.

Citations - 49 (as of July 2017)

Hemostatic resuscitation is neither hemostatic nor resuscitative in trauma hemorrhage.
Khan S, Brohi K, Chana M, Raza I, Stanworth S, Gaarder C, Davenport R; International Trauma Research Network (INTRN).
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Mar;76(3):561-7; discussion 567-8.

Rationale for inclusion: For patients with ongoing bleeding, resuscitation directed by ROTEM did not achieve correction of hypo-perfusion or coagulopathy.

Citations - 70 (as of July 2017)

The effectiveness of prophylactic inferior vena cava filters in trauma patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Haut ER, Garcia LJ, Shihab HM, Brotman DJ, Stevens KA, Sharma R, Chelladurai Y, Akande TO, Shermock KM, Kebede S, Segal JB, Singh S.
JAMA Surg. 2014 Feb;149(2):194-202.

Rationale for inclusion: The strength of evidence is low but supports the association of IVC filter placement with a lower incidence of PE and fatal PE in trauma patients. Which patients experience benefit enough to outweigh the harms associated with IVC filter placement remains unclear. 

Citations - 67 (as of July 2017)

Saline versus Plasma-Lyte A in initial resuscitation of trauma patients: a randomized trial.
Young JB, Utter GH, Schermer CR, Galante JM, Phan HH, Yang Y, Anderson BA, Scherer LA.
Ann Surg. 2014 Feb;259(2):255-62.

Rationale for inclusion: Use of Plasma-Lyte A led to less hyperchloremia and more physiologic acid-base status than saline.

Citations - 92 (as of July 2017)

The persistent diagnostic challenge of thoracoabdominal stab wounds.
Berg RJ, Karamanos E, Inaba K, Okoye O, Teixeira PG, Demetriades D.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Feb;76(2):418-23.

Rationale for inclusion: Large contemporary series of thoracoabdominal stab wounds that reveals a 12 % nontherapeutic laparotomy rate and 32% miss rate for diaphragmatic injury on CT scan.

Citations - 16 (as of July 2017)

Intracranial pressure monitoring in severe traumatic brain injury: results from the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program.
Alali AS, Fowler RA, Mainprize TG, Scales DC, Kiss A, de Mestral C, Ray JG, Nathens AB.
J Neurotrauma. 2013 Oct 15;30(20):1737-46.

Rationale for inclusion: In TQIP data, hospitals that used ICP monitors more frequently tended to have better outcomes and lower mortality.

Citations - 74 (as of July 2017)

Independent predictors of enteric fistula and abdominal sepsis after damage control laparotomy: results from the prospective AAST Open Abdomen registry.
Bradley MJ, Dubose JJ, Scalea TM, Holcomb JB, Shrestha B, Okoye O, Inaba K, Bee TK, Fabian TC, Whelan JF, Ivatury RR; AAST Open Abdomen Study Group.
JAMA Surg. 2013 Oct;148(10):947-54.

Rationale for inclusion: To identify independent risk factors of enterocutaneous fistula, enteroatmospheric fistula, and intraabdominal sepsis following damage control laparotomy, utilization of the AAST registry found that large bowel resection, large volume fluid resuscitation, and number of abdominal re-explorations were independently associated with the development of these complications.  

Citations - 52 (as of July 2017)

A clinical series of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta for hemorrhage control and resuscitation.
Brenner ML, Moore LJ, DuBose JJ, Tyson GH, McNutt MK, Albarado RP, Holcomb JB, Scalea TM, Rasmussen TE.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Sep;75(3):506-11.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes use of REBOA in 6 patients, with short aortic occlusion times and improvement in blood pressure.

Citations - 173 (as of July 2017)

Prospective randomized controlled trial of operative rib fixation in traumatic flail chest.
Marasco SF, Davies AR, Cooper J, Varma D, Bennett V, Nevill R, Lee G, Bailey M, Fitzgerald M.
J Am Coll Surg. 2013 May;216(5):924-32.

Rationale for inclusion:  Prospective, randomized trial comparing operative rib fixation with mechanical ventilation  for flail chest injuries.  

Citations - 120 (as of July 2017)

The prospective, observational, multicenter, major trauma transfusion (PROMMTT) study: comparative effectiveness of a time-varying treatment with competing risks.
Holcomb JB, del Junco DJ, Fox EE, Wade CE, Cohen MJ, Schreiber MA, Alarcon LH, Bai Y, Brasel KJ, Bulger EM, Cotton BA, Matijevic N, Muskat P, Myers JG, Phelan HA, White CE, Zhang J, Rahbar MH; PROMMTT Study Group.
JAMA Surg. 2013 Feb;148(2):127-36.

Rationale for inclusion: Early administration of balanced blood products leads to decreased 6-h mortality.

Citations - 355 (as of July 2017)

TEG-guided resuscitation is superior to standardized MTP resuscitation in massively transfused penetrating trauma patients.
Tapia NM, Chang A, Norman M, Welsh F, Scott B, Wall MJ Jr, Mattox KL, Suliburk J.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Feb;74(2):378-85; discussion 385-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison of standard MTP to TEG-directed resuscitation; TEG resuscitation patients had improved mortality in a subset of patients: patients with penetrating mechanism receiving more than 10U PRBCs.

Citations - 81 (as of July 2017)

The incidence and magnitude of fibrinolytic activation in trauma patients.
Raza I, Davenport R, Rourke C, Platton S, Manson J, Spoors C, Khan S, De'Ath HD, Allard S, Hart DP, Pasi KJ, Hunt BJ, Stanworth S, MacCallum PK, Brohi K.
J Thromb Haemost. 2013 Feb;11(2):307-14.

Rationale for inclusion: Magnitude of fibronlytic activation correlates with clinical outcome in trauma patients, by thromboelastometry.

Citations - 207 (as of July 2017)

Chasing 100%: the use of hypertonic saline to improve early, primary fascial closure after damage control laparotomy.
Harvin JA, Mims MM, Duchesne JC, Cox CS Jr, Wade CE, Holcomb JB, Cotton BA.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Feb;74(2):426-30; discussion 431-2.

Rationale for inclusion: This study advocates for the use of 3% hypertonic saline as maintenance fluid (30mL/hr) after damage control laparotomy, citing a 100% primary fascial closure rate as compared to a 76% fascial closure rate in patients who received isotonic fluids at 125mL/hr.

Citations - 21 (as of July 2017)

Open abdominal management after damage-control laparotomy for trauma: a prospective observational American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter study.
Dubose JJ, Scalea TM, Holcomb JB, Shrestha B, Okoye O, Inaba K, Bee TK, Fabian TC, Whelan J, Ivatury RR; AAST Open Abdomen Study Group.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Jan;74(1):113-20; discussion 1120-2.

Rationale for inclusion: The results of this AAST multi-center observational trial identified risk factors for failure to achieve primary closure following damage control laparotomies.  This study found the number of re-explorations required, development of intraabdominal abscess, bloodstream infection, acute renal failure, enteric fistula, and ISS greater than 15 were all associated with failure to achieve primary fascial closure.

Citations - 81 (as of July 2017)

An outcome analysis of endovascular versus open repair of blunt traumatic aortic injuries.
Azizzadeh A, Charlton-Ouw KM, Chen Z, Rahbar MH, Estrera AL, Amer H, Coogan SM, Safi HJ.
J Vasc Surg. 2013 Jan;57(1):108-14; discussion 115.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective, single-center study analyzing outcomes after TEVAR and open repair of blunt aortic injuries.

Citations - 52 (as of July 2017)

A trial of intracranial-pressure monitoring in traumatic brain injury.
Chesnut RM, Temkin N, Carney N, Dikmen S, Rondina C, Videtta W, Petroni G, Lujan S, Pridgeon J, Barber J, Machamer J, Chaddock K, Celix JM, Cherner M, Hendrix T; Global Neurotrauma Research Group.
N Engl J Med. 2012 Dec 27;367(26):2471-81.

Rationale for inclusion: 324 patients with severe TBI were randomized to either pressure monitoring or clinical examination/imaging to find no difference in measured outcomes.

Citations - 535 (as of July 2017)

A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot trial of anticoagulation in low-risk traumatic brain injury: The Delayed Versus Early Enoxaparin Prophylaxis I (DEEP I) study.
Phelan HA, Wolf SE, Norwood SH, Aldy K, Brakenridge SC, Eastman AL, Madden CJ, Nakonezny PA, Yang L, Chason DP, Arbique GM, Berne J, Minei JP.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Dec;73(6):1434-41.

Rationale for inclusion: TBI progression rates after starting enoxaparin in small, stable injuries 24 hours after injury are similar to those of placebo and are subclinical.

Citations - 48 (as of July 2017)

Improved prophylaxis and decreased rates of preventable harm with the use of a mandatory computerized clinical decision support tool for prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in trauma.
Haut ER, Lau BD, Kraenzlin FS, Hobson DB, Kraus PS, Carolan HT, Haider AH, Holzmueller CG, Efron DT, Pronovost PJ, Streiff MB.
Arch Surg. 2012 Oct;147(10):901-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Implementation of a mandatory computerized decision tool improved compliance with VTE prophylaxis guidelines in trauma patients, resulting in lower rate of VTE events in patients who were not ordered appropriate prophylaxis.

Citations - 69 (as of July 2017)

Admission rapid thrombelastography can replace conventional coagulation tests in the emergency department: experience with 1974 consecutive trauma patients.
Holcomb JB, Minei KM, Scerbo ML, Radwan ZA, Wade CE, Kozar RA, Gill BS, Albarado R, McNutt MK, Khan S, Adams PR, McCarthy JJ, Cotton BA.
Ann Surg. 2012 Sep;256(3):476-86.

Rationale for inclusion: TEG at the time of admission showed better discrimination than conventional coagulation tests when predicting need for massive transfusion.

Citations - 198 (as of July 2017)

Improved functional outcomes for major trauma patients in a regionalized, inclusive trauma system.
Gabbe BJ, Simpson PM, Sutherland AM, Wolfe R, Fitzgerald MC, Judson R, Cameron PA.
Ann Surg. 2012 Jun;255(6):1009-15.

Rationale for inclusion: Major trauma survivors had better functional outcomes if managed at Level 1 Trauma Centers.

Citations - 108 (as of July 2017)

Early platelet dysfunction: an unrecognized role in the acute coagulopathy of trauma.
Wohlauer MV, Moore EE, Thomas S, Sauaia A, Evans E, Harr J, Silliman CC, Ploplis V, Castellino FJ, Walsh M.
J Am Coll Surg. 2012 May;214(5):739-46.

Rationale for inclusion: Shows platelet dysfunction in trauma patients (compared with healthy volunteers) as seen in thromboelastography.

Citations - 131 (as of July 2017)

Benchmarking outcomes in the critically injured trauma patient and the effect of implementing standard operating procedures.
Cuschieri J, Johnson JL, Sperry J, West MA, Moore EE, Minei JP, Bankey PE, Nathens AB, Cuenca AG, Efron PA, Hennessy L, Xiao W, Mindrinos MN, McDonald-Smith GP, Mason PH, Billiar TR, Schoenfeld DA, Warren HS, Cobb JP, Moldawer LL, Davis RW, Maier RV, Tompkins RG; Inflammation and Host Response to Injury, Large Scale Collaborative Research Program.
Ann Surg. 2012 May;255(5):993-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrates use of "standard operating procedures" to improve outcomes for trauma patients.

Citations - 44 (as of July 2017)

Placebo-controlled trial of amantadine for severe traumatic brain injury.
Giacino JT, Whyte J, Bagiella E, Kalmar K, Childs N, Khademi A, Eifert B, Long D, Katz DI, Cho S, Yablon SA, Luther M, Hammond FM, Nordenbo A, Novak P, Mercer W, Maurer-Karattup P, Sherer M.
N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar 1;366(9):819-26.

Rationale for inclusion: Patients 1-4 months after TBI were randomized to amantadine or placebo.  Patients randomized to amantadine experienced a more rapid rate of functional recovery.

Citations - 292 (as of July 2017)

Blunt cerebrovascular injuries: redefining screening criteria in the era of noninvasive diagnosis.
Burlew CC, Biffl WL, Moore EE, Barnett CC, Johnson JL, Bensard DD.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Feb;72(2):330-5; discussion 336-7, quiz 539.

Rationale for inclusion: 20% of BCVI patients had no conventional screening criteria, leading the authors to consider expanding screening criteria to mandible fractures, complex skull fractures, TBI with thoracic injury, scalp degloving, and thoracic vascular injuries.

Citations - 50 (as of July 2017)

Early versus delayed decompression for traumatic cervical spinal cord injury: results of the Surgical Timing in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (STASCIS).
Fehlings MG, Vaccaro A, Wilson JR, Singh A, W Cadotte D, Harrop JS, Aarabi B, Shaffrey C, Dvorak M, Fisher C, Arnold P, Massicotte EM, Lewis S, Rampersaud R.
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32037.

Rationale for inclusion: A prospective observational study of patients who underwent decompression of the cervical spinal cord before or after 24hrs revealed the early surgery group were nearly 3x as likely to achieve a 2 grade ASIA impairment scale improvement at 6 months.

Citations - 360 (as of July 2017)

Management of post-traumatic retained hemothorax: a prospective, observational, multicenter AAST study.
DuBose J, Inaba K, Demetriades D, Scalea TM, O'Connor J, Menaker J, Morales C, Konstantinidis A, Shiflett A, Copwood B; AAST Retained Hemothorax Study Group.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Jan;72(1):11-22; discussion 22-4; quiz 316.

Rationale for inclusion: Large, multi-center review of retained hemothoraces found that 1) retained hemothoraces <300cc can often be observed, 2) >900cc often require thoracotomy as do patient who undergo initial chest tube placement without antibiotics.

Citations - 87 (as of July 2017)

Functional definition and characterization of acute traumatic coagulopathy.
Davenport R, Manson J, De'Ath H, Platton S, Coates A, Allard S, Hart D, Pearse R, Pasi KJ, MacCallum P, Stanworth S, Brohi K.
Crit Care Med. 2011 Dec;39(12):2652-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Use of ROTEM for point of care diagnosis of early coagulopathy.

Citations - 299 (as of July 2017)

Validating the Western Trauma Association algorithm for managing patients with anterior abdominal stab wounds: a Western Trauma Association multicenter trial.
Biffl WL, Kaups KL, Pham TN, Rowell SE, Jurkovich GJ, Burlew CC, Elterman J, Moore EE.
J Trauma. 2011 Dec;71(6):1494-502.

Rationale for inclusion: This study validated the WTA algorithm for management of hemodyamically stable patients following anterior abdominal stab wounds.

Citations - 46 (as of July 2017)

Damage control resuscitation is associated with a reduction in resuscitation volumes and improvement in survival in 390 damage control laparotomy patients.
Cotton BA, Reddy N, Hatch QM, LeFebvre E, Wade CE, Kozar RA, Gill BS, Albarado R, McNutt MK, Holcomb JB.
Ann Surg. 2011 Oct; 254(4): 598-605.

Rationale for inclusion: Damage control resuscitation reduces administration of fluids (crystalloid and colloid) and has lower mortality in this retrospective study.

Citations - 220 (as of July 2017)

Improving the screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury: the appropriate role for computed tomography angiography.
Emmett KP, Fabian TC, DiCocco JM, Zarzaur BL, Croce MA.
J Trauma. 2011 May;70(5):1058-63; discussion 1063-5.

Rationale for inclusion: 16% of patients in this BCVI series had no conventional screening criteria, advocating for more aggressive screening measures.

Citations - 42 (as of July 2017)

Decompressive craniectomy in diffuse traumatic brain injury.
Cooper DJ, Rosenfeld JV, Murray L, Arabi YM, Davies AR, D'Urso P, Kossmann T, Ponsford J, Seppelt I, Reilly P, Wolfe R; DECRA Trial Investigators; Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group.
N Engl J Med. 2011 Apr 21;364(16):1493-502.

Rationale for inclusion: RCT determined that patients with severe diffuse traumatic brain injury fared no better when randomized to early bifrontotemporoparietal decompressive craniectomy than standard care.

Citations - 797 (as of July 2017)

Unstable cervical spine fracture after penetrating neck injury: a rare entity in an analysis of 1,069 patients.
Lustenberger T, Talving P, Lam L, Kobayashi L, Inaba K, Plurad D, Branco BC, Demetriades D.
J Trauma. 2011 Apr;70(4):870-2.

Rationale for inclusion:  Large series from LA examining the role of cervical collars after penetrating neck injuries.  The incidence of unstable C-spine injury was 0.4% and all resulted from GSWs with coma or focal neurologic deficits.

Citations - 45 (as of July 2017)

Optimal outcomes for patients with blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI): tailoring treatment to the lesion.
DiCocco JM, Fabian TC, Emmett KP, Magnotti LJ, Zarzaur BL, Bate BG, Muhlbauer MS, Khan N, Kelly JM, Williams JS, Croce MA.
J Am Coll Surg. 2011 Apr;212(4):549-57; discussion 557-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Endovascular treatment of pseudo-aneurysms, dissections, and fistulas led to outcomes similar to medical treatment.

Citations - 35 (as of July 2017)

Preperitoneal pelvic packing/external fixation with secondary angioembolization: optimal care for life-threatening hemorrhage from unstable pelvic fractures.
Burlew CC, Moore EE, Smith WR, Johnson JL, Biffl WL, Barnett CC, Stahel PF.
J Am Coll Surg. 2011 Apr;212(4):628-35; discussion 635-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Additional support for preperitoneal packing, this study concluded that packing and external fixation is effective in the early treatment of life-threatening pelvic hemorrhage from fractures and can reduce the need for secondary embolization significantly as well as serve as a temporizing measure to allow transport to definitive care.

Citations - 99 (as of July 2017)

Variation in hospital complication rates and failure-to-rescue for trauma patients.
Glance LG, Dick AW, Meredith JW, Mukamel DB.
Ann Surg. 2011 Apr;253(4):811-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Variation in hospital complication rates suggests that the primary driver of differences in hospital quality for trauma patients is the ability to recover after major complication (i.e. failure to rescue in high-mortality hospitals).

Citations - 50 (as of July 2017)

The importance of early treatment with tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma patients: an exploratory analysis of the CRASH-2 randomised controlled trial.
CRASH-2 collaborators, Roberts I, Shakur H, Afolabi A, Brohi K, Coats T, Dewan Y, Gando S, Guyatt G, Hunt BJ, Morales C, Perel P, Prieto-Merino D, Woolley T.
Lancet. 2011 Mar 26;377(9771):1096-101, 1101.e1-2.

Rationale for inclusion: Further analysis of the CRASH-2 trial data to explain the effect of TXA on bleeding deaths.

Citations - 590 (as of July 2017)

Out-of-hospital hypertonic resuscitation after traumatic hypovolemic shock: a randomized, placebo controlled trial.
Bulger EM, May S, Kerby JD, Emerson S, Stiell IG, Schreiber MA, Brasel KJ, Tisherman SA, Coimbra R, Rizoli S, Minei JP, Hata JS, Sopko G, Evans DC, Hoyt DB; ROC investigators.
Ann Surg. 2011 Mar;253(3):431-41.

Rationale for inclusion: Randomized study of hypertonic saline/dextran to normal saline, showed no difference in mortality and a higher mortality for the post-randomization group of patients who did not receive transfusions and received hypertonic fluids.

Citations - 194 (as of July 2017)

Out-of-hospital hypertonic resuscitation after traumatic hypovolemic shock: a randomized, placebo controlled trial.
Bulger EM, May S, Kerby JD, Emerson S, Stiell IG, Schreiber MA, Brasel KJ, Tisherman SA, Coimbra R, Rizoli S, Minei JP, Hata JS, Sopko G, Evans DC, Hoyt DB; ROC investigators.
Ann Surg. 2011 Mar;253(3):431-41.

Rationale for inclusion: Multi-center randomized trial of hypertonic to normal saline showed no difference.

Citations - 194 (as of July 2017)

Hypotensive resuscitation strategy reduces transfusion requirements and severe postoperative coagulopathy in trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock: preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial.
Morrison CA, Carrick MM, Norman MA, Scott BG, Welsh FJ, Tsai P, Liscum KR, Wall MJ Jr, Mattox KL.
J Trauma. 2011 Mar;70(3):652-63.

Rationale for inclusion: Use of a low mean arterial pressure (target 50mmHg) intraoperatively had a lower early postoperative mortality and were less likely to die from postoperative coagulopathy.

Citations - 268 (as of July 2017)

Defining the limits of resuscitative emergency department thoracotomy: a contemporary Western Trauma Association perspective.
Moore EE, Knudson MM, Burlew CC, Inaba K, Dicker RA, Biffl WL, Malhotra AK, Schreiber MA, Browder TD, Coimbra R, Gonzalez EA, Meredith JW, Livingston DH, Kaups KL; WTA Study Group.
J Trauma. 2011 Feb;70(2):334-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Resuscitative thoracotomy in the ED can be considered futile care when (a) prehospital CPR exceeds 10 minutes after blunt trauma without a response, (b) prehospital CPR exceeds 15 minutes after penetrating trauma without a response, and (c) asystole is the presenting rhythm and there is no pericardial tamponade.

Citations - 98 (as of July 2017)

Sew it up! A Western Trauma Association multi-institutional study of enteric injury management in the postinjury open abdomen.
Burlew CC, Moore EE, Cuschieri J, Jurkovich GJ, Codner P, Crowell K, Nirula R, Haan J, Rowell SE, Kato CM, MacNew H, Ochsner MG, Harrison PB, Fusco C, Sauaia A, Kaups KL; WTA Study Group.
J Trauma. 2011 Feb;70(2):273-7

Rationale for inclusion: The results of this WTA multi-institutional trial recommend repair of intestinal injuries should be considered in all patients including those with post-injury open abdomens, identifying higher leak rates with fascial closure beyond 5 days.  

Citations - 53 (as of July 2017)

Prehospital rapid sequence intubation improves functional outcome for patients with severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.
Bernard SA, Nguyen V, Cameron P, Masci K, Fitzgerald M, Cooper DJ, Walker T, Std BP, Myles P, Murray L, David, Taylor, Smith K, Patrick I, Edington J, Bacon A, Rosenfeld JV, Judson R.
Ann Surg. 2010 Dec;252(6):959-65.

Rationale for inclusion: RCT showed improved neurologic outcome for patients who received paramedic RSI versus hospital intubation.

Citations - 206 (as of July 2017)

Helicopters and the civilian trauma system: national utilization patterns demonstrate improved outcomes after traumatic injury.
Brown JB, Stassen NA, Bankey PE, Sangosanya AT, Cheng JD, Gestring ML.
J Trauma. 2010 Nov;69(5):1030-4; discussion 1034-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Helicopter transport was associated with improved survival despite higher severity injuries and longer transport times.

Citations - 112 (as of July 2017)

Out-of-hospital hypertonic resuscitation following severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.
Bulger EM, May S, Brasel KJ, Schreiber M, Kerby JD, Tisherman SA, Newgard C, Slutsky A, Coimbra R, Emerson S, Minei JP, Bardarson B, Kudenchuk P, Baker A, Christenson J, Idris A, Davis D, Fabian TC, Aufderheide TP, Callaway C, Williams C, Banek J, Vaillancourt C, van Heest R, Sopko G, Hata JS, Hoyt DB; ROC Investigators.
JAMA. 2010 Oct 6;304(13):1455-64.

Rationale for inclusion: No difference in patients treated with hypertonic fluid in the prehospital setting versus patients treated with saline, but a higher mortality in a subgroup of patients who did not receive blood transfusions and received hypertonic saline.

Citations - 217 (as of July 2017)

Trauma mortality in mature trauma systems: are we doing better? An analysis of trauma mortality patterns, 1997-2008.
Dutton RP, Stansbury LG, Leone S, Kramer E, Hess JR, Scalea TM.
J Trauma. 2010 Sep;69(3):620-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Improvements in trauma care over a 12-year period in one trauma center kept pace with increasing age and injury severity as measured by mortality.

Citations - 233 (as of July 2017)

Primary fibrinolysis is integral in the pathogenesis of the acute coagulopathy of trauma.
Kashuk JL, Moore EE, Sawyer M, Wohlauer M, Pezold M, Barnett C, Biffl WL, Burlew CC, Johnson JL, Sauaia A.
Ann Surg. 2010 Sep;252(3):434-42; discussion 443-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Identification of primary fibrinolysis by TEG is associated with death.

Citations - 218 (as of July 2017)

Trauma mortality in mature trauma systems: are we doing better? An analysis of trauma mortality patterns, 1997-2008.
Dutton RP, Stansbury LG, Leone S, Kramer E, Hess JR, Scalea TM.
J Trauma. 2010 Sep;69(3):620-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Survival increased at a single trauma center over a 12 year period despite increasing age and worsening injuries.

Citations - 233 (as of July 2017)

Results of the CONTROL trial: efficacy and safety of recombinant activated Factor VII in the management of refractory traumatic hemorrhage.
Hauser CJ, Boffard K, Dutton R, Bernard GR, Croce MA, Holcomb JB, Leppaniemi A, Parr M, Vincent JL, Tortella BJ, Dimsits J, Bouillon B; CONTROL Study Group.
J Trauma. 2010 Sep;69(3):489-500.

Rationale for inclusion: Factor VII administration decreased blood product use but did not affect mortality compared with placebo.

Citations - 281 (as of July 2017)

Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant haemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.
CRASH-2 trial collaborators, Shakur H, Roberts I, Bautista R, Caballero J, Coats T, Dewan Y, El-Sayed H, Gogichaishvili T, Gupta S, Herrera J, Hunt B, Iribhogbe P, Izurieta M, Khamis H, Komolafe E, Marrero MA, Mejía-Mantilla J, Miranda J, Morales C, Olaomi O, Olldashi F, Perel P, Peto R, Ramana PV, Ravi RR, Yutthakasemsunt S.
Lancet. 2010 Jul 3;376(9734):23-32.

Rationale for inclusion: The CRASH-2 trial.  Randomized use of TXA to placebo, showing decreased risk of death from bleeding in TXA group.

Citations - 1070 (as of July 2017)

Complications related to inferior vena cava filters: a single-center experience.
Nazzal M, Chan E, Nazzal M, Abbas J, Erikson G, Sediqe S, Gohara S.
Ann Vasc Surg. 2010 May;24(4):480-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Review of complications after IVC filter placement showed that IVCF were placed frequently for prophylaxis in the absence of VTE conditions.

Citations - 74 (as of July 2017)

A systematic review of the evidence supporting a role for vasopressor support in acute SCI.
Ploumis A, Yadlapalli N, Fehlings MG, Kwon BK, Vaccaro AR.
Spinal Cord. 2010 May;48(5):356-62.

Rationale for inclusion: A systematic review of a topic with limited evidentiary support.

Citations - 53 (as of July 2017)

Intra-aortic balloon occlusion to salvage patients with life-threatening hemorrhagic shocks from pelvic fractures.
Martinelli T, Thony F, Decléty P, Sengel C, Broux C, Tonetti J, Payen JF, Ferretti G.
J Trauma. 2010 Apr;68(4):942-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of placement of an intraortic balloon occlusion utilized in 13 patients with hemorrhagic shock from pelvic fracture, with successful placement, allowing for angiography. Survival 46%.

Citations - 176 (as of July 2017)

The Trauma Quality Improvement Program: pilot study and initial demonstration of feasibility.
Hemmila MR, Nathens AB, Shafi S, Calland JF, Clark DE, Cryer HG, Goble S, Hoeft CJ, Meredith JW, Neal ML, Pasquale MD, Pomphrey MD, Fildes JJ.
J Trauma. 2010 Feb;68(2):253-62.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrates that TQIP may be useful to provide risk-adjusted benchmarking.

Citations - 100 (as of July 2017)

Goal-directed coagulation management of major trauma patients using thromboelastometry (ROTEM)-guided administration of fibrinogen concentrate and prothrombin complex concentrate.
Schöchl H, Nienaber U, Hofer G, Voelckel W, Jambor C, Scharbert G, Kozek-Langenecker S, Solomon C.
Crit Care. 2010;14(2):R55.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes use of thromboelastometry to guide hemostatic therapy.

Citations - 481 (as of July 2017)

Epidemiology of traumatic deaths: comprehensive population-based assessment.
Evans JA, van Wessem KJ, McDougall D, Lee KA, Lyons T, Balogh ZJ.
World J Surg. 2010 Jan;34(1):158-63.

Rationale for inclusion: Epidemiology of deaths after trauma now show a skew towards early deaths when compared to trimodal distribution of death found in earlier, American studies.  This contemporary study shows that low level falls now cause 41% of mortalities in Australia.

Citations - 241 (as of July 2017)

Spine immobilization in penetrating trauma: more harm than good?
Haut ER, Kalish BT, Efron DT, Haider AH, Stevens KA, Kieninger AN, Cornwell EE 3rd, Chang DC.
J Trauma. 2010 Jan;68(1):115-20; discussion 120-1.

Rationale for inclusion: NTDB study of 45,000 patients. Prehospital spine immobilization is associated with higher mortality in penetrating trauma and should not be routinely used in every patient with penetrating trauma.

Citations - 111 (as of July 2017)

The relationship between time to surgical debridement and incidence of infection after open high-energy lower extremity trauma.
Pollak AN, Jones AL, Castillo RC, Bosse MJ, MacKenzie EJ; LEAP Study Group.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010 Jan;92(1):7-15.

Rationale for inclusion: Contrary to previous recommendations, this study identified that time from injury to operative debridement did not independently predict the risk of infectious complications following severe high-energy open lower extremity trauma after evaluating 315 injuries at 8 level I trauma centers.  

Citations - 126 (as of July 2017)

Negative pressure wound therapy after severe open fractures: a prospective randomized study.
Stannard JP, Volgas DA, Stewart R, McGwin G Jr, Alonso JE.
J Orthop Trauma. 2009 Sep;23(8):552-7.

Rationale for inclusion: This prospective randomized trial of 62 high energy open fractures identified a decreased infection rate with use of negative pressure wound therapy as compared to standard gauze dressing placement.

Citations - 185 (as of July 2017)

CTA-based screening reduces time to diagnosis and stroke rate in blunt cervical vascular injury.
Eastman AL, Muraliraj V, Sperry JL, Minei JP.
J Trauma. 2009 Sep;67(3):551-6; discussion 555-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Time to diagnosis and overall stroke rate was reduced when CT angiography replaced conventional angiography for BCVI screening.

Citations - 74 (as of July 2017)

Thromboelastography as a better indicator of hypercoagulable state after injury than prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time.
Park MS, Martini WZ, Dubick MA, Salinas J, Butenas S, Kheirabadi BS, Pusateri AE, Vos JA, Guymon CH, Wolf SE, Mann KG, Holcomb JB.
J Trauma. 2009 Aug;67(2):266-75; discussion 275-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison of trauma/burn patients versus healthy controls showed coagulopathy on TEG as well as a higher PE rate.

Citations - 226 (as of July 2017)

Treatment for blunt cerebrovascular injuries: equivalence of anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents.
Cothren CC, Biffl WL, Moore EE, Kashuk JL, Johnson JL.
Arch Surg. 2009 Jul;144(7):685-90.

Rationale for inclusion: While early treatment of BCVI before the onset of symptoms nearly eliminated stroke risk in this large series, type of therapy did not seem to influence either stroke risk or healing.

Citations - 89 (as of July 2017)

Management of patients with anterior abdominal stab wounds: a Western Trauma Association multicenter trial.
Biffl WL, Kaups KL, Cothren CC, Brasel KJ, Dicker RA, Bullard MK, Haan JM, Jurkovich GJ, Harrison P, Moore FO, Schreiber M, Knudson MM, Moore EE.
J Trauma. 2009 May;66(5):1294-301.

Rationale for inclusion: A WTA multi-center trial, this study evaluated 359 patients with anterior abdominal stab wounds to determine optimal management, concluding that patients can be safely discharged following negative local wound exploration.  Patients with obvious peritoneal violation without ongoing hemorrhage or hollow viscus injury can be safely monitored with serial clinical exams.  

Citations - 95 (as of July 2017)

A high ratio of plasma and platelets to packed red blood cells in the first 6 hours of massive transfusion improves outcomes in a large multicenter study.
Zink KA, Sambasivan CN, Holcomb JB, Chisholm G, Schreiber MA.
Am J Surg. 2009 May;197(5):565-70; discussion 570.

Rationale for inclusion: The early administration of high ratios of FFP and platelets improves survival and decreases overall PRBC need in massively transfused patients. The largest difference in mortality occurs during the first 6 hours after admission, suggesting that the early administration of FFP and platelets is critical.

Citations - 280 (as of July 2017)

Blunt traumatic thoracic aortic injuries: early or delayed repair--results of an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma prospective study.
Demetriades D, Velmahos GC, Scalea TM, Jurkovich GJ, Karmy-Jones R, Teixeira PG, Hemmila MR, O'Connor JV, McKenney MO, Moore FO, London J, Singh MJ, Spaniolas K, Keel M, Sugrue M, Wahl WL, Hill J, Wall MJ, Moore EE, Lineen E, Margulies D, Malka V, Chan LS.
J Trauma. 2009 Apr;66(4):967-73.

Rationale for inclusion: AAST prospective multi-center study evaluating timing of aortic repair.

Citations - 126 (as of July 2017)

An evaluation of multidetector computed tomography in detecting pancreatic injury: results of a multicenter AAST study.
Phelan HA, Velmahos GC, Jurkovich GJ, Friese RS, Minei JP, Menaker JA, Philp A, Evans HL, Gunn ML, Eastman AL, Rowell SE, Allison CE, Barbosa RL, Norwood SH, Tabbara M, Dente CJ, Carrick MM, Wall MJ, Feeney J, O'Neill PJ, Srinivas G, Brown CV, Reifsnyder AC, Hassan MO, Albert S, Pascual JL, Strong M, Moore FO, Spain DA, Purtill MA, Edwards B, Strauss J, Durham RM, Duchesne JC, Greiffenstein P, Cothren CC.
J Trauma. 2009 Mar;66(3):641-6; discussion 646-7.

Rationale for inclusion: This AAST multi-center trial evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of 16 and 64 multidetector CT to identify pancreatic and pancreatic ductal injury.  While highly specific for ductal injury, they have low sensitivity for detection of pancreatic injury.

Citations - 83 (as of July 2017)

The relationship of blood product ratio to mortality: survival benefit or survival bias?
Snyder CW, Weinberg JA, McGwin G Jr, Melton SM, George RL, Reiff DA, Cross JM, Hubbard-Brown J, Rue LW 3rd, Kerby JD.
J Trauma. 2009 Feb;66(2):358-62; discussion 362-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Higher FFP to PRBC ratios at 24h was associated with improved survival; however, in this analysis, association was no longer significant when the timing of component product transfusion was taken into account.

Citations - 360 (as of July 2017)

Direct retroperitoneal pelvic packing versus pelvic angiography: A comparison of two management protocols for hemodynamically unstable pelvic fractures.
Osborn PM, Smith WR, Moore EE, Cothren CC, Morgan SJ, Williams AE, Stahel PF.
Injury. 2009 Jan;40(1):54-60.

Rationale for inclusion: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected dataset, this study confirmed that pelvic packing is as effective as angiography and embolization in the management and stabilization of hemodynamically unstable patients with pelvic fractures.

Citations - 162 (as of July 2017)

Predefined massive transfusion protocols are associated with a reduction in organ failure and postinjury complications.
Cotton BA, Au BK, Nunez TC, Gunter OL, Robertson AM, Young PP.
J Trauma. 2009 Jan;66(1):41-8; discussion 48-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Risk of organ failure and high complication rates for patients receiving high ratio of FFP to PRBCs may be mitigated by early administration of products.

Citations - 319 (as of July 2017)

Rib fracture repair: indications, technical issues, and future directions.
Nirula R, Diaz JJ Jr, Trunkey DD, Mayberry JC.
World J Surg. 2009 Jan;33(1):14-22.

Rationale for inclusion:  A widely cited and comprehensive review regarding operative rib fixation.

Citations - 247 (as of July 2017)

An FFP:PRBC transfusion ratio >/=1:1.5 is associated with a lower risk of mortality after massive transfusion.
Sperry JL, Ochoa JB, Gunn SR, Alarcon LH, Minei JP, Cuschieri J, Rosengart MR, Maier RV, Billiar TR, Peitzman AB, Moore EE; Inflammation the Host Response to Injury Investigators
J Trauma. 2008 Nov;65(5):986-93.

Rationale for inclusion: Higher ratio of FFP to PRBCs associated with lower risk of mortality in patients requiring more than 8 units of PRBCs.

Citations - 330 (as of July 2017)

Early venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with enoxaparin in patients with blunt traumatic brain injury.
Norwood SH, Berne JD, Rowe SA, Villarreal DH, Ledlie JT.
J Trauma. 2008 Nov;65(5):1021-6; discussion 1026-7.

Rationale for inclusion:  Enoxaparin should be considered as an option for early VTE prophylaxis in selected patients with blunt TBI. 

Citations - 77 (as of July 2017)

The impact of preinjury antiplatelet and anticoagulant pharmacotherapy on outcomes in elderly patients with hemorrhagic brain injury.
Fortuna GR, Mueller EW, James LE, Shutter LA, Butler KL.
Surgery. 2008 Oct;144(4):598-603; discussion 603-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Age, ISS and GCS predicted mortality after TBI, but not preinjury use of clopidogrel, aspirin, or warfarin.

Citations - 85 (as of July 2017)

Pathophysiologic response to severe burn injury.
Jeschke MG, Chinkes DL, Finnerty CC, Kulp G, Suman OE, Norbury WB, Branski LK, Gauglitz GG, Mlcak RP, Herndon DN.
Ann Surg. 2008 Sep;248(3):387-401.

Rationale for inclusion: Burn patients show many markers of a hyper-inflammatory state.

Citations - 191 (as of July 2017)

Increased plasma and platelet to red blood cell ratios improves outcome in 466 massively transfused civilian trauma patients.
Holcomb JB, Wade CE, Michalek JE, Chisholm GB, Zarzabal LA, Schreiber MA, Gonzalez EA, Pomper GJ, Perkins JG, Spinella PC, Williams KL, Park MS.
Ann Surg. 2008 Sep;248(3):447-58.

Rationale for inclusion: Civilian study of massive transfusion supporting a higher  plasma:RBC and higher platelet:rbc ratio is beneficial.

Citations - 900 (as of July 2017)

Optimizing outcomes in damage control resuscitation: identifying blood product ratios associated with improved survival.
Gunter OL Jr, Au BK, Isbell JM, Mowery NT, Young PP, Cotton BA.
J Trauma. 2008 Sep;65(3):527-34.

Rationale for inclusion: Increased FFP:PRBC and PLT:PRBC ratios during a period of massive transfusion improved survival after major trauma. Massive transfusion protocols should be designed to achieve these ratios to provide maximal benefit.

Citations - 335 (as of July 2017)

Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: development and international validation of prognostic scores based on admission characteristics.
Steyerberg EW, Mushkudiani N, Perel P, Butcher I, Lu J, McHugh GS, Murray GD, Marmarou A, Roberts I, Habbema JD, Maas AI.
PLoS Med. 2008 Aug 5;5(8):e165; discussion e165.

Rationale for inclusion: 11 studies were analyzed and individual patient data prospectively collected to find that age, motor score, pupillary reactivity, CT findings, secondary injury, and laboratories were predictive of outcomes at 6 months.

Citations - 507 (as of July 2017)

A decade's experience with temporary intravascular shunts at a civilian level I trauma center.
Subramanian A, Vercruysse G, Dente C, Wyrzykowski A, King E, Feliciano DV.
J Trauma. 2008 Aug;65(2):316-24; discussion 324-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Ten year review of 101 temporary shunts.

CAVEAT: Includes extremity injuries

Citations - 90 (as of July 2017)

A decade's experience with temporary intravascular shunts at a civilian level I trauma center.
Subramanian A, Vercruysse G, Dente C, Wyrzykowski A, King E, Feliciano DV.
J Trauma. 2008 Aug;65(2):316-24; discussion 324-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Ten year review of temporary shunts in 786 patients. 

CAVEAT: Includes torso as well.

Citations - 90 (as of July 2017)

Postinjury life threatening coagulopathy: is 1:1 fresh frozen plasma:packed red blood cells the answer?
Kashuk JL, Moore EE, Johnson JL, Haenel J, Wilson M, Moore JB, Cothren CC, Biffl WL, Banerjee A, Sauaia A.
J Trauma. 2008 Aug;65(2):261-70; discussion 270-1.

Rationale for inclusion:  1:1 ratio of FFP to PRBCs reduced coagulopathy but there was no survival benefit in trauma patients undergoing massive transfusion.

Citations - 364 (as of July 2017)

Review of current blood transfusions strategies in a mature level I trauma center: were we wrong for the last 60 years?
Duchesne JC, Hunt JP, Wahl G, Marr AB, Wang YZ, Weintraub SE, Wright MJ, McSwain NE Jr.
J Trauma. 2008 Aug;65(2):272-6; discussion 276-8.

Rationale for inclusion: An FFP to PRBC ratio close to 1:1 confers a survival advantage in patients requiring massive transfusion.

Citations - 315 (as of July 2017)

Ability of lower-extremity injury severity scores to predict functional outcome after limb salvage.
Ly TV, Travison TG, Castillo RC, Bosse MJ, MacKenzie EJ; LEAP Study Group.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 Aug;90(8):1738-43.

Rationale for inclusion: This multi-center prospective study confirmed the inability of multiple scoring systems including the Mangled Extremity Severity Score, Limb Salvage Index, Predictive Salvage Index, and Hannover Fracture Scale-98 to accurately predict functional recovery after limb salvage following severe extremity trauma.   

Citations - 98 (as of July 2017)

Temporary abdominal closure techniques: a prospective randomized trial comparing polyglactin 910 mesh and vacuum-assisted closure.
Bee TK, Croce MA, Magnotti LJ, Zarzaur BL, Maish GO 3rd, Minard G, Schroeppel TJ, Fabian TC.
J Trauma. 2008 Aug;65(2):337-42; discussion 342-4.

Rationale for inclusion: This represents a single institution, randomized prospective study comparing polyglactin mesh versus vacuum assisted closure for use in abdominal closure following damage control laparotomies with no differences in primary closure rates or fistula complications between the two groups.

Citations - 170 (as of July 2017)

Evaluation of rotation thrombelastography for the diagnosis of hyperfibrinolysis in trauma patients.
Levrat A, Gros A, Rugeri L, Inaba K, Floccard B, Negrier C, David JS.
Br J Anaesth. 2008 Jun;100(6):792-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes use of ROTEM to detect hyperfibrinolysis.

Citations - 249 (as of July 2017)

Diagnosis and treatment of blunt thoracic aortic injuries: changing perspectives.
Demetriades D, Velmahos GC, Scalea TM, Jurkovich GJ, Karmy-Jones R, Teixeira PG, Hemmila MR, O'Connor JV, McKenney MO, Moore FO, London J, Singh MJ, Spaniolas K, Keel M, Sugrue M, Wahl WL, Hill J, Wall MJ, Moore EE, Lineen E, Margulies D, Malka V, Chan LS.
J Trauma. 2008 Jun;64(6):1415-8; discussion 1418-9.

Rationale for inclusion: A comparison between two AAST prospective multi-center trials revealed CT for diagnosis, delayed repair and repair with stent grafts became more common while mortality decreased.

Citations - 184 (as of July 2017)

Computed tomographic angiography as an aid to clinical decision making in the selective management of penetrating injuries to the neck: a reduction in the need for operative exploration.
Osborn TM, Bell RB, Qaisi W, Long WB.
J Trauma. 2008 Jun;64(6):1466-71.

Rationale for inclusion: The use of CT angiography of the neck when deciding whether an operation is warranted greatly decreased rates of negative neck explorations.

Citations - 68 (as of July 2017)

MRI is unnecessary to clear the cervical spine in obtunded/comatose trauma patients: The four-year experience of a level I trauma center
Tomycz ND, Chew BG, Chang YF, Darby JM, Gunn SR, Nicholas DH, Ochoa JB, Peitzman AB, Schwartz E, Pape HC, Spiro RM, Okonkwo DO.
J Trauma. 2008 May;64(5):1258-63.

Rationale for inclusion: Retrospective series of 690 patients who underwent CT and MRI with 38 new acute findings on MRI, none of which were unstable or required surgery.

Citations - 86 (as of July 2017)

Acute coagulopathy of trauma: hypoperfusion induces systemic anticoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis.
Brohi K, Cohen MJ, Ganter MT, Schultz MJ, Levi M, Mackersie RC, Pittet JF.
J Trauma. 2008 May;64(5):1211-7; discussion 1217.

Rationale for inclusion: Study examining blood drawn from trauma patients. Acute coagulopathy of trauma is associated with systemic hypoperfusion and is characterized by anticoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis. 

Citations - 582 (as of July 2017)

Damage control hematology: the impact of a trauma exsanguination protocol on survival and blood product utilization.
Cotton BA, Gunter OL, Isbell J, Au BK, Robertson AM, Morris JA Jr, St Jacques P, Young PP.
J Trauma. 2008 May;64(5):1177-82; discussion 1182-3.

Rationale for inclusion: Use of a trauma exsanguination protocol (massive transfusion protocol) reduces odds of mortality.

Citations - 381 (as of July 2017)

The OPALS Major Trauma Study: impact of advanced life-support on survival and morbidity.
Stiell IG, Nesbitt LP, Pickett W, Munkley D, Spaite DW, Banek J, Field B, Luinstra-Toohey L, Maloney J, Dreyer J, Lyver M, Campeau T, Wells GA; OPALS Study Group.
CMAJ. 2008 Apr 22;178(9):1141-52.

Rationale for inclusion: Systemwide implementation of full advanced life-support programs did not decrease mortality or morbidity for major trauma patients. We also found that during the advanced life-support phase, mortality was greater among patients with Glasgow Coma Scale scores less than 9.

Citations - 198 (as of July 2017)

Operative repair or endovascular stent graft in blunt traumatic thoracic aortic injuries: results of an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Study.
Demetriades D, Velmahos GC, Scalea TM, Jurkovich GJ, Karmy-Jones R, Teixeira PG, Hemmila MR, O'Connor JV, McKenney MO, Moore FO, London J, Singh MJ, Lineen E, Spaniolas K, Keel M, Sugrue M, Wahl WL, Hill J, Wall MJ, Moore EE, Margulies D, Malka V, Chan LS; American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Thoracic Aortic Injury Study Group.
J Trauma. 2008 Mar;64(3):561-70; discussion 570-1.

Rationale for inclusion: Endovascular stent grafts were compared to traditional operative repairs in this prospective, multi-center study.  Stent grafts were associated with decreased blood transfusion and mortality.

Citations - 278 (as of July 2017)

Hypertonic resuscitation of hypovolemic shock after blunt trauma: a randomized controlled trial.
Bulger EM, Jurkovich GJ, Nathens AB, Copass MK, Hanson S, Cooper C, Liu PY, Neff M, Awan AB, Warner K, Maier RV.
Arch Surg. 2008 Feb;143(2):139-48; discussion 149.

Rationale for inclusion: RCT of hypertonic dextran vs LR in hypotensive blunt trauma patients, showing possible benefit in patients who required massive transfusions.

Citations - 137 (as of July 2017)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the clearance of the cervical spine in blunt trauma: a meta-analysis.
Muchow RD, Resnick DK, Abdel MP, Munoz A, Anderson PA.
J Trauma. 2008 Jan;64(1):179-89.

Rationale for inclusion: Meta-analysis included 464 patients who underwent MRI along with either plain radiographs or CT scan of the cervical spine and found 20% had injuries detected on MRI that were not detected on plain films or MRI.

Citations - 106 (as of July 2017)

Preventable or potentially preventable mortality at a mature trauma center.
Teixeira PG, Inaba K, Hadjizacharia P, Brown C, Salim A, Rhee P, Browder T, Noguchi TT, Demetriades D.
J Trauma. 2007 Dec;63(6):1338-46; discussion 1346-7

Rationale for improvement: Analysis of all trauma deaths in a single mature level I trauma center, showing that preventable or potentially preventable deaths exist, including type and incidence of errors.

Citations - 241 (as of July 2017)

Knee dislocations with vascular injury: outcomes in the Lower Extremity Assessment Project (LEAP) Study.
Patterson BM, Agel J, Swiontkowski MF, Mackenzie EJ, Bosse MJ; LEAP Study Group.
J Trauma. 2007 Oct;63(4):855-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Long-term outcomes of patients with a knee dislocation and popliteal artery injury

Citations - 62 (as of July 2017)

Is magnetic resonance imaging essential in clearing the cervical spine in obtunded patients with blunt trauma?
Como JJ, Thompson MA, Anderson JS, Shah RR, Claridge JA, Yowler CJ, Malangoni MA.
J Trauma. 2007 Sep;63(3):544-9.

Rationale for inclusion: A prospective evaluation of obtunded patients who underwent both CT and MRI detected 6 new injuries with MRI--none of which changed clinical management.

Citations - 102 (as of July 2017)

Degree of anticoagulation, but not warfarin use itself, predicts adverse outcomes after traumatic brain injury in elderly trauma patients.
Pieracci FM, Eachempati SR, Shou J, Hydo LJ, Barie PS.
J Trauma. 2007 Sep;63(3):525-30.

Rationale for inclusion: Patients with therapeutic levels of warfarin as measured by INR were more likely to have a depressed mental status, more likely to die, and more likely to die as a result of TBI than either those on non-therapeutic warfarin or no anticoagulation.

Citations - 117 (as of July 2017)

Saline or albumin for fluid resuscitation in patients with traumatic brain injury.
SAFE Study Investigators; Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group; Australian Red Cross Blood Service; George Institute for International Health, Myburgh J, Cooper DJ, Finfer S, Bellomo R, Norton R, Bishop N, Kai Lo S, Vallance S.
N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 30;357(9):874-84.

Rationale for inclusion: In this post hoc study of critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury, fluid resuscitation with albumin was associated with higher mortality rates than was resuscitation with saline.

Citations - 475 (as of July 2017)

Prehospital procedures before emergency department thoracotomy: "scoop and run" saves lives.
Seamon MJ, Fisher CA, Gaughan J, Lloyd M, Bradley KM, Santora TA, Pathak AS, Goldberg AJ.
J Trauma. 2007 Jul;63(1):113-20.

Rationale for inclusion: Prehospital procedures in penetrating trauma victims had a negative effect on survival, suggesting that "scoop and run" is superior.

Citations - 122 (as of July 2017)

Prospective evaluation of multislice computed tomography versus plain radiographic cervical spine clearance in trauma patients.
Mathen R, Inaba K, Munera F, Teixeira PG, Rivas L, McKenney M, Lopez P, Ledezma CJ.
J Trauma. 2007 Jun;62(6):1427-31.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective study of 667 patients who underwent 3 view plain radiographs and CT scan of the cervical spine.  CT was deemed superior as plain films missed 55% of clinically significant fractures.

Citations - 88 (as of July 2017)

Civilian extraperitoneal rectal gunshot wounds: surgical management made simpler.
Navsaria PH, Edu S, Nicol AJ.
World J Surg. 2007 Jun;31(6):1345-51.

Rationale for inclusion: This retrospective review advocated for the treatment of low velocity penetrating extraperitoneal rectal injuries with fecal diversion alone, without need for repair or presacral drainage.

Citations - 46 (as of July 2017)

Colonic resection in the setting of damage control laparotomy: is delayed anastomosis safe?
Miller PR, Chang MC, Hoth JJ, Holmes JH 4th, Meredith JW.
Am Surg. 2007 Jun;73(6):606-9; discussion 609-10.

Rationale for inclusion: This is the first reported study supporting delayed colonic anastomosis following damage control laparotomy.

Citations - 62 (as of July 2017)

Experience with vacuum-pack temporary abdominal wound closure in 258 trauma and general and vascular surgical patients.
Barker DE, Green JM, Maxwell RA, Smith PW, Mejia VA, Dart BW, Cofer JB, Roe SM, Burns RP.
J Am Coll Surg. 2007 May;204(5):784-92; discussion 792-3.

Rationale for inclusion: A comparative analysis between two patient populations utilizing the vacuum-pack, this descriptive study found similar rates of fascial closure and complications between trauma patients and general surgical and vascular patients requiring damage control surgery with subsequent temporary open abdominal wounds.

Citations - 193 (as of July 2017)

Antithrombotic therapy and endovascular stents are effective treatment for blunt carotid injuries: results from longterm followup.
Edwards NM, Fabian TC, Claridge JA, Timmons SD, Fischer PE, Croce MA.
J Am Coll Surg. 2007 May;204(5):1007-13; discussion 1014-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Retrospective study correlated long-term outcomes with type of antithrombotic therapy found both anti-platelet therapy and anticoagulation effective at preventing long-term sequelae.  

Citations - 99 (as of July 2017)

Acute traumatic coagulopathy: initiated by hypoperfusion: modulated through the protein C pathway?
Brohi K, Cohen MJ, Ganter MT, Matthay MA, Mackersie RC, Pittet JF.
Ann Surg. 2007 May;245(5):812-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Study of early coagulation labs predicting mortality in trauma.

Citations - 638 (as of July 2017)

Preperitonal pelvic packing for hemodynamically unstable pelvic fractures: a paradigm shift.
Cothren CC, Osborn PM, Moore EE, Morgan SJ, Johnson JL, Smith WR.
J Trauma. 2007 Apr;62(4):834-9; discussion 839-42.

Rationale for inclusion: This study is the sentinel paper introducing the use of preperitoneal packing for rapid control of pelvic hemorrhage, describing 28 consecutive patients with significant reduction in transfusion and mortality.

Citations - 288 (as of July 2017)

A ten-year retrospective review: does pyloric exclusion improve clinical outcome after penetrating duodenal and combined pancreaticoduodenal injuries?
Seamon MJ, Pieri PG, Fisher CA, Gaughan J, Santora TA, Pathak AS, Bradley KM, Goldberg AJ.
J Trauma. 2007 Apr;62(4):829-33.

Rationale for inclusion:  Using a retrospective review of 29 patients with penetrating duodenal injuries, this study concluded that simple repair without pyloric exclusion is safe management for the majority of these injuries, with increased complications in patients undergoing pyloric exclusion.

Citations - 79 (as of July 2017)

Early coagulopathy in multiple injury: an analysis from the German Trauma Registry on 8724 patients.
Maegele M, Lefering R, Yucel N, Tjardes T, Rixen D, Paffrath T, Simanski C, Neugebauer E, Bouillon B; AG Polytrauma of the German Trauma Society (DGU).
Injury. 2007 Mar;38(3):298-304.

Rationale for inclusion: Early coagulopathy is associated with need for increased fluids, multi-organ failure, and in-hospital mortality.

Citations - 540 (as of July 2017)

Diagnosis of early coagulation abnormalities in trauma patients by rotation thrombelastography.
Rugeri L, Levrat A, David JS, Delecroix E, Floccard B, Gros A, Allaouchiche B, Negrier C.
J Thromb Haemost. 2007 Feb;5(2):289-95.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of the use of ROTEM for point of care detection of coagulation abnormalities in trauma patients.

Citations - 403 (as of July 2017)

Damage control resuscitation: directly addressing the early coagulopathy of trauma.
Holcomb JB, Jenkins D, Rhee P, Johannigman J, Mahoney P, Mehta S, Cox ED, Gehrke MJ, Beilman GJ, Schreiber M, Flaherty SF, Grathwohl KW, Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Beekley AC, McMullin NR, Park MS, Gonzalez EA, Wade CE, Dubick MA, Schwab CW, Moore FA, Champion HR, Hoyt DB, Hess JR.
J Trauma. 2007 Feb;62(2):307-10.

Rationale for inclusion: This is not primary research but it is an extremely well cited discussion of the coagulopathy of trauma.

Citations - 956 (as of July 2017)

Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation.
Cohn SM, Nathens AB, Moore FA, Rhee P, Puyana JC, Moore EE, Beilman GJ; StO2 in Trauma Patients Trial Investigators.
J Trauma. 2007 Jan;62(1):44-54; discussion 54-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the use of tissue oxygen saturation as an indicator of shock.

Citations - 270 (as of July 2017)

Fresh frozen plasma should be given earlier to patients requiring massive transfusion.
Gonzalez EA, Moore FA, Holcomb JB, Miller CC, Kozar RA, Todd SR, Cocanour CS, Balldin BC, McKinley BA.
J Trauma. 2007 Jan;62(1):112-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Coagulopathy persists when FFP is not given in high ratios early, suggesting that FFP can be administered early to prevent coagulopathy.

Citations - 538 (as of July 2017)

Selective nonoperative management of penetrating abdominal solid organ injuries.
Demetriades D, Hadjizacharia P, Constantinou C, Brown C, Inaba K, Rhee P, Salim A.
Ann Surg. 2006 Oct;244(4):620-8.

Rationale for inclusion: LA County presented a series of 152 patients sustaining penetrating abdominal solid organ injury in which nonoperative management was successful when used selectively, challenging the standard practice that all penetrating organ injury mandates exploration.

Citations - 258 (as of July 2017)

Selective nonoperative management of penetrating abdominal solid organ injuries.
Demetriades D, Hadjizacharia P, Constantinou C, Brown C, Inaba K, Rhee P, Salim A.
Ann Surg. 2006 Oct;244(4):620-8.

Rationale for inclusion: LA County presented a series of 152 patients sustaining penetrating abdominal solid organ injury in which nonoperative management was successful when used selectively, challenging the standard practice that all penetrating organ injury mandates exploration.

Citations - 117 (as of November 2016)

Patterns of errors contributing to trauma mortality: lessons learned from 2,594 deaths.
Gruen RL, Jurkovich GJ, McIntyre LK, Foy HM, Maier RV.
Ann Surg. 2006 Sep;244(3):371-80.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of errors that occurred in a mature level I trauma center in patients who died during a trauma admission.

Citations - 347 (as of July 2017)

The epidemiology and impact of traumatic brain injury: a brief overview.
Langlois JA, Rutland-Brown W, Wald MM.
J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2006 Sep-Oct;21(5):375-8.

Rationale for inclusion: An epidemiological view of TBI and its staggering long-term impact and costs.

Citations: 2272 (as of July 2017)

Incidence and lifetime costs of injuries in the United States.
Corso P, Finkelstein E, Miller T, Fiebelkorn I, Zaloshnja E.
Inj Prev. 2006 Aug;12(4):212-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Economic analysis demonstrating the large burden of injury in the United States.

Citations - 339 (as of July 2017)

Diagnosis of blunt bladder injury: A prospective comparative study of computed tomography cystography and conventional retrograde cystography.
Quagliano PV, Delair SM, Malhotra AK.
J Trauma. 2006 Aug;61(2):410-21; discussion 421-2.

Rationale for inclusion: This prospective study confirmed that CT cystography is equivalent to conventional cystography for the diagnosis of blunt bladder injury.

Citations - 88 (as of July 2017)

One hundred percent fascial approximation with sequential abdominal closure of the open abdomen.
Cothren CC, Moore EE, Johnson JL, Moore JB, Burch JM.
Am J Surg. 2006 Aug;192(2):238-42.

Rationale for inclusion: This small case series achieved 100% primary fascial closure with the incorporation of fascial tension across the open abdomen in addition to vacuum-assisted closure techniques.

Citations - 142 (as of July 2017)

Open versus closed treatment of fractures of the mandibular condylar process-a prospective randomized multi-centre study.
Eckelt U, Schneider M, Erasmus F, Gerlach KL, Kuhlisch E, Loukota R, Rasse M, Schubert J, Terheyden H.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2006 Jul;34(5):306-14.

Rationale for inclusion: In a multi-center, randomized controlled trial, operative repair of mandibular condyle fractures was found to be superior to conservative, nonoperative management in objective and subjective measures.

Citations - 195 (as of July 2017)

Prospective evaluation of screening multislice helical computed tomographic angiography in the initial evaluation of penetrating neck injuries.
Inaba K, Munera F, McKenney M, Rivas L, de Moya M, Bahouth H, Cohn S.
J Trauma. 2006 Jul;61(1):144-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective study describing the use of CT angiography as a single, stand-alone screening modality for penetrating neck injuries.

Citations - 94 (as of July 2017)

Advanced age and preinjury warfarin anticoagulation increase the risk of mortality after head trauma.
Franko J, Kish KJ, O'Connell BG, Subramanian S, Yuschak JV.
J Trauma. 2006 Jul;61(1):107-10.

Rationale for inclusion: Large retrospective study indicating that increasing age and warfarin use were independently predictive of mortality after TBI.

Citations - 156 (as of July 2017)

A national evaluation of the effect of trauma-center care on mortality.
MacKenzie EJ, Rivara FP, Jurkovich GJ, Nathens AB, Frey KP, Egleston BL, Salkever DS, Scharfstein DO.
N Engl J Med. 2006 Jan 26;354(4):366-78.

Rationale for inclusion: Multi-center analysis showing improved outcomes for patients treated at trauma centers when compared to non-trauma centers.

Citations - 1472 (as of July 2017)

Traumatic brain injury in anticoagulated patients.
Cohen DB, Rinker C, Wilberger JE.
J Trauma. 2006 Mar;60(3):553-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective databases analyzed to find prohibitively high rates of progression of intracranial bleed (despite normal initial imaging), mental status deterioration, return to ED after discharge, need for craniotomy, and mortality in TBI patients on anticoagulation. 

Citations - 142 (as of July 2017)

Penetrating rectal trauma: management by anatomic distinction imp
Weinberg JA, Fabian TC, Magnotti LJ, Minard G, Bee TK, Edwards N, Claridge JA, Croce MA.
J Trauma. 2006 Mar;60(3):508-13; discussion 513-14.

Rationale for inclusion: Using 54 patients with penetrating rectal injuries, this study advocated for the use of primary repair for intraperitoneal injuries, repair and fecal diversion for accessible extraperitonal injuries, and diversion with presacral drainage for injuries in the extraperitoneal rectum not amenable to repair.

Citations - 63 (as of July 2017)

Predictors of the need for nephrectomy after renal trauma.
Davis KA, Reed RL 2nd, Santaniello J, Abodeely A, Esposito TJ, Poulakidas SJ, Luchette FA.
J Trauma. 2006 Jan;60(1):164-9; discussion 169-70.

Rationale for inclusion: A single center retrospective review, this manuscript identified that injury severity, grade of injury, hemodynamic instability, and transfusion requirements all predict need for nephrectomy after injury, with penetrating mechanisms requiring nephrectomy more commonly than blunt mechanisms of injury.

Citations - 64 (as of July 2017)

Magnetic resonance imaging in combination with helical computed tomography provides a safe and efficient method of cervical spine clearance in the obtunded trauma patient.
Stassen NA, Williams VA, Gestring ML, Cheng JD, Bankey PE.
J Trauma. 2006 Jan;60(1):171-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Obtunded patients who underwent both CT and MRI were reviewed.  30% had ligamentous injury of MRI not detected on CT.

Citations - 84 (as of July 2017)

The immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic saline resuscitation in patients sustaining traumatic hemorrhagic shock: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial.
Rizoli SB, Rhind SG, Shek PN, Inaba K, Filips D, Tien H, Brenneman F, Rotstein O.
Ann Surg. 2006 Jan;243(1):47-57.

Rationale for inclusion: Hypotensive blunt trauma patients given normal saline or hypertonic saline plus dextran and had inflammatory markers measured; showed that hypertonic saline plus dextran had a more balanced inflammatory response.

Citations - 214 (as of July 2017)

Effect of comorbidities and postoperative complications on mortality after hip fracture in elderly people: prospective observational cohort study.
Roche JJ, Wenn RT, Sahota O, Moran CG.
BMJ. 2005 Dec 10;331(7529):1374.

Rationale for inclusion: In elderly patients with hip fractures, 3 or more comorbidities is associated with mortality.

Citations - 794 (as of July 2017)

Complications after 344 damage-control open celiotomies.
Miller RS, Morris JA Jr, Diaz JJ Jr, Herring MB, May AK.
J Trauma. 2005 Dec;59(6):1365-71; discussion 1371-4.

Rationale for inclusion: This case series of 344 damage control laparotomies documented a persistently high complication rate (25%) associated with the open abdomen, reinforcing the need for early fascial closure, identifying those patients who achieved fascial closure <8 days incurred the least morbidity.

Citations - 230 (as of July 2017)

Complications of nonoperative management of high-grade blunt hepatic injuries.
Kozar RA, Moore JB, Niles SE, Holcomb JB, Moore EE, Cothren CC, Hartwell E, Moore FA.
J Trauma. 2005 Nov;59(5):1066-71.

Rationale for inclusion: A total of 337 patients with high grade (III-V) blunt hepatic injuries were analyzed with respect to complications and subsequent management.  Their results supported the nonoperative management of all grades of liver injury, accepting and recommending the anticipation of a significant number of complications including bleeding, liver abscesses, and biliary complications.

Citations - 180 (as of July 2017)

Trends in head injury outcome from 1989 to 2003 and the effect of neurosurgical care: an observational study.
Patel HC, Bouamra O, Woodford M, King AT, Yates DW, Lecky FE; Trauma Audit and Research Network.
Lancet. 2005 Oct 29-Nov 4;366(9496):1538-44.

Rationale for inclusion: Treatment of brain injury in a neurosurgical center in England and Wales led to improved outcomes.

Citations - 310 (as of July 2017)

A new classification of thoracolumbar injuries: the importance of injury morphology, the integrity of the posterior ligamentous complex, and neurologic status.
Vaccaro AR, Lehman RA Jr, Hurlbert RJ, Anderson PA, Harris M, Hedlund R, Harrop J, Dvorak M, Wood K, Fehlings MG, Fisher C, Zeiller SC, Anderson DG, Bono CM, Stock GH, Brown AK, Kuklo T, Oner FC.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Oct 15;30(20):2325-33.

Rationale for inclusion: Established the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score based on morphology, integrity and neurologic status.

Citations - 635 (as of July 2017)

The effect of trauma center designation and trauma volume on outcome in specific severe injuries.
Demetriades D, Martin M, Salim A, Rhee P, Brown C, Chan L.
Ann Surg. 2005 Oct;242(4):512-7; discussion 517-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Level 1 Trauma Centers have better outcomes than lower-level centers, not associated with volumes.

Citations - 265 (as of July 2017)

The effect of trauma center designation and trauma volume on outcome in specific severe injuries.
Demetriades D, Martin M, Salim A, Rhee P, Brown C, Chan L.
Ann Surg. 2005 Oct;242(4):512-7; discussion 517-9.

Rationale for improvement: NTDB study showing that Level I ACS-verified trauma centers have improved outcomes as compared to Level II centers.

Citations - 265 (as of July 2017)

Efficacy of a comprehensive geriatric intervention in older patients hospitalized for hip fracture: a randomized, controlled trial.
Vidán M, Serra JA, Moreno C, Riquelme G, Ortiz J.
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Sep;53(9):1476-82.

Rationale for inclusion: Early multidisciplinary daily geriatric care can reduce in-hospital mortality and medical complications in elderly hip fracture patients.

Citations - 353 (as of July 2017)

Frailty: emergence and consequences in women aged 65 and older in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.
Woods NF, LaCroix AZ, Gray SL, Aragaki A, Cochrane BB, Brunner RL, Masaki K, Murray A, Newman AB; Women's Health Initiative.
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Aug;53(8):1321-30.

Rationale for inclusion: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that predicts poor outcomes in older women.

Citations - 673 (as of July 2017)

Recombinant factor VIIa as adjunctive therapy for bleeding control in severely injured trauma patients: two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials.
Boffard KD, Riou B, Warren B, Choong PI, Rizoli S, Rossaint R, Axelsen M, Kluger Y; NovoSeven Trauma Study Group.
J Trauma. 2005 Jul;59(1):8-15; discussion 15-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes use of factor VIIa in trauma, decreases RBC transfusions.

Citations - 746 (as of July 2017)

Pancreatic and duodenal injuries: keep it simple.
Rickard MJ, Brohi K, Bautz PC.
ANZ J Surg. 2005 Jul;75(7):581-6.

Rationale for inclusion: This analysis supports the use of simplified treatment algorithms for pancreatic and duodenal trauma utilizing a staged approach, using analysis of 100 consecutive patients. 

Citations - 98 (as of July 2017)

Access to trauma centers in the United States.
Branas CC, MacKenzie EJ, Williams JC, Schwab CW, Teter HM, Flanigan MC, Blatt AJ, ReVelle CS.
JAMA. 2005 Jun 1;293(21):2626-33.

Rationale for inclusion: Analysis of distribution of trauma centers to determine the percentage of the population living within 45 or 60 minutes of a trauma center.

Citations - 325 (as of July 2017)

Laparoscopy is sufficient to exclude occult diaphragm injury after penetrating abdominal trauma.
Friese RS, Coln CE, Gentilello LM.
J Trauma. 2005 Apr;58(4):789-92.

Rationale for inclusion: This study confirms the utility of laparoscopy to exclude diaphragmatic injury in patients sustaining penetrating thoracoabdominal injury with high specificity and sensitivity.

Citations - 120 (as of July 2017)

Impact of smoking on fracture healing and risk of complications in limb-threatening open tibia fractures.
Castillo RC, Bosse MJ, MacKenzie EJ, Patterson BM; LEAP Study Group.
J Orthop Trauma. 2005 Mar;19(3):151-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Using prospective analysis of patients with open tibial fractures collected from 8 institutions, this trial identified that both current smokers and previous smokers had increased risks of infectious complications and nonunion as compared to nonsmokers.  

Citations - 250 (as of July 2017)

Out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation and outcome after traumatic brain injury.
Wang HE, Peitzman AB, Cassidy LD, Adelson PD, Yealy DM.
Ann Emerg Med. 2004 Nov;44(5):439-50.

Rationale for inclusion: Out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation was associated with adverse outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury. 

Citations - 248 (as of July 2017)

Thromboembolism after trauma: an analysis of 1602 episodes from the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank.
Knudson MM, Ikossi DG, Khaw L, Morabito D, Speetzen LS.
Ann Surg. 2004 Sep;240(3):490-6; discussion 496-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Identifiable risk factors exist for development if VTE; additionally, many patients had IVC filters placed without risk factors.

Citations - 330 (as of July 2017)

Is emergency department resuscitative thoracotomy futile care for the critically injured patient requiring prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation?
Powell DW, Moore EE, Cothren CC, Ciesla DJ, Burch JM, Moore JB, Johnson JL.
J Am Coll Surg. 2004 Aug;199(2):211-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Review of 959 patients who underwent ED thoracotomy; suggests that EDT in patients with blunt trauma and CPR >5 min, and penetrating trauma with CPR >15 min is futile. Survival is possible for asystolic patients with tamponade.

Citations - 151 (as of July 2017)

Hand-held thoracic sonography for detecting post-traumatic pneumothoraces: the Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (EFAST).
Kirkpatrick AW, Sirois M, Laupland KB, Liu D, Rowan K, Ball CG, Hameed SM, Brown R, Simons R, Dulchavsky SA, Hamiilton DR, Nicolaou S.
J Trauma. 2004 Aug;57(2):288-95.

Rationale for inclusion: EFAST was deemed to be more sensitive and equally specific at pneumothorax detection when compared to AP supine chest x-rays.

Citations - 454 (as of July 2017)

Epidural analgesia improves outcome after multiple rib fractures.
Bulger EM, Edwards T, Klotz P, Jurkovich GJ.
Surgery. 2004 Aug;136(2):426-30.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective, randomized trial compared epidural analgesia versus IV opioids for rib fractures.  The use of epidural analgesia improved mechanical ventilation duration and pneumonia rates.

Citations - 205 (as of July 2017)

Penetrating torso trauma: triple-contrast helical CT in peritoneal violation and organ injury--a prospective study in 200 patients.
Shanmuganathan K, Mirvis SE, Chiu WC, Killeen KL, Hogan GJ, Scalea TM.
Radiology. 2004 Jun;231(3):775-84.

Rationale for inclusion: 200 patients prospectively underwent CT scan for penetrating torso injuries with 97% sensitivity, 98% specificity for peritoneal violation.

Citations - 194 (as of July 2017)

Trauma during pregnancy: an analysis of maternal and fetal outcomes in a large population.
El-Kady D, Gilbert WM, Anderson J, Danielsen B, Towner D, Smith LH.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Jun;190(6):1661-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Women delivering during a trauma hospitalization had the worst outcomes, regardless of the severity of the injury. Women admitted during pregnancy (prenatal injury) had an increased risk of adverse outcomes at delivery, and therefore should be monitored closely during the subsequent course of the pregnancy. 

Citations - 177 (as of July 2017)

Penetrating torso trauma: triple-contrast helical CT in peritoneal violation and organ injury--a prospective study in 200 patients.
Shanmuganathan K, Mirvis SE, Chiu WC, Killeen KL, Hogan GJ, Scalea TM.
Radiology. 2004 Jun;231(3):775-84.

Rationale for inclusion: This study evaluated the use of triple contrast CT imaging to identify peritoneal violation and visceral injury in patients with penetrating torso wounds.  It concluded that CT had 97% sensitivity, 98% specificity, and 98% accuracy with only 2 patients out of 200 requiring operative intervention with negative CT findings. 

Citations - 194 (as of July 2017)

Development of trauma systems and effect on outcomes after injury.
Nathens AB, Brunet FP, Maier RV.
Lancet. 2004 May 29;363(9423):1794-801.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison of US vs France. In US, focus is on trauma center, and in France, focus is on prehospital care. Crude mortality rates are higher in France, although difficult to adjust for confounders.

Citations - 199 (as of July 2017)

Anticoagulation is the gold standard therapy for blunt carotid injuries to reduce stroke rate.
Cothren CC, Moore EE, Biffl WL, Ciesla DJ, Ray CE Jr, Johnson JL, Moore JB, Burch JM.
Arch Surg. 2004 May;139(5):540-5; discussion 545-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Early angiographic screening and treatment reduces stroke risk in BCVI.  

CAVEAT: The best anticoagulant in this setting was not established.

Citations - 194 (as of July 2017)

Prospective evaluation of vacuum-assisted fascial closure after open abdomen: planned ventral hernia rate is substantially reduced.
Miller PR, Meredith JW, Johnson JC, Chang MC.
Ann Surg. 2004 May;239(5):608-14; discussion 614-6.

Rationale for inclusion: This prospective analysis elaborated on the use of vacuum-assisted fascial closure for treatment of the open abdomen under a defined protocol, citing improved fascial closure rates (88%) and decreased morbidity.

Citations - 308 (as of July 2017)

Management of blunt major pancreatic injury.
Lin BC, Chen RJ, Fang JF, Hsu YP, Kao YC, Kao JL.
J Trauma. 2004 Apr;56(4):774-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Using 48 patients, this paper describes a series of blunt pancreatic injuries, supporting the use of distal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation with lower complication rates.

Citations - 240 (as of July 2017)

Prehospital hypertonic saline resuscitation of patients with hypotension and severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.
Cooper DJ, Myles PS, McDermott FT, Murray LJ, Laidlaw J, Cooper G, Tremayne AB, Bernard SS, Ponsford J; HTS Study Investigators.
JAMA. 2004 Mar 17;291(11):1350-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes 6-month neurologic outcomes after use of hypertonic saline in patients with traumatic brain injury

Citations - 416 (as of July 2017)

Prehospital hypertonic saline resuscitation of patients with hypotension and severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.
Cooper DJ, Myles PS, McDermott FT, Murray LJ, Laidlaw J, Cooper G, Tremayne AB, Bernard SS, Ponsford J; HTS Study Investigators.
JAMA. 2004 Mar 17;291(11):1350-7.

Rationale for inclusion: In this study, patients with hypotension and severe TBI who received prehospital resuscitation with HTS had almost identical neurological function 6 months after injury as patients who received conventional fluid.

Citations - 416 (as of July 2017)

Splenic embolization revisited: a multicenter review.
Haan JM, Biffl W, Knudson MM, Davis KA, Oka T, Majercik S, Dicker R, Marder S, Scalea TM; Western Trauma Association Multi-Institutional Trials Committee.
J Trauma. 2004 Mar;56(3):542-7.

Rationale for inclusion: This study from the Western Trauma Association began to investigate the complication rate following splenic embolization, citing bleeding, abscesses requiring splenectomy, and arterial injury.

Citations - 272 (as of July 2017)

Functional outcome and quality of life following hip fracture in elderly women: a prospective controlled study.
Boonen S, Autier P, Barette M, Vanderschueren D, Lips P, Haentjens P.
Osteoporos Int. 2004 Feb;15(2):87-94.

Rationale for inclusion: Women who sustain a hip fracture continue to suffer from substantial functional impairment and loss in QoL at 1 year, despite a significant recovery during this 12-month period. Function upon hospital discharge is the strongest predictor of functional status 1 year later.

Citations - 274 (as of July 2017)

Trauma fatalities: time and location of hospital deaths.
Demetriades D, Murray J, Charalambides K, Alo K, Velmahos G, Rhee P, Chan L.
J Am Coll Surg. 2004 Jan;198(1):20-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of epidemiology, timing, and place of hospital deaths for trauma patients, describing 2648 deaths.

Citations - 258 (as of July 2017)

The Canadian C-spine rule versus the NEXUS low-risk criteria in patients with trauma.
Stiell IG, Clement CM, McKnight RD, Brison R, Schull MJ, Rowe BH, Worthington JR, Eisenhauer MA, Cass D, Greenberg G, MacPhail I, Dreyer J, Lee JS, Bandiera G, Reardon M, Holroyd B, Lesiuk H, Wells GA.
N Engl J Med. 2003 Dec 25;349(26):2510-8.

Rationale for inclusion: A comparison of NEXUS low-risk criteria and Canadian C-spine rule determined that the Canadian C-spine rule was both more sensitive and specific for injury while utilizing fewer imaging studies.

CAVEAT: The study investigators were the creators of the Canadian C-spine rule.

Citations - 425 (as of July 2017)

Pancreaticoduodenectomy: a rare procedure for the management of complex pancreaticoduodenal injuries.
Asensio JA, Petrone P, Roldán G, Kuncir E, Demetriades D.
J Am Coll Surg. 2003 Dec;197(6):937-42.

Rationale for inclusion: This review evaluated a 10 year experience of complex pancreatoduodenal  injuries requiring Whipple procedure and concluded while uncommon, these are all AAST grade V pancreatic and duodenal injuries with overall survival of only 67%.

Citations - 134 (as of July 2017)

Pancreaticoduodenectomy: a rare procedure for the management of complex pancreaticoduodenal injuries.
Asensio JA, Petrone P, Roldán G, Kuncir E, Demetriades D.
J Am Coll Surg. 2003 Dec;197(6):937-42.

Rationale for inclusion: This review evaluated a 10 year experience of complex pancreatoduodenal  injuries requiring Whipple procedure and concluded while uncommon, these are all AAST grade V pancreatic and duodenal injuries with overall survival of only 67%.

Citations - 134 (as of July 2017)

Predictors of morbidity after traumatic pancreatic injury.
Kao LS, Bulger EM, Parks DL, Byrd GF, Jurkovich GJ.
J Trauma. 2003 Nov;55(5):898-905.

Rationale for inclusion: This study validated the AAST organ injury grading system for pancreatic injury.

Citations - 140 (as of July 2017)

Colon injury after blunt abdominal trauma: results of the EAST Multi-Institutional Hollow Viscus Injury Study.
Williams MD, Watts D, Fakhry S.
J Trauma. 2003 Nov;55(5):906-12.

Rationale for inclusion: Results from this EAST multi-center trial concluded that despite a lack of definitive diagnostic modalities to reliably diagnose colon injuries, most are identified promptly.  The presence of colonic injury is associated with increased morbidity and complication rate.  

Citations - 73 (as of July 2017)

Blunt vascular trauma in the extremity: diagnosis, management, and outcome.
Rozycki GS, Tremblay LN, Feliciano DV, McClelland WB.
J Trauma. 2003 Nov;55(5):814-24.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes risk factors for poor outcome in blunt extremity injury with vascular trauma.

Citations - 153 (as of July 2017)

Analysis of 185 iliac vessel injuries: risk factors and predictors of outcome.
Asensio JA, Petrone P, Roldán G, Kuncir E, Rowe VL, Chan L, Shoemaker W, Berne TV.
Arch Surg. 2003 Nov;138(11):1187-93; discussion 1193-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes 148 patients with 185 iliac vessel injuries with regression of factors related to survival. Describes mortality by AAST grade.

Citations - 50 (as of November 2017)

Diagnostic laparoscopy in abdominal stab wounds: a prospective, randomized study.
Leppäniemi A, Haapiainen R.
J Trauma. 2003 Oct;55(4):636-45.

Rationale for inclusion: This study recommended against the routine use of diagnostic laparoscopy after anterolateral stab injuries.  Stable patients with evidence of peritoneal violation after sustaining abdominal stab wounds were randomized to either diagnostic laparoscopy or exploratory laparotomy, with little benefit to laparoscopy.  In similar patients with equivocal violation of the peritoneum on local wound exploration, laparoscopy identified more minor injuries but was associated with increased cost and hospital length of stay. 

Citations - 125 (as of July 2017)

Nonoperative treatment of blunt injury to solid abdominal organs: a prospective study.
Velmahos GC, Toutouzas KG, Radin R, Chan L, Demetriades D.
Arch Surg. 2003 Aug;138(8):844-51.

Rationale for inclusion: This study identified 4 independent factors associated with failure of nonoperative management of solid organ injury (liver, kidney, and spleen), including non-liver injury, positive ultrasound, >300mL of hemoperitoneum on CT, and need for transfusion.  

Citations - 278 (as of July 2017)

Early coagulopathy predicts mortality in trauma.
MacLeod JB, Lynn M, McKenney MG, Cohn SM, Murtha M.
J Trauma. 2003 Jul;55(1):39-44.

Rationale for inclusion: Abnormal coagulation labs are independent predictors of mortality in trauma.

Citations - 909 (as of July 2017)

A comprehensive analysis of traumatic rib fractures: morbidity, mortality and management.
Sirmali M, Türüt H, Topçu S, Gülhan E, Yazici U, Kaya S, Tastepe I.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003 Jul;24(1):133-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Large retrospective study correlating age and number of rib fractures with outcomes.

Citations - 313 (as of July 2017)

Supranormal trauma resuscitation causes more cases of abdominal compartment syndrome.
Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Cocanour CS, Kozar RA, Valdivia A, Sailors RM, Moore FA.
Arch Surg. 2003 Jun;138(6):637-42; discussion 642-3.

Rationale for inclusion: Patients who receive fluids to target "supranormal' physiology have worse outcomes including abdominal compartment syndrome, multiple organ failure, and death.

Citations - 485 (as of July 2017)

Acute traumatic coagulopathy.
Brohi K, Singh J, Heron M, Coats T.
J Trauma. 2003 Jun;54(6):1127-30.

Rationale for inclusion: Study showing high mortality in patients with coagulopathy.

Citations - 1200 (as of July 2017)

Blood transfusion, independent of shock severity, is associated with worse outcome in trauma.
Malone DL, Dunne J, Tracy JK, Putnam AT, Scalea TM, Napolitano LM.
J Trauma. 2003 May;54(5):898-905; discussion 905-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Blood transfusion is confirmed as an independent predictor of mortality, ICU admission, ICU LOS, and hospital LOS in trauma after controlling for severity of shock by admission base deficit, lactate, shock index, and anemia. 

Citations - 586 (as of July 2017)

Operative compared with nonoperative treatment of a thoracolumbar burst fracture without neurological deficit. A prospective, randomized study.
Wood K, Buttermann G, Mehbod A, Garvey T, Jhanjee R, Sechriest V.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003 May;85-A(5):773-81.

Rationale for inclusion: RCT comparing operative versus nonoperative treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures.  Operative management offered no benefit when neurologic exam and spine stability were present.

Citations - 529 (as of July 2017)

Morbidity from rib fractures increases after age 45.
Holcomb JB, McMullin NR, Kozar RA, Lygas MH, Moore FA.
J Am Coll Surg. 2003 Apr;196(4):549-55.

Rationale for inclusion: Retrospective cohort study of 171 patients with rib fractures that were compared with respect to number of rib fractures and age.

Citations - 189 (as of July 2017)

Elderly trauma patients with rib fractures are at greater risk of death and pneumonia.
Bergeron E, Lavoie A, Clas D, Moore L, Ratte S, Tetreault S, Lemaire J, Martin M.
J Trauma. 2003 Mar;54(3):478-85.

Rationale for inclusion: Mortality was greater (19%) in patients >65 years with multiple rib fractures.

Citations - 230 (as of July 2017)

The effect of paramedic rapid sequence intubation on outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
Davis DP, Hoyt DB, Ochs M, Fortlage D, Holbrook T, Marshall LK, Rosen P.
J Trauma. 2003 Mar;54(3):444-53.

Rationale for inclusion: Paramedic intubation in the field was associated with higher mortality, possibly from transient hypoxia, inadvertent hyperventilation, and longer scene times.

Citations - 338 (as of July 2017)

External fixation or arteriogram in bleeding pelvic fracture: initial therapy guided by markers of arterial hemorrhage.
Miller PR, Moore PS, Mansell E, Meredith JW, Chang MC.
J Trauma. 2003 Mar;54(3):437-43.

Rationale for inclusion: To identify patients who may benefit from early angiography prior to pelvic stabilization, this study found that non-responders to resuscitative efforts and those patients with CT evidence of contrast blush have potential arterial hemorrhage that should be treated with early embolization.

Citations - 289 (as of July 2017)

Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm: experience with 65 patients.
Mihos P, Potaris K, Gakidis J, Paraskevopoulos J, Varvatsoulis P, Gougoutas B, Papadakis G, Lapidakis E.
Injury. 2003 Mar;34(3):169-72.

Rationale for inclusion: This descriptive experience of 65 patients advocates for thorough examination of both hemidiaphragms at exploration for timely identification of these injuries, which are associated with multiple additional traumatic injuries in the majority of cases.

Citations - 212 (as of July 2017)

Current diagnostic approaches lack sensitivity in the diagnosis of perforated blunt small bowel injury: analysis from 275,557 trauma admissions from the EAST multi-institutional HVI trial.
Fakhry SM, Watts DD, Luchette FA; EAST Multi-Institutional Hollow Viscus Injury Research Group.
J Trauma. 2003 Feb;54(2):295-306.

Rationale for inclusion: This represents the results of the EAST multi-institutional trial from 95 trauma centers, concluding that current diagnostic modalities are not sensitive for the diagnosis of traumatic bowel injury, with 13% of patients with small bowel injury demonstrating normal initial CT imaging.

Citations - 161 (as of July 2017)

Endotracheal intubation in the field does not improve outcome in trauma patients who present without an acutely lethal traumatic brain injury.
Bochicchio GV, Ilahi O, Joshi M, Bochicchio K, Scalea TM.
J Trauma. 2003 Feb;54(2):307-11.

Rationale for inclusion: Prehospital intubation is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality in trauma patients with traumatic brain injury who are admitted to the hospital without an acutely lethal injury in prospective data.

Citations - 222 (as of July 2017)

Multicenter Canadian study of prehospital trauma care.
Liberman M, Mulder D, Lavoie A, Denis R, Sampalis JS.
Ann Surg. 2003 Feb;237(2):153-60.

Rationale for inclusion: In urban centers with highly specialized level I trauma centers, there is no benefit in having on-site ALS for the prehospital management of trauma patients.

Citations - 143 (as of July 2017)

Cranio-maxillofacial trauma: a 10 year review of 9,543 cases with 21,067 injuries.
Gassner R, Tuli T, Hächl O, Rudisch A, Ulmer H.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2003 Feb;31(1):51-61.

Rationale for inclusion: Large retrospective review of 9,543 patients to find that older age was associated with facial fractures and soft tissue injuries while younger patients more often sustained dentoalveolar injuries.

Citations - 601 (as of July 2017)

Normal electrocardiography and serum troponin I levels preclude the presence of clinically significant blunt cardiac injury.
Velmahos GC, Karaiskakis M, Salim A, Toutouzas KG, Murray J, Asensio J, Demetriades D.
J Trauma. 2003 Jan;54(1):45-50; discussion 50-1.

Rationale for inclusion: Normal admission and 8 hour EKG and troponin I rules out blunt cardiac injury.

Citations - 144 (as of July 2017)

Intracranial complications of preinjury anticoagulation in trauma patients with head injury.
Mina AA, Knipfer JF, Park DY, Bair HA, Howells GA, Bendick PJ.
J Trauma. 2002 Oct;53(4):668-72.

Rationale for inclusion:  Patients on preinjury anticoagulation were 4-5x as likely to die as a result of head injuries.

CAVEAT: Retrospective design introduces selection bias.

Citations - 169 (as of July 2017)

Prospective screening for blunt cerebrovascular injuries: analysis of diagnostic modalities and outcomes.
Miller PR, Fabian TC, Croce MA, Cagiannos C, Williams JS, Vang M, Qaisi WG, Felker RE, Timmons SD.
Ann Surg. 2002 Sep;236(3):386-93; discussion 393-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Aggressive screening detected BCVI in 1% of blunt trauma admissions.  The authors found CTA and MRA to be inadequate for BCVI screening.

Citations - 370 (as of July 2017)

Changes in the management of femoral shaft fractures in polytrauma patients: from early total care to damage control orthopedic surgery.
Pape HC, Hildebrand F, Pertschy S, Zelle B, Garapati R, Grimme K, Krettek C, Reed RL 2nd.
J Trauma. 2002 Sep;53(3):452-61; discussion 461-2.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of the use of damage control principles for orthopedic management of femur fractures.

Citations - 392 (as of July 2017)

The importance of fracture pattern in guiding therapeutic decision-making in patients with hemorrhagic shock and pelvic ring disruptions.
Eastridge BJ, Starr A, Minei JP, O'Keefe GE, Scalea TM.
J Trauma. 2002 Sep;53(3):446-50; discussion 450-1.

Rationale for inclusion: This study addressed the complexity of managing hemodynamically unstable patients with combined pelvic and abdominal trauma, concluding that stable pelvic fracture patterns would benefit from initial laparotomy, and unstable pelvic fracture patterns (APC II, APC III, LC II, LC III, and vertical shear) may benefit from initial angiography even in the presence of hemoperitoneum.

Citations - 304 (as of July 2017)

Traumatic brain injury in the elderly: increased mortality and worse functional outcome at discharge despite lower injury severity.
Susman M, DiRusso SM, Sullivan T, Risucci D, Nealon P, Cuff S, Haider A, Benzil D.
J Trauma. 2002 Aug;53(2):219-23; discussion 223-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Elderly patients have worse outcomes than non-elderly patients with TBI despite lower injury severity.

Citations - 327 (as of July 2017)

Pelvic fractures: epidemiology and predictors of associated abdominal injuries and outcomes.
Demetriades D, Karaiskakis M, Toutouzas K, Alo K, Velmahos G, Chan L.
J Am Coll Surg. 2002 Jul;195(1):1-10.

Rationale for inclusion: This large registry study identified that bladder and urethral injuries were the most common abdominal injury associated with severe pelvic fractures and should be anticipated.  

Citations - 289 (as of July 2017)

Pancreatic stent placement for duct disruption.
Telford JJ, Farrell JJ, Saltzman JR, Shields SJ, Banks PA, Lichtenstein DR, Johannes RS, Kelsey PB, Carr-Locke DL.
Gastrointest Endosc. 2002 Jul;56(1):18-24.

Rationale for inclusion: Although a minority of patients included in this study had sustained trauma, this series supported the placement of bridging pancreatic stents used to cross pancreatic ductal disruptions, citing improved resolution of leaks with stenting in this diverse population.

CAVEAT: Majority of patients studied had evidence of pancreatic ductal disruption due to pancreatitis.

Citations - 212 (as of July 2017)

Prospective evaluation of the safety of enoxaparin prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in patients with intracranial hemorrhagic injuries.
Norwood SH, McAuley CE, Berne JD, Vallina VL, Kerns DB, Grahm TW, Short K, McLarty JW.
Arch Surg. 2002 Jun;137(6):696-701; discussion 701-2.

Rationale for inclusion: Enoxaparin can be safely used for VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients with IHI when started 24 hours after hospital admission or after craniotomy.

Citations - 142 (as of July 2017)

Isolated traumatic brain injury: age is an independent predictor of mortality and early outcome.
Mosenthal AC, Lavery RF, Addis M, Kaul S, Ross S, Marburger R, Deitch EA, Livingston DH.
J Trauma. 2002 May;52(5):907-11.

Rationale for inclusion: Age is an independent predictor of mortality in TBI.

Citations - 251 (as of July 2017)

Penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries: ongoing dilemma-which cavity and when?
Asensio JA, Arroyo H Jr, Veloz W, Forno W, Gambaro E, Roldan GA, Murray J, Velmahos G, Demetriades D.
World J Surg. 2002 May;26(5):539-43.

Rationale for inclusion: In a series of 254 patients with penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries, 44% had inappropriate sequencing, most often indicated by persistent hypotension and misleading chest tube output.

Citations - 124 (as of July 2017)

Treatment-related outcomes from blunt cerebrovascular injuries: importance of routine follow-up arteriography.
Biffl WL, Ray CE Jr, Moore EE, Franciose RJ, Aly S, Heyrosa MG, Johnson JL, Burch JM.
Ann Surg. 2002 May;235(5):699-706; discussion 706-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective assessment of routine follow-up angiography in BCVI, finding that many will require a change in management based on new imaging.

Citations - 266 (as of July 2017)

Surgical stabilization of internal pneumatic stabilization? A prospective randomized study of management of severe flail chest patients.
Tanaka H, Yukioka T, Yamaguti Y, Shimizu S, Goto H, Matsuda H, Shimazaki S.
J Trauma. 2002 Apr;52(4):727-32; discussion 732.

Rationale for inclusion: Surgical rib fixation was compared with internal pneumatic stabilization in this prospective, randomized trial.

Citations - 377 (as of July 2017)

Time to laparotomy for intra-abdominal bleeding from trauma does affect survival for delays up to 90 minutes.
Clarke JR, Trooskin SZ, Doshi PJ, Greenwald L, Mode CJ.
J Trauma. 2002 Mar;52(3):420-5.

Rationale for inclusion: 243 hypotensive patients with isolated abdominal injuries were studied to find the probability of death increased 1% for every 3 minutes in the ED prior to OR.

Citations - 334 (as of July 2017)

Handsewn versus stapled anastomosis in penetrating colon injuries requiring resection: a multicenter study.
Demetriades D, Murray JA, Chan LS, Ordoñez C, Bowley D, Nagy KK, Cornwell EE 3rd, Velmahos GC, Muñoz N, Hatzitheofilou C, Schwab CW, Rodriguez A, Cornejo C, Davis KA, Namias N, Wisner DH, Ivatury RR, Moore EE, Acosta JA, Maull KI, Thomason MH, Spain DA.
J Trauma. 2002 Jan;52(1):117-21.

Rationale for inclusion: A multi-center prospective study, this trial concluded that the method of colonic anastomosis (hand-sewn vs. stapled) does not affect complication rates and should be surgeon choice.

Citations - 67 (as of July 2017)

Determining the need for laparotomy in penetrating torso trauma: a prospective study using triple-contrast enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography.
Chiu WC, Shanmuganathan K, Mirvis SE, Scalea TM.
J Trauma. 2001 Nov;51(5):860-8; discussion 868-9.

Rationale for inclusion: CT accurately predicted need for laparotomy in 71 of 75 patients.

Citations - 115 (as of July 2017)

Reversal of catabolism by beta-blockade after severe burns.
Herndon DN, Hart DW, Wolf SE, Chinkes DL, Wolfe RR.
N Engl J Med. 2001 Oct 25;345(17):1223-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes use of propranolol in children with burn injuries to attenuate hyper-metabolism and reverse muscle-protein catabolism.

Citations - 467 (as of July 2017)

The Canadian C-spine rule for radiography in alert and stable trauma patients.
Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen KL, Clement CM, Lesiuk H, De Maio VJ, Laupacis A, Schull M, McKnight RD, Verbeek R, Brison R, Cass D, Dreyer J, Eisenhauer MA, Greenberg GH, MacPhail I, Morrison L, Reardon M, Worthington J.
JAMA. 2001 Oct 17;286(15):1841-8.

Rationale for inclusion: The Canadian C-spine rule created another decision tool to help clinicians decide when further cervical spine imaging is needed in alert, stable trauma patients.

Citations - 819 (as of July 2017)

Blunt cerebrovascular injuries: diagnosis and treatment.
Miller PR, Fabian TC, Bee TK, Timmons S, Chamsuddin A, Finkle R, Croce MA.
J Trauma. 2001 Aug;51(2):279-85; discussion 285-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Aggressive screening and treatment led to significant reductions in stroke rates for both carotid and vertebral BCVI.

Citations - 246 (as of July 2017)

Association of hyperglycemia with increased mortality after severe burn injury.
Gore DC, Chinkes D, Heggers J, Herndon DN, Wolf SE, Desai M.
J Trauma. 2001 Sep;51(3):540-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Poor glucose control in pediatric burn patients is associated with poor outcomes including skin graft take, bacteremia, and mortality.

Citations - 476 (as of July 2017)

Selective nonoperative management in 1,856 patients with abdominal gunshot wounds: should routine laparotomy still be the standard of care?
Velmahos GC, Demetriades D, Toutouzas KG, Sarkisyan G, Chan LS, Ishak R, Alo K, Vassiliu P, Murray JA, Salim A, Asensio J, Belzberg H, Katkhouda N, Berne TV.
Ann Surg. 2001 Sep;234(3):395-402; discussion 402-3.

Rationale for inclusion: Large retrospective series indicating that selective nonoperative management was a safe method of managing abdominal gunshot wounds.

Citations - 212 (as of July 2017)

Evolution in damage control for exsanguinating penetrating abdominal injury.
Johnson JW, Gracias VH, Schwab CW, Reilly PM, Kauder DR, Shapiro MB, Dabrowski GP, Rotondo MF.
J Trauma. 2001 Aug;51(2):261-9; discussion 269-71.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison of patients who underwent damage control to historical controls that shows improved survival.

Citations - 398 (as of July 2017)

Factors affecting mortality rates in patients with abdominal vascular injuries.
Tyburski JG, Wilson RF, Dente C, Steffes C, Carlin AM.
J Trauma. 2001 Jun;50(6):1020-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes 470 patients with abdominal vascular injuries. 45% mortality. Also describes types of injuries and risk factors for mortality.

Citations - 84 (as of July 2017)

Evolution of a multidisciplinary clinical pathway for the management of unstable patients with pelvic fractures.
Biffl WL, Smith WR, Moore EE, Gonzalez RJ, Morgan SJ, Hennessey T, Offner PJ, Ray CE Jr, Franciose RJ, Burch JM.
Ann Surg. 2001 Jun;233(6):843-50.

Rationale for inclusion: The authors describe a clinical pathway incorporating immediate orthopedic evaluation in addition to trauma surgery presence in the emergency department, early transfusion of blood and plasma, prompt diagnosis of associated injuries, stabilization of the pelvis, and timely angiography with embolization, resulting in improved patient survival.

Citations - 300 (as of July 2017)

The Canadian CT Head Rule for patients with minor head injury.
Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen K, Clement C, Lesiuk H, Laupacis A, McKnight RD, Verbeek R, Brison R, Cass D, Eisenhauer ME, Greenberg G, Worthington J.
Lancet. 2001 May 5;357(9266):1391-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective study that established a clinical decision tool for the use of CT after minor head injury.

Citations - 937 (as of July 2017)

Penetrating colon injuries requiring resection: diversion or primary anastomosis? An AAST prospective multicenter study.
Demetriades D, Murray JA, Chan L, Ordoñez C, Bowley D, Nagy KK, Cornwell EE 3rd, Velmahos GC, Muñoz N, Hatzitheofilou C, Schwab CW, Rodriguez A, Cornejo C, Davis KA, Namias N, Wisner DH, Ivatury RR, Moore EE, Acosta JA, Maull KI, Thomason MH, Spain DA; Committee on Multicenter Clinical Trials. American Association for the Surgery of Trauma.
J Trauma. 2001 May;50(5):765-75.

Rationale for inclusion: This AAST prospective multi-institutional study from 19 trauma centers identified severe fecal contamination, transfusion of >4units of blood, and single agent antibiotic prophylaxis are risk factors for abdominal complications after penetrating colon injury, but the surgical method of colon injury management is not, concluding that primary anastomosis should be considered.  

Citations - 252 (as of July 2017)

Relationship between trauma center volume and outcomes.
Nathens AB, Jurkovich GJ, Maier RV, Grossman DC, MacKenzie EJ, Moore M, Rivara FP.
JAMA. 2001 Mar 7;285(9):1164-71.

Rationale for inclusion: High volume centers have improved mortality and length of stay as compared with low-volume trauma centers; threshold is 650 admissions per year in this study.

Citations - 425 (as of July 2017)

Role of ultrasonography in penetrating abdominal trauma: a prospective clinical study.
Udobi KF, Rodriguez A, Chiu WC, Scalea TM.
J Trauma. 2001 Mar;50(3):475-9.

Rationale for inclusion: 75 penetrating trauma victims underwent FAST examination, revealing a sensitivity of 46% and specificity of 94%.

Citations - 210 (as of July 2017)

Clinically significant blunt cardiac trauma: role of serum troponin levels combined with electrocardiographic findings.
Salim A, Velmahos GC, Jindal A, Chan L, Vassiliu P, Belzberg H, Asensio J, Demetriades D.
J Trauma. 2001 Feb;50(2):237-43.

Rationale for inclusion: The negative predictive value of a normal EKG and troponin I was 100%.  18 of 19 patients who developed symptoms did so within 24hrs.

Citations - 138 (as of July 2017)

Penetrating esophageal injuries: multicenter study of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma.
Asensio JA, Chahwan S, Forno W, MacKersie R, Wall M, Lake J, Minard G, Kirton O, Nagy K, Karmy-Jones R, Brundage S, Hoyt D, Winchell R, Kralovich K, Shapiro M, Falcone R, McGuire E, Ivatury R, Stoner M, Yelon J, Ledgerwood A, Luchette F, Schwab CW, Frankel H, Chang B, Coscia R, Maull K, Wang D, Hirsch E, Cue J, Schmacht D, Dunn E, Miller F, Powell M, Sherck J, Enderson B, Rue L 3rd, Warren R, Rodriquez J, West M, Weireter L, Britt LD, Dries D, Dunham CM, Malangoni M, Fallon W, Simon R, Bell R, Hanpeter D, Gambaro E, Ceballos J, Torcal J, Alo K, Ramicone E, Chan L; American Association for the Surgery of Trauma.
J Trauma. 2001 Feb;50(2):289-96.

Rationale for inclusion: Large multi-center study which correlated delay in esophageal repair with adverse outcomes.

Citations - 148 (as of July 2017)

Validation of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury severity scale for the kidney.
Santucci RA, McAninch JW, Safir M, Mario LA, Service S, Segal MR.
J Trauma. 2001 Feb;50(2):195-200.

Rationale for inclusion: This study validated the AAST injury scale for renal injury, supporting its correlation with need for repair or nephrectomy.

Citations - 215 (as of July 2017)

A prospective evaluation of the clinical utility of the lower-extremity injury-severity scores.
Bosse MJ, MacKenzie EJ, Kellam JF, Burgess AR, Webb LX, Swiontkowski MF, Sanders RW, Jones AL, McAndrew MP, Patterson BM, McCarthy ML, Cyril JK.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001 Jan;83-A(1):3-14.

Rationale for inclusion: This prospective study challenged the ability of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) to accurately predict need for primary amputation.  Using 556 high energy lower-extremity injuries, MESS accurately predicted limb salvage when low, but was not sensitive to predict amputation rate when high and concluded the MESS should be used with caution.

Citations - 314 (as of July 2017)

Focal arterial injuries of the proximal extremities: helical CT arteriography as the initial method of diagnosis.
Soto JA, Múnera F, Morales C, Lopera JE, Holguín D, Guarín O, Castrillón G, Sanabria A, García G.
Radiology. 2001 Jan;218(1):188-94.

Rationale for inclusion: CT provides high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose proximal extremity arterial injuries.

Citations - 202 (as of July 2017)

Geriatric falls: injury severity is high and disproportionate to mechanism.
Sterling DA, O'Connor JA, Bonadies J.
J Trauma. 2001 Jan;50(1):116-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Same-level falls in elderly can result in high injury severity.

Citations - 494 (as of July 2017)

Operative management and outcome of 302 abdominal vascular injuries.
Asensio JA, Chahwan S, Hanpeter D, Demetriades D, Forno W, Gambaro E, Murray J, Velmahos G, Marengo J, Shoemaker WC, Berne TV.
Am J Surg. 2000 Dec;180(6):528-33; discussion 533-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Review of 302 patients with abdominal vascular injuries, describing mortality by AAST grade; also describes mortality of combined vascular injuries

Citations - 193 (as of July 2017)

Outcome after major renovascular injuries: a Western trauma association multicenter report.
Knudson MM, Harrison PB, Hoyt DB, Shatz DV, Zietlow SP, Bergstein JM, Mario LA, McAninch JW.
J Trauma. 2000 Dec;49(6):1116-22.

Rationale for inclusion: The results of this WTA multi-center report concluded that factors associated with poor outcome following conservative management of major renovascular injuries include blunt mechanism, high grade injury (grade V), and attempted vascular repair, identifying patients who may be better treated with initial nephrectomy.

Citations - 135 (as of July 2017)

Perioperative antibiotic use in high-risk penetrating hollow viscus injury: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-control trial of 24 hours versus 5 days.
Kirton OC, O'Neill PA, Kestner M, Tortella BJ.
J Trauma. 2000 Nov;49(5):822-32.

Rationale for inclusion: Using a placebo-controlled randomized trial, this study found that patients with penetrating abdominal trauma and hollow-viscus injury should be treated with only 24 hours of broad spectrum antibiotics, with equivalent infectious complications to those patients treated with a prolonged course of antibiotics.

Citations - 67 (as of July 2017)

Endpoints of resuscitation of critically injured patients: normal or supranormal? A prospective randomized trial.
Velmahos GC, Demetriades D, Shoemaker WC, Chan LS, Tatevossian R, Wo CC, Vassiliu P, Cornwell EE 3rd, Murray JA, Roth B, Belzberg H, Asensio JA, Berne TV.
Ann Surg. 2000 Sep;232(3):409-18.

Rationale for inclusion: Patients who are able to reach optimal hemodynamic parameters have improved survival than those who cannot, but aggressive interventions to achieve these values do not improve outcomes.

Citations - 208 (as of July 2017)

Diagnosis of arterial injuries caused by penetrating trauma to the neck: comparison of helical CT angiography and conventional angiography.
Múnera F, Soto JA, Palacio D, Velez SM, Medina E.
Radiology. 2000 Aug;216(2):356-62.

Rationale for inclusion: The initial study of its kind, comparing CT angiography to conventional angiography for vascular injury detection in penetrating neck injuries.

Citations - 214 (as of July 2017)

Blunt splenic injury in adults: Multi-institutional Study of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma.
Peitzman AB, Heil B, Rivera L, Federle MB, Harbrecht BG, Clancy KD, Croce M, Enderson BL, Morris JA, Shatz D, Meredith JW, Ochoa JB, Fakhry SM, Cushman JG, Minei JP, McCarthy M, Luchette FA, Townsend R, Tinkoff G, Block EF, Ross S, Frykberg ER, Bell RM, Davis F 3rd, Weireter L, Shapiro MB.
J Trauma. 2000 Aug;49(2):177-87; discussion 187-9.

Rationale for inclusion: This multi-center EAST national study identified factors contributing to failure of nonoperative management of blunt splenic injury, utilizing 1488 patients from 27 trauma centers.  

Citations - 394 (as of July 2017)

Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study Group.
Hoffman JR, Mower WR, Wolfson AB, Todd KH, Zucker MI.
N Engl J Med. 2000 Jul 13;343(2):94-9.

Rationale for inclusion: The NEXUS trial established a set of clinical criteria to help physicians identify patients who warrant imaging of their cervical spine.

Citations - 961 (as of July 2017)

Indications for computed tomography in patients with minor head injury.
Haydel MJ, Preston CA, Mills TJ, Luber S, Blaudeau E, DeBlieux PM.
N Engl J Med. 2000 Jul 13;343(2):100-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Among patients with GCS of 15, all with CT findings had one of the following:  headache, vomiting, age >60, intoxication, memory deficits, physical evidence of head/neck trauma, or seizures.

Citations - 776 (as of July 2017)

Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: an inappropriate standard of care.
Hurlbert RJ.
J Neurosurg. 2000 Jul;93(1 Suppl):1-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Results from the NASCIS II and III trials were reanalyzed without post-hoc comparisons and failed to show any benefit from the use of methylprednisolone and recovery from SCI.

Citations - 500 (as of July 2017)

Selective nonoperative management of blunt grade 5 renal injury.
Altman AL, Haas C, Dinchman KH, Spirnak JP.
J Urol. 2000 Jul;164(1):27-30; discussion 30-1.

Rationale for inclusion: Using a small series, this study supports the conservative management of grade V renal lacerations in patients presenting without hemodynamic compromise.

Citations - 157 (as of July 2017)

Nonunion of the femoral diaphysis. The influence of reaming and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Giannoudis PV, MacDonald DA, Matthews SJ, Smith RM, Furlong AJ, De Boer P.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2000 Jul;82(5):655-8.

Rationale for inclusion: This study identified the association of NSAID use with nonunion of femoral fractures, noting delayed healing in these patients and recommending against the use of NSAIDs in this patient population.

Citations - 354(as of July 2017)

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in the assessment of pancreatic duct trauma and its sequelae: preliminary findings.
Fulcher AS, Turner MA, Yelon JA, McClain LC, Broderick T, Ivatury RR, Sugerman HJ.
J Trauma. 2000 Jun;48(6):1001-7.

Rationale for inclusion: In a small series (10 stable trauma patients), MRCP was feasible and reliably identified pancreatic ductal trauma in a noninvasive method.

Citations - 151 (as of July 2017)

Conversion of external fixation to intramedullary nailing for fractures of the shaft of the femur in multiply injured patients.
Nowotarski PJ, Turen CH, Brumback RJ, Scarboro JM.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000 Jun;82(6):781-8.

Rationale for inclusion: This 10 year evaluation of 1507 femur fractures concluded the use of immediate external fixation prior to later definitive intramedullary nailing is a safe and effective treatment algorithm for patients with multiple injuries or critical illnesses precluding immediate intramedullary nailing.

Citations - 316 (as of July 2017)

Blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries: the role of screening computed tomography.
Malhotra AK, Fabian TC, Katsis SB, Gavant ML, Croce MA.
J Trauma. 2000 Jun;48(6):991-8; discussion 998-1000.

Rationale for inclusion: Analysis of 8112 abdominal CT scans identified that helical scanners are increasingly more accurate in identification of blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries but remain with a significant false positive and false negative rate.

Citations - 165 (as of July 2017)

Blunt hepatic injury: a paradigm shift from operative to nonoperative management in the 1990s.
Malhotra AK, Fabian TC, Croce MA, Gavin TJ, Kudsk KA, Minard G, Pritchard FE.
Ann Surg. 2000 Jun;231(6):804-13.

Rationale for inclusion: This study was a single-center analysis of nonoperative blunt hepatic trauma as compared to the previous standard of operative management, finding equivalent mortality with a reduction in complication rate following nonoperative management.  

Citations - 349 (as of July 2017)

Outcome from injury: general health, work status, and satisfaction 12 months after trauma.
Michaels AJ, Michaels CE, Smith JS, Moon CH, Peterson C, Long WB.
J Trauma. 2000 May;48(5):841-8; discussion 848-50.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes 12 month outcomes after trauma showing that multiple aspects of recovery are largely dependent on mental health.

Citations - 305 (as of July 2017)

Evaluation of incidence, clinical significance, and prognostic value of circulating cardiac troponin I and T elevation in hemodynamically stable patients with suspected myocardial contusion after blunt chest trauma.
Bertinchant JP, Polge A, Mohty D, Nguyen-Ngoc-Lam R, Estorc J, Cohendy R, Joubert P, Poupard P, Fabbro-Peray P, Monpeyroux F, Poirey S, Ledermann B, Raczka F, Brunet J, Nigond J, de la Coussaye JE.
J Trauma. 2000 May;48(5):924-31.

Rationale for inclusion: Troponin I and T had low sensitivity but good specificity in predicting myocardial contusion.

Citations - 193 (as of July 2017)

The effect of organized systems of trauma care on motor vehicle crash mortality.
Nathens AB, Jurkovich GJ, Cummings P, Rivara FP, Maier RV.
JAMA. 2000 Apr 19;283(15):1990-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Organized trauma system improves mortality after MVC.

Citations - 386 (as of July 2017)

Factors affecting prognosis with penetrating wounds of the heart.
Tyburski JG, Astra L, Wilson RF, Dente C, Steffes C.
J Trauma. 2000 Apr;48(4):587-90; discussion 590-1.

Rationale for inclusion: Once again, physiology and injury mechanism best determined outcomes after penetrating cardiac injury.

Citations - 190 (as of July 2017)

External fixation as a bridge to intramedullary nailing for patients with multiple injuries and with femur fractures: damage control orthopedics.
Scalea TM, Boswell SA, Scott JD, Mitchell KA, Kramer ME, Pollak AN.
J Trauma. 2000 Apr;48(4):613-21; discussion 621-3.

Rationale for inclusion: Orthopedic damage control principles applied to femur fractures with external fixation.

Citations - 526 (as of July 2017)

External fixation as a bridge to intramedullary nailing for patients with multiple injuries and with femur fractures: damage control orthopedics.
Scalea TM, Boswell SA, Scott JD, Mitchell KA, Kramer ME, Pollak AN.
J Trauma. 2000 Apr;48(4):613-21; discussion 621-3.

Rationale for inclusion: This retrospective analysis of 43 patients undergoing initial external fixation for stabilization of femur fractures as compared to 284 patients undergoing primary and definitive intramedullary nailing proved the safety of temporary fixation for management of multi-trauma patients with femur fractures.

Citations - 526 (as of July 2017)

Relatively short diagnostic delays (<8 hours) produce morbidity and mortality in blunt small bowel injury: an analysis of time to operative intervention in 198 patients from a multicenter experience.
Fakhry SM, Brownstein M, Watts DD, Baker CC, Oller D.
J Trauma. 2000 Mar;48(3):408-14; discussion 414-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Using data collected from 8 trauma centers evaluating the effect of diagnostic delays in blunt small bowel injuries, this analysis stressed the importance of prompt recognition of bowel injury, given their finding that relatively brief delays (8 hours) contributed to increased morbidity and mortality.

Citations - 271 (as of July 2017)

Survival after emergency department thoracotomy: review of published data from the past 25 years.
Rhee PM, Acosta J, Bridgeman A, Wang D, Jordan M, Rich N.
J Am Coll Surg. 2000 Mar;190(3):288-98.

Rationale for inclusion: The best survival results are seen in patients who undergo emergency thoracotomy for thoracic stab injuries and who arrive with signs of life in the emergency department. All three factors-mechanism of injury, location of major injury and signs of life- should be taken into account when deciding whether to perform EDT. 

Citations - 278 (as of July 2017)

Vacuum pack technique of temporary abdominal closure: a 7-year experience with 112 patients.
Barker DE, Kaufman HJ, Smith LA, Ciraulo DL, Richart CL, Burns RP.
J Trauma. 2000 Feb;48(2):201-6; discussion 206-7.

Rationale for inclusion: This single institution early case series documents the use of the vacuum pack technique as a simple and safe method for management of the open abdomen, but cites high complication rates and only a 55.4% rate of primary fascial closure.

Citations - 515 (as of July 2017)

Effectiveness of state trauma systems in reducing injury-related mortality: a national evaluation.
Nathens AB, Jurkovich GJ, Rivara FP, Maier RV.
J Trauma. 2000 Jan;48(1):25-30; discussion 30-1.

Rationale for inclusion:  Analysis of states with trauma systems compared with states without trauma systems. A state trauma system is associated with a reduction in the risk of death caused by injury. The effect is most evident on analysis of MVC deaths.

Citations - 308 (as of July 2017)

Age of transfused blood is an independent risk factor for postinjury multiple organ failure.
Zallen G, Offner PJ, Moore EE, Blackwell J, Ciesla DJ, Gabriel J, Denny C, Silliman CC.
Am J Surg. 1999 Dec;178(6):570-2.

Rationale for inclusion: Age of transfused blood (PRBCs) given in the first 6 hours is an independent risk factor for multiple organ failure.

Citations - 498 (as of July 2017)

Helical CT of diaphragmatic rupture caused by blunt trauma.
Killeen KL, Mirvis SE, Shanmuganathan K.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999 Dec;173(6):1611-6.

Rationale for inclusion: This study of 41 patients with diaphragm injury concluded the sensitivity of helical CT to detect left and right sided diaphragm in juries is 78% and 50%, respectively.

Citations - 230 (as of July 2017)

The golden hour and the silver day: detection and correction of occult hypoperfusion within 24 hours improves outcome from major trauma.
Blow O, Magliore L, Claridge JA, Butler K, Young JS.
J Trauma. 1999 Nov;47(5):964-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the increased morbidity and mortality in patients who have persistent occult hypo-perfusion.

Citations - 396 (as of July 2017)

Recent trends in mortality and causes of death among persons with spinal cord injury.
DeVivo MJ, Krause JS, Lammertse DP.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Nov;80(11):1411-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Mortality improved over a 25 year period from 1973 to 1998 in spinal cord injury care systems and Shriner's Hospitals.

Citations - 821 (as of July 2017)

Blunt carotid arterial injuries: implications of a new grading scale.
Biffl WL, Moore EE, Offner PJ, Brega KE, Franciose RJ, Burch JM.
J Trauma. 1999 Nov;47(5):845-53.

Rationale for inclusion: Described BCVI grading system (I-V) that is still commonly used today.

Citations - 330 (as of July 2017)

Prognostic factors and management of civilian penetrating duodenal trauma.
Timaran CH, Martinez O, Ospina JA.
J Trauma. 1999 Aug;47(2):330-5.

Rationale for inclusion: A single center retrospective review, this study identified shock and additional abdominal injuries to the pancreas, mesenteric vessels, and colon are associated with increased complications following penetrating duodenal trauma.

Citations - 69 (as of July 2017)

Outcome after major trauma: 12-month and 18-month follow-up results from the Trauma Recovery Project.
Holbrook TL, Anderson JP, Sieber WJ, Browner D, Hoyt DB.
J Trauma. 1999 May;46(5):765-71; discussion 771-3.

Rationale for inclusion: 12 and 18 month followup after trauma showing persistent, prolonged, and profound level of functional level after major trauma.

Citations - 408 (as of July 2017)

Trauma care regionalization: a process-outcome evaluation.
Sampalis JS, Denis R, Lavoie A, Fréchette P, Boukas S, Nikolis A, Benoit D, Fleiszer D, Brown R, Churchill-Smith M, Mulder D.
J Trauma. 1999 Apr;46(4):565-79; discussion 579-81.

Rationale for inclusion: Utilizing Quebec Trauma Registry; treatment of patients at a trauma center, reduced prehospital time, and treatment at a tertiary center contributed to decreased mortality.

Citations - 367 (as of July 2017)

Interventional techniques are useful adjuncts in nonoperative management of hepatic injuries.
Carrillo EH, Spain DA, Wohltmann CD, Schmieg RE, Boaz PW, Miller FB, Richardson JD.
J Trauma. 1999 Apr;46(4):619-22; discussion 622-4.

Rationale for inclusion: After nonoperative management of hepatic trauma was introduced and became standard of care for hemodynamically stable patients, this retrospective review described the significant complication rate (24%) seen with nonoperative management.  The majority of these complications were managed by less invasive procedures than laparotomy including ERCP and embolization.  

Citations - 231 (as of July 2017)

The role of ultrasound in patients with possible penetrating cardiac wounds: a prospective multicenter study.
Rozycki GS, Feliciano DV, Ochsner MG, Knudson MM, Hoyt DB, Davis F, Hammerman D, Figueredo V, Harviel JD, Han DC, Schmidt JA.
J Trauma. 1999 Apr;46(4):543-51; discussion 551-2.

Rationale for inclusion: A prospective, multi-center study demonstrating that ultrasound is not only sensitive for cardiac injury detection, but rapid also.

Citations - 310 (as of July 2017)

Occult injuries to the diaphragm: prospective evaluation of laparoscopy in penetrating injuries to the left lower chest.
Murray JA, Demetriades D, Asensio JA, Cornwell EE 3rd, Velmahos GC, Belzberg H, Berne TV.
J Am Coll Surg. 1998 Dec;187(6):626-30.

Rationale for inclusion: 24% of patients with penetrating injuries of the left lower chest were found to have occult diaphragmatic injuries on laparoscopy.

Citations - 188 (as of July 2017)

Staged physiologic restoration and damage control surgery.
Moore EE, Burch JM, Franciose RJ, Offner PJ, Biffl WL.
World J Surg. 1998 Dec;22(12):1184-90; discussion 1190-1.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the stages and goals of each stage of a damage control surgery for trauma.

Citations - 322 (as of July 2017)

Occult injuries to the diaphragm: prospective evaluation of laparoscopy in penetrating injuries to the left lower chest.
Murray JA, Demetriades D, Asensio JA, Cornwell EE 3rd, Velmahos GC, Belzberg H, Berne TV.
J Am Coll Surg. 1998 Dec;187(6):626-30.

Rationale for inclusion: Using 110 patients with penetrating injuries to the left lower chest, this study found a high incidence of occult diaphragm injuries (24%), siting the utility of laparoscopy in the identification of these injuries.  '

Citations - 188 (as of July 2017)

The role of presacral drainage in the management of penetrating rectal injuries.
Gonzalez RP, Falimirski ME, Holevar MR.
J Trauma. 1998 Oct;45(4):656-61.

Rationale for inclusion: A randomized prospective study, this trial concluded that the addition of presacral drainage for penetrating rectal injuries has no benefit in reduction of infectious complications and can be avoided.

Citations - 82 (as of July 2017)

Surgeon-performed ultrasound for the assessment of truncal injuries: lessons learned from 1540 patients.
Rozycki GS, Ballard RB, Feliciano DV, Schmidt JA, Pennington SD.
Ann Surg. 1998 Oct;228(4):557-67.

Rationale for inclusion: FAST was found to be most accurate in precordial wounds blunt torso injuries with hypotension in 1540 patients.

Citations - 372 (as of July 2017)

Outcome after hemorrhagic shock in trauma patients.
Heckbert SR, Vedder NB, Hoffman W, Winn RK, Hudson LD, Jurkovich GJ, Copass MK, Harlan JM, Rice CL, Maier RV.
J Trauma. 1998 Sep;45(3):545-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Study showing that hemorrhagic shock and need for resuscitation was predictive of high mortality and morbidity.

Citations - 357 (as of July 2017)

Diagnosis and initial management of blunt pancreatic trauma: guidelines from a multiinstitutional review.
Bradley EL 3rd, Young PR Jr, Chang MC, Allen JE, Baker CC, Meredith W, Reed L, Thomason M.
Ann Surg. 1998 Jun;227(6):861-9.

Rationale for inclusion: This study identified that the main cause of morbidity after pancreatic trauma is attributable to injury to the main pancreatic duct while recognizing that current CT modalities are unreliable in diagnosing ductal injury.

Citations - 351 (as of July 2017)

Improved success in nonoperative management of blunt splenic injuries: embolization of splenic artery pseudoaneurysms.
Davis KA, Fabian TC, Croce MA, Gavant ML, Flick PA, Minard G, Kudsk KA, Pritchard FE.
J Trauma. 1998 Jun;44(6):1008-13; discussion 1013-5.

Rationale for inclusion: This study introduced the concept that surveillance for and embolization of splenic artery pseudoaneurysms reliably improves the success of nonoperative management of splenic injuries, and should be performed in patients with initial evidence of contrast extravasation on CT imaging.   

Citations - 302 (as of July 2017)

Incidence and significance of free fluid on abdominal computed tomographic scan in blunt trauma.
Brasel KJ, Olson CJ, Stafford RE, Johnson TJ.
J Trauma. 1998 May;44(5):889-92.

Rationale for inclusion: A retrospective review of CT findings of free intraabdominal fluid after blunt trauma, this study concluded that the presence of more than trace amounts of free fluid is a strong indication for laparotomy given high rates of bowel injury.

Citations - 143 (as of July 2017)

Lethal injuries and time to death in a level I trauma center.
Acosta JA, Yang JC, Winchell RJ, Simons RK, Fortlage DA, Hollingsworth-Fridlund P, Hoyt DB.
J Am Coll Surg. 1998 May;186(5):528-33.

Rationale for inclusion: Epidemiological study of 900 trauma deaths in 1 level I trauma center describing the reason for death.

Citations - 491 (as of July 2017)

Prospective study of blunt aortic injury: helical CT is diagnostic and antihypertensive therapy reduces rupture.
Fabian TC, Davis KA, Gavant ML, Croce MA, Melton SM, Patton JH Jr, Haan CK, Weiman DS, Pate JW.
Ann Surg. 1998 May;227(5):666-76; discussion 676-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective evaluation of helical CT for blunt aortic injury diagnosis, demonstrating 100% negative predictive value for CT and 97% for aortography.

Citations - 283 (as of July 2017)

Objective estimates of the probability of death from burn injuries.
Ryan CM, Schoenfeld DA, Thorpe WP, Sheridan RL, Cassem EH, Tompkins RG.
N Engl J Med. 1998 Feb 5;338(6):362-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes 3 risk factors (age greater than 60 years, more than 40 percent of body-surface area burned, and inhalation injury) to help predict risk of mortality after burns.

Citations - 626 (as of July 2017)

Penetrating cardiac injuries: a prospective study of variables predicting outcomes.
Asensio JA, Murray J, Demetriades D, Berne J, Cornwell E, Velmahos G, Gomez H, Berne TV.
J Am Coll Surg. 1998 Jan;186(1):24-34.

Rationale for inclusion: In this prospective analysis of penetrating cardiac injuries, physiologic condition and injury mechanism were the best predictors of outcomes.

Citations - 169 (as of July 2017)

A population-based study of seizures after traumatic brain injuries.
Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Coan SP, Rocca WA.
N Engl J Med. 1998 Jan 1;338(1):20-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Study that definitively established the link between TBI and rates of post-traumatic seizures which varied with respect to injury severity and time after injury.

Citations - 776 (as of July 2017)

Early evacuation of traumatic retained hemothoraces using thoracoscopy: a prospective, randomized trial.
Meyer DM, Jessen ME, Wait MA, Estrera AS.
Ann Thorac Surg. 1997 Nov;64(5):1396-400; discussion 1400-1.

Rationale for inclusion: Randomized trial comparing second tube placement to VATS found VATS management  to decrease LOS and costs.

Citations - 183 (as of July 2017)

Direct transport to tertiary trauma centers versus transfer from lower level facilities: impact on mortality and morbidity among patients with major trauma.
Sampalis JS, Denis R, Fréchette P, Brown R, Fleiszer D, Mulder D.
J Trauma. 1997 Aug;43(2):288-95; discussion 295-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Transportation of severely injured patients from the scene directly to Level I trauma centers is associated with a reduction in mortality and morbidity. 

Citations - 304 (as of July 2017)

Pancreatic trauma: a simplified management guideline.
Patton JH Jr, Lyden SP, Croce MA, Pritchard FE, Minard G, Kudsk KA, Fabian TC.
J Trauma. 1997 Aug;43(2):234-9; discussion 239-41.

Rationale for inclusion: Supporting the trend toward simplified management for pancreatic injuries, this paper established an approach utilizing successful drainage of proximal injuries and most distal injuries, with distal pancreatectomy performed only if high probability for ductal injury.

Citations - 179 (as of July 2017)

Serum amylase level on admission in the diagnosis of blunt injury to the pancreas: its significance and limitations.
Takishima T, Sugimoto K, Hirata M, Asari Y, Ohwada T, Kakita A.
Ann Surg. 1997 Jul;226(1):70-6.

Rationale for inclusion: To improve detection of pancreatic injury, this study determined that serum amylase levels drawn within 3 hours of injury are not diagnostic and should be measured >3 hours following trauma.  

Citations - 158 (as of July 2017)

Trauma and pregnancy.
Connolly AM, Katz VL, Bash KL, McMahon MJ, Hansen WF.
Am J Perinatol. 1997 Jul;14(6):331-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Prolonged monitoring was not helpful in management of pregnant trauma patients, we support the recommendation that initial external fetal monitoring be performed for 4 hr, and, if reassuring, the patient may be sent home with precautions. We also recommend an Rh-immunoglobulin work-up for all Rh-negative pregnant trauma patients, but do not recommend Kleihauer-Betke testing for Rh-positive women. 

Citations - 267 (as of July 2017)

Endotracheal intubation in the field improves survival in patients with severe head injury. Trauma Research and Education Foundation of San Diego.
Winchell RJ, Hoyt DB.
Arch Surg. 1997 Jun;132(6):592-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Prehospital endotracheal intubation was associated with improved survival in patients with blunt injury and scene Glasgow Coma Score of 8 or less, especially those with severe head injury by anatomic criteria. 

Citations - 362 (as of July 2017)

A system for classifying mechanical injuries of the eye (globe). The Ocular Trauma Classification Group.
Pieramici DJ, Sternberg P Jr, Aaberg TM Sr, Bridges WZ Jr, Capone A Jr, Cardillo JA, de Juan E Jr, Kuhn F, Meredith TA, Mieler WF, Olsen TW, Rubsamen P, Stout T.
Am J Ophthalmol. 1997 Jun;123(6):820-31.

Rationale for inclusion: Both open and closed globe injuries were classified by injury mechanism, visual acuity, presence of an afferent pupillary defect, and depth of injury to standardize assessment and management.

Citations - 491 (as of July 2017)

Nonoperative treatment of major blunt renal lacerations with urinary extravasation.
Matthews LA, Smith EM, Spirnak JP.
J Urol. 1997 Jun;157(6):2056-8.

Rationale for inclusion: This series concluded that major renal lacerations with urinary extravasation can be safely managed nonoperatively with renal salvage, but may require delayed intervention including stenting or percutaneous drainage.

Citations - 178 (as of July 2017)

Diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy for penetrating abdominal trauma: a multicenter experience.
Zantut LF, Ivatury RR, Smith RS, Kawahara NT, Porter JM, Fry WR, Poggetti R, Birolini D, Organ CH Jr.
J Trauma. 1997 May;42(5):825-9; discussion 829-31.

Rationale for inclusion: Large, multi-center study in which laparoscopy prevented potential unnecessary laparotomy in 54% of patients.

Citations - 226 (as of July 2017)

Predicting life-threatening coagulopathy in the massively transfused trauma patient: hypothermia and acidoses revisited.
Cosgriff N, Moore EE, Sauaia A, Kenny-Moynihan M, Burch JM, Galloway B.
J Trauma. 1997 May;42(5):857-61; discussion 861-2.

Rationale for inclusion:  Prospective analysis of 58 patients who had a massive transfusion. Post-injury life-threatening coagulopathy in the seriously injured requiring massive transfusion is predicted by persistent hypothermia and progressive metabolic acidosis.

Citations - 621 (as of July 2017)

Prospective study of blunt aortic injury: Multicenter Trial of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma.
Fabian TC, Richardson JD, Croce MA, Smith JS Jr, Rodman G Jr, Kearney PA, Flynn W, Ney AL, Cone JB, Luchette FA, Wisner DH, Scholten DJ, Beaver BL, Conn AK, Coscia R, Hoyt DB, Morris JA Jr, Harviel JD, Peitzman AB, Bynoe RP, Diamond DL, Wall M, Gates JD, Asensio JA, Enderson BL, et al.
J Trauma. 1997 Mar;42(3):374-80; discussion 380-3.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective multi-center study involving 50 trauma centers and 274 blunt aortic injuries.  "Clamp and sew" and aortic cross clamp times >30minutes were associated with paraplegia.

Citations - 743 (as of July 2017)

Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia.
Marion DW, Penrod LE, Kelsey SF, Obrist WD, Kochanek PM, Palmer AM, Wisniewski SR, DeKosky ST.
N Engl J Med. 1997 Feb 20;336(8):540-6.

Rationale for inclusion: RCT compared moderate hypothermia (33C) to normothermia treatment for TBI to find that hypothermia may improve outcomes.

CAVEAT: Treatment effect was not preserved among all GCS subgroups and all followup intervals.

Citations - 1377 (as of July 2017)

A comparison of low-dose heparin with low-molecular-weight heparin as prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after major trauma.
Geerts WH, Jay RM, Code KI, Chen E, Szalai JP, Saibil EA, Hamilton PA.
N Engl J Med. 1996 Sep 5;335(10):701-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Low-molecular-weight heparin was more effective than low-dose heparin in preventing venous thromboembolism after major trauma. Both interventions were safe.

Citations - 726 (as of July 2017)

Colostomy in penetrating colon injury: is it necessary?
Gonzalez RP, Merlotti GJ, Holevar MR.
J Trauma. 1996 Aug;41(2):271-5.

Rationale for inclusion: This study supports previous data recommending all penetrating colonic injuries be primarily repaired with higher complications in those patients requiring diversion.

Citations - 152 (as of July 2017)

Intrapleural fibrinolysis with streptokinase as an adjunctive treatment in hemothorax and empyema: a multicenter trial.
Jerjes-Sánchez C, Ramirez-Rivera A, Elizalde JJ, Delgado R, Cicero R, Ibarra-Perez C, Arroliga AC, Padua A, Portales A, Villarreal A, Perez-Romo A.
Chest. 1996 Jun;109(6):1514-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective multi-center trial studying the use of streptokinase for loculated pleural effusions.  44 of 48 patients were managed without surgery.

CAVEAT: Patients with empyemas (n=30) were included in the study sample .

Citations - 177 (as of July 2017)

The role of surgeon-performed ultrasound in patients with possible cardiac wounds.
Rozycki GS, Feliciano DV, Schmidt JA, Cushman JG, Sisley AC, Ingram W, Ansley JD.
Ann Surg. 1996 Jun;223(6):737-44; discussion 744-6.

Rationale for inclusion: In 247 patients, ultrasound 100% sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in patients with possible cardiac wounds.

Citations - 150 (as of July 2017)

Blunt carotid injury. Importance of early diagnosis and anticoagulant therapy.
Fabian TC, Patton JH Jr, Croce MA, Minard G, Kudsk KA, Pritchard FE.
Ann Surg. 1996 May;223(5):513-22; discussion 522-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Established a clear role for the use of anticoagulation in the management of BCVI.  Heparin was independently associated with improvements in neurologic outcome and survival.

Citations - 457 (as of July 2017)

Paramedic vs private transportation of trauma patients. Effect on outcome.
Demetriades D, Chan L, Cornwell E, Belzberg H, Berne TV, Asensio J, Chan D, Eckstein M, Alo K.
Arch Surg. 1996 Feb;131(2):133-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison of EMS to non-EMS patients, showing an increased mortality in the EMS group.

Citations - 186 (as of July 2017)

Status of nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injuries in 1995: a multicenter experience with 404 patients.
Pachter HL, Knudson MM, Esrig B, Ross S, Hoyt D, Cogbill T, Sherman H, Scalea T, Harrison P, Shackford S, et al.
J Trauma. 1996 Jan;40(1):31-8.

Rationale for inclusion: A multi-center retrospective analysis of 13 level I trauma centers, this study concluded that nonoperative management of all hemodynamically stable liver injuries should be attempted irrespective of grade of injury or degree of hemoperitoneum, recommending serial imaging within 7-10 days after injury.

Citations - 475 (as of July 2017)

Thoracoscopy for empyema and hemothorax.
Landreneau RJ, Keenan RJ, Hazelrigg SR, Mack MJ, Naunheim KS.
Chest. 1996 Jan;109(1):18-24.

Rationale for inclusion: In a 99 patient study sample, 23 of 23 patients with complex hemothoraces were managed effectively by VATS.

Citations - 253 (as of July 2017)

Compartment monitoring in tibial fractures. The pressure threshold for decompression.
McQueen MM, Court-Brown CM.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996 Jan;78(1):99-104.

Rationale for inclusion: Utilizing a series of 116 patients with tibial fractures, this paper identified a 2.6% incidence in acute compartment syndrome.  They identified that differential pressure (diastolic pressure minus compartment pressure) of 30 mmHg served as a more reliable predictor of need for fasciotomy as compared to absolute compartment pressures of either 30 or 40mmHg.

Citations - 440 (as of July 2017)

Compartment monitoring in tibial fractures. The pressure threshold for decompression.
McQueen MM, Court-Brown CM.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996 Jan;78(1):99-104.

Rationale for inclusion: Utilizing a series of 116 patients with tibial fractures, this paper identified a 2.6% incidence in acute compartment syndrome.  They identified that differential pressure (diastolic pressure minus compartment pressure) of 30 mmHg served as a more reliable predictor of need for fasciotomy as compared to absolute compartment pressures of either 30 or 40mmHg.

Citations - 440 (as of July 2017)

Primary repair of colon injuries: a prospective randomized study.
Sasaki LS, Allaben RD, Golwala R, Mittal VK.
J Trauma. 1995 Nov;39(5):895-901.

Rationale for inclusion: A single center, prospective analysis of 71 patients with penetrating colon injuries, this study found that repair or resection and primary anastomosis should be considered in all patients given higher complication rates in those patients undergoing diversion.

Citations - 214 (as of July 2017)

Nonoperative salvage of computed tomography-diagnosed splenic injuries: utilization of angiography for triage and embolization for hemostasis.
Sclafani SJ, Shaftan GW, Scalea TM, Patterson LA, Kohl L, Kantor A, Herskowitz MM, Hoffer EK, Henry S, Dresner LS, et al.
J Trauma. 1995 Nov;39(5):818-25; discussion 826-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Using 172 patients with blunt splenic injury, this series described the use of angiography to determine the potential success of nonoperative management, concluding the lack of contrast extravasation reliably predicts those patients who can be managed non-operatively.  In addition, this study described proximal coil embolization as a means to obtain hemostasis in patients with active extravasation to minimize need for operative intervention.

Citations - 304 (as of July 2017)

Use of echocardiography to detect occult cardiac injury after penetrating thoracic trauma: a prospective study.
Meyer DM, Jessen ME, Grayburn PA.
J Trauma. 1995 Nov;39(5):902-7; discussion 907-9.

Rationale for inclusion: 105 patients with penetrating thoracic trauma underwent both ECHO and subxiphoid window.  In patients without hemothoraces, ECHO sensitivity was 100%.

Citations - 152 (as of July 2017)

Clearing the cervical spine in obtunded patients: the use of dynamic fluoroscopy.
Davis JW, Parks SN, Detlefs CL, Williams GG, Williams JL, Smith RW.
J Trauma. 1995 Sep;39(3):435-8.

Rationale for inclusion: A now historical technique of clearing cervical collars in obtunded patients that has been abandoned due to the now widespread use of CT scan and/or MRI

Citations - 136 (as of July 2017)

Penetrating injuries of the neck in patients in stable condition. Physical examination, angiography, or color flow Doppler imaging.
Demetriades D, Theodorou D, Cornwell E 3rd, Weaver F, Yellin A, Velmahos G, Berne TV.
Arch Surg. 1995 Sep;130(9):971-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective evaluation comparing vascular injury of the neck detection with physical examination, doppler imaging with the gold standard, arteriography.  

Citations - 119 (as of July 2017)

Management of blunt splenic trauma: computed tomographic contrast blush predicts failure of nonoperative management.
Schurr MJ, Fabian TC, Gavant M, Croce MA, Kudsk KA, Minard G, Woodman G, Pritchard FE.
J Trauma. 1995 Sep;39(3):507-12; discussion 512-3.

Rationale for inclusion: This retrospective review identified that the presence of a contrast blush on initial CT imaging is associated with failure of nonoperative management of splenic lacerations.

Citations - 244 (as of July 2017)

Radiographic assessment of renal trauma: our 15-year experience.
Miller KS, McAninch JW.
J Urol. 1995 Aug;154(2 Pt 1):352-5.

Rationale for inclusion: This study used a retrospective analysis of 2254 patients to determine that imaging is not necessary to rule out renal trauma in patients with microscopic hematuria without significant intraabdominal injuries or the presence of shock.  

Citations - 228 (as of July 2017)

Surgical management of spinal epidural hematoma: relationship between surgical timing and neurological outcome.
Lawton MT, Porter RW, Heiserman JE, Jacobowitz R, Sonntag VK, Dickman CA.
J Neurosurg. 1995 Jul;83(1):1-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Preoperative neurologic status correlated and time to surgical evacuation correlated with outcomes.

Citations - 572 (as of July 2017)

Use of an acellular allograft dermal matrix (AlloDerm) in the management of full-thickness burns.
Wainwright DJ.
Burns. 1995 Jun;21(4):243-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes use of human allograft skin for treatment of a full-thickness burn injury.

Citations - 849 (as of July 2017)

Nonoperative management of blunt hepatic trauma is the treatment of choice for hemodynamically stable patients. Results of a prospective trial.
Croce MA, Fabian TC, Menke PG, Waddle-Smith L, Minard G, Kudsk KA, Patton JH Jr, Schurr MJ, Pritchard FE.
Ann Surg. 1995 Jun;221(6):744-53; discussion 753-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Following many retrospective reviews of nonoperative management for blunt hepatic trauma, this serves as the first prospective analysis, citing successful nonoperative management with fewer transfusions and fewer abdominal complications than their surgical controls.  

Citations - 505 (as of July 2017)

Routine prophylactic vena cava filter insertion in severely injured trauma patients decreases the incidence of pulmonary embolism.
Rogers FB, Shackford SR, Ricci MA, Wilson JT, Parsons S.
J Am Coll Surg. 1995 Jun;180(6):641-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison of patients given IVC filters versus historical controls. Patients were given filters if considered high risk (head injury, spinal cord injury, complex pelvic fracture, hip fracture), and had lower incidence of pulmonary embolus than historical controls.

Citations - 206 (as of July 2017)

Unnecessary laparotomies for trauma: a prospective study of morbidity.
Renz BM, Feliciano DV.
J Trauma. 1995 Mar;38(3):350-6.

Rationale for inclusion: A 41% complication rate was found prospectively after 254 unnecessary laparotomies.

CAVEAT: Study definition for complications included potentially benign conditions such as atelectasis or hypertension.

Citations - 278 (as of July 2017)

Transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of traumatic rupture of the aorta.
Smith MD, Cassidy JM, Souther S, Morris EJ, Sapin PM, Johnson SB, Kearney PA.
N Engl J Med. 1995 Feb 9;332(6):356-62.

Rationale for inclusion: Transesophageal echocardiography and aortography were sequentially performed in 101 patients with possible blunt aortic injuries. TEE was found to be highly sensitive and specific for detection of aortic injury.

Citations - 295 (as of July 2017)

Effectiveness of pneumatic leg compression devices for the prevention of thromboembolic disease in orthopaedic trauma patients: a prospective, randomized study of compression alone versus no prophylaxis.
Fisher CG, Blachut PA, Salvian AJ, Meek RN, O'Brien PJ.
J Orthop Trauma. 1995 Feb;9(1):1-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective randomized trial evaluating sequential leg compression devices (versus no prophylaxis) in orthopedic trauma patients, showing reduction of VTE in patients with hip fractures.

Citations - 156 (as of July 2017)

Epidemiology of trauma deaths: a reassessment.
Sauaia A, Moore FA, Moore EE, Moser KS, Brennan R, Read RA, Pons PT.
J Trauma. 1995 Feb;38(2):185-93.

Rationale for inclusion: Analysis of epidemiology of trauma deaths in a trauma system (Denver), compared with historical epidemiology, showing improved access to the medical system and greater proportion of late deaths due to brain injury.

Citations - 1714 (as of July 2017)

Treatment results of patients with multiple trauma: an analysis of 3406 cases treated between 1972 and 1991 at a German Level I Trauma Center.
Regel G, Lobenhoffer P, Grotz M, Pape HC, Lehmann U, Tscherne H.
J Trauma. 1995 Jan;38(1):70-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison of two time periods (1972-1981 vs 192-1991) showing changes over time, including more aggressive care, decline in mortality, increased multiple organ failure, decrease in ARDS.

Citations - 402 (as of July 2017)

A prospective study of venous thromboembolism after major trauma.
Geerts WH, Code KI, Jay RM, Chen E, Szalai JP.
N Engl J Med. 1994 Dec 15;331(24):1601-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Initial study that showed that VTE is common among trauma patients, occurring in 58% of patients.

Citations - 1260 (as of July 2017)

The morbidity and mortality of rib fractures.
Ziegler DW, Agarwal NN.
J Trauma. 1994 Dec;37(6):975-9.

Rationale for inclusion: An initial study documenting the morbidity and mortality associated with rib fractures.

Citations - 332 (as of July 2017)

The accuracy of computed tomography in the diagnosis of blunt small-bowel perforation.
Sherck J, Shatney C, Sensaki K, Selivanov V.
Am J Surg. 1994 Dec;168(6):670-5.

Rationale for inclusion: This study evaluated the utility of CT to identify blunt small bowel perforation and injury, siting subtle and nonspecific findings on imaging including free fluid or small bowel thickening and dilation.  In 2 of 24 patients, no abnormalities were found in CT imaging, warranting close observation or additional diagnostic tests.

Citations - 165 (as of July 2017)

Gunshot wounds to the right thoracoabdomen: a prospective study of nonoperative management.
Renz BM, Feliciano DV.
J Trauma. 1994 Nov;37(5):737-44.

Rationale for inclusion: The first series to evaluate nonoperative management of right thoracoabdominal gunshot wounds.

Citations - 124 (as of July 2017)

Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries.
Bickell WH, Wall MJ Jr, Pepe PE, Martin RR, Ginger VF, Allen MK, Mattox KL.
N Engl J Med. 1994 Oct 27;331(17):1105-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of permissive hypotension in patients with penetrating torso injuries, with significant improvement in survival in the delayed resuscitation group.

Citations - 2069 (as of July 2017)

The spectrum of blunt injury to the carotid artery: a multicenter perspective.
Cogbill TH, Moore EE, Meissner M, Fischer RP, Hoyt DB, Morris JA, Shackford SR, Wallace JR, Ross SE, Ochsner MG, et al.
J Trauma. 1994 Sep;37(3):473-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Multi-center description of BCVI clinical characteristics and outcomes based on management.

Citations - 298 (as of July 2017)

Abuse during pregnancy: effects on maternal complications and birth weight in adult and teenage women.
Parker B, McFarlane J, Soeken K.
Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Sep;84(3):323-8.

Rationale for inclusion: 1 in 5 teens and 1 in 6 women experienced abuse during pregnancy, which was related to low birth weight and late entry to prenatal care.  Points to the importance for screening for abuse during pregnancy.

Citations - 552 (as of July 2017)

Outcome of hospitalized injured patients after institution of a trauma system in an urban area.
Mullins RJ, Veum-Stone J, Helfand M, Zimmer-Gembeck M, Hedges JR, Southard PA, Trunkey DD.
JAMA. 1994 Jun 22-29;271(24):1919-24.

Rationale for inclusion: Establishment of a trauma center in an urban area shifted sicker patients to the trauma center and improved outcomes.

Citations - 342 (as of July 2017)

The role of echocardiography in blunt chest trauma: a transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic study.
Karalis DG, Victor MF, Davis GA, McAllister MP, Covalesky VA, Ross JJ Jr, Foley RV, Kerstein MD, Chandrasekaran K.
J Trauma. 1994 Jan;36(1):53-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective evaluation of TTE and TEE I 105 patients.  TEE was found to be of benefit when TTE was nondiagnostic.

Citations - 206 (as of July 2017)

The success of duplex ultrasonographic scanning in diagnosis of extremity vascular proximity trauma.
Fry WR, Smith RS, Sayers DV, Henderson VJ, Morabito DJ, Tsoi EK, Harness JK, Organ CH Jr.
Arch Surg. 1993 Dec;128(12):1368-72.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the use of duplex ultrasound scanning for diagnosis of extremity vascular injuries.

Citations - 117 (as of July 2017)

Traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. Occult marker of serious injury.
Meyers BF, McCabe CJ.
Ann Surg. 1993 Dec;218(6):783-90.

Rationale for inclusion: This single center case series of 68 patients recognized the morbidity and mortality associated with the high prevalence of additional injuries that accompany traumatic diaphragm injury, recommending aggressive evaluation.

Citations - 302 (as of July 2017)

Tube thoracostomy for occult pneumothorax: a prospective randomized study of its use.
Enderson BL, Abdalla R, Frame SB, Casey MT, Gould H, Maull KI.
J Trauma. 1993 Nov;35(5):726-9; discussion 729-30.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective randomized trial of tube thoracostomy versus observation for occult pneumothoraces.

Citations - 186 (as of July 2017)

'Damage control': an approach for improved survival in exsanguinating penetrating abdominal injury.
Rotondo MF, Schwab CW, McGonigal MD, Phillips GR 3rd, Fruchterman TM, Kauder DR, Latenser BA, Angood PA.
J Trauma. 1993 Sep;35(3):375-82; discussion 382-3.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes damage control laparotomy technique with planned reoperation in 46 patients.

Citations - 1593 (as of July 2017)

Prospective comparison of diagnostic peritoneal lavage, computed tomographic scanning, and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of blunt abdominal trauma.
Liu M, Lee CH, P'eng FK.
J Trauma. 1993 Aug;35(2):267-70.

Rationale for inclusion: A prospective comparison of 55 patients who each underwent CT, ultrasound and DPL as compared with laparotomy each demonstrated good accuracy (>92%).

Citations - 269 (as of July 2017)

A critical evaluation of laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal trauma.
Ivatury RR, Simon RJ, Stahl WM.
J Trauma. 1993 Jun;34(6):822-7; discussion 827-8.

Rationale for inclusion: While limited in its utility for diagnosis of hollow viscus injury, this series of 100 patients with penetrating abdominal injuries identified diaphragm injuries with excellent accuracy.

Citations - 322 (as of July 2017)

A critical evaluation of laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal trauma.
Ivatury RR, Simon RJ, Stahl WM.
J Trauma. 1993 Jun;34(6):822-7; discussion 827-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Utilizing 100 stable patients with anterior penetrating wounds, this study concluded that diagnostic laparoscopy has excellent accuracy for identification of solid organ injuries, hemorrhage, and diaphragmatic lacerations, but its utility in identification of hollow viscus injury is limited beyond violation of the peritoneum, citing a high frequency of additional injuries found by subsequent laparotomy.

Citations - 322 (as of July 2017)

A prospective analysis of diagnostic laparoscopy in trauma.
Fabian TC, Croce MA, Stewart RM, Pritchard FE, Minard G, Kudsk KA.
Ann Surg. 1993 May;217(5):557-64; discussion 564-5.

Rationale for inclusion: This series introduced application of diagnostic laparoscopy to assess for intra-abdominal injury in hemodynamically stable patients to aid in diagnosis when other modalities were equivocal, performing efficacy, safety, and cost analyses.

Citations - 298 (as of July 2017)

The staged celiotomy for trauma. Issues in unpacking and reconstruction.
Morris JA Jr, Eddy VA, Blinman TA, Rutherford EJ, Sharp KW.
Ann Surg. 1993 May;217(5):576-84; discussion 584-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes principles and approaches to challenges for damage control surgery and delayed reoperation.

Citations - 517 (as of July 2017)

Prospective evaluation of surgeons' use of ultrasound in the evaluation of trauma patients.
Rozycki GS, Ochsner MG, Jaffin JH, Champion HR.
J Trauma. 1993 Apr;34(4):516-26; discussion 526-7.

Rationale for inclusion: The trauma team of attendings, fellows and resident demonstrating a sensitivity of 79% with FAST examination.

Citations - 388 (as of July 2017)

The role of secondary brain injury in determining outcome from severe head injury.
Chesnut RM, Marshall LF, Klauber MR, Blunt BA, Baldwin N, Eisenberg HM, Jane JA, Marmarou A, Foulkes MA.
J Trauma. 1993 Feb;34(2):216-22.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective investigation of severe TBI patients that determined hypoxia and hypotension to have detrimental impact on outcomes.

Citations - 2108 (as of July 2017)

Impact of on-site care, prehospital time, and level of in-hospital care on survival in severely injured patients.
Sampalis JS, Lavoie A, Williams JI, Mulder DS, Kalina M.
J Trauma. 1993 Feb;34(2):252-61.

Rationale for inclusion: 360 patient sample; there was no association with survival for use of advanced life support. Prehospital time over 60 minutes was associated with an increased risk of dying.

Citations - 268 (as of July 2017)

Duration of antibiotic therapy for penetrating abdominal trauma: a prospective trial.
Fabian TC, Croce MA, Payne LW, Minard G, Pritchard FE, Kudsk KA.
Surgery. 1992 Oct;112(4):788-94; discussion 794-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective, double blinded study comparing 1 versus 5 days of antibiotics for penetrating abdominal injuries.  

Citations - 119 (as of July 2017)

The role of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma.
Livingston DH, Tortella BJ, Blackwood J, Machiedo GW, Rush BF Jr.
J Trauma. 1992 Sep;33(3):471-5.

Rationale for inclusion: 39 patients prospectively underwent laparoscopy followed by laparotomy and demonstrated a significant rate of missed hollow viscous and splenic injuries with laparoscopy alone.

Citations - 178 (as of July 2017)

Assessing for abuse during pregnancy. Severity and frequency of injuries and associated entry into prenatal care.
McFarlane J, Parker B, Soeken K, Bullock L.
JAMA. 1992 Jun 17;267(23):3176-8.

Rationale for inclusion: A 3-question abuse assessment screen detected a 17% prevalence of abuse during pregnancy, and was frequently recurrent.

Citations - 1150 (as of July 2017)

Emergency thoracotomy: survival correlates with physiologic status.
Lorenz HP, Steinmetz B, Lieberman J, Schecoter WP, Macho JR.
J Trauma. 1992 Jun;32(6):780-5; discussion 785-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Survival from emergency thoracotomy correlates with physiologic status in the field and upon arrival with no survival in patients who have no signs of life on prehospital assessment.

Citations - 115 (as of July 2017)

Abbreviated laparotomy and planned reoperation for critically injured patients.
Burch JM, Ortiz VB, Richardson RJ, Martin RR, Mattox KL, Jordan GL Jr.
Ann Surg. 1992 May;215(5):476-83; discussion 483-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of 200 patients with planned delayed relaparotomy for definitive treatment of injuries to allow for ICU management of coagulopathy.

Citations - 586 (as of July 2017)

Significant trends in the treatment of hepatic trauma. Experience with 411 injuries.
Pachter HL, Spencer FC, Hofstetter SR, Liang HG, Coppa GF.
Ann Surg. 1992 May;215(5):492-500; discussion 500-2.

Rationale for inclusion: This series reviewed 411 consecutive patients with traumatic liver injuries and promoted the successful nonoperative management of the majority of these injuries.  Complex injury patterns were managed with a combination of surgical techniques with increased survival compared to patients in whom shunting was performed.  

Citations - 350 (as of July 2017)

Blunt abdominal trauma in cases of multiple trauma evaluated by ultrasonography: a prospective analysis of 291 patients.
Hoffmann R, Nerlich M, Muggia-Sullam M, Pohlemann T, Wippermann B, Regel G, Tscherne H.
J Trauma. 1992 Apr;32(4):452-8.

Rationale for inclusion: An early description regarding the use of ultrasound to determine need for laparotomy, demonstrating positive and negative predictive values of 94 and 95% respectively.

Citations - 285 (as of July 2017)

The diagnosis of head injury requires a classification based on computed axial tomography.
Marshall LF, Marshall SB, Klauber MR, Van Berkum Clark M, Eisenberg H, Jane JA, Luerssen TG, Marmarou A, Foulkes MA.
J Neurotrauma. 1992 Mar;9 Suppl 1:S287-92.

Rationale for inclusion: A description of the "Marshall" head injury classification system based on CT findings.

Citations - 544 (as of July 2017)

Methylprednisolone or naloxone treatment after acute spinal cord injury: 1-year follow-up data. Results of the second National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study.
Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF Jr, Holford TR, Baskin DS, Eisenberg HM, Flamm E, Leo-Summers L, Maroon JC, Marshall LF, et al.
J Neurosurg. 1992 Jan;76(1):23-31.

Rationale for inclusion: Results from the NASCIS II trial were preserved at 1 year followup.

CAVEAT: Later reanalyzed and failed to show improvement in primary outcome measures.

Citations - 769 (as of July 2017)

Can Doppler pressure measurement replace "exclusion" arteriography in the diagnosis of occult extremity arterial trauma?
Lynch K, Johansen K.
Ann Surg. 1991 Dec;214(6):737-41.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the use of arterial pressure index for screening for arterial injury in extremities.

Citations - 171 (as of July 2017)

Severe late postsplenectomy infection.
Cullingford GL, Watkins DN, Watts AD, Mallon DF.
Br J Surg. 1991 Jun;78(6):716-21.

Rationale for inclusion: This series described a very low rate of postsplenectomy infection (0.21 per 100 person years exposure)  and much lower rates of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection following splenectomy.  

Citations - 254 (as of July 2017)

Management of penetrating colon injuries. A prospective randomized trial.
Chappuis CW, Frey DJ, Dietzen CD, Panetta TP, Buechter KJ, Cohn I Jr.
Ann Surg. 1991 May;213(5):492-7; discussion 497-8.

Rationale for inclusion: A prospective analysis of 56 patients with penetrating colon injuries, this study found that repair or resection and primary anastomosis should be considered in all patients given equivalent complication rates.

Citations - 225 (as of July 2017)

Prehospital hypertonic saline/dextran infusion for post-traumatic hypotension. The U.S.A. Multicenter Trial.
Mattox KL, Maningas PA, Moore EE, Mateer JR, Marx JA, Aprahamian C, Burch JM, Pepe PE.
Ann Surg. 1991 May;213(5):482-91.

Rationale for inclusion: RCT of HSD to normal crystalloid solution showing no difference in survival but fewer complications in the HSD group.

Citations - 534 (as of July 2017)

Non-invasive vascular tests reliably exclude occult arterial trauma in injured extremities.
Johansen K, Lynch K, Paun M, Copass M.
J Trauma. 1991 Apr;31(4):515-9; discussion 519-22.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the use of doppler and arterial pressure index, with a threshold of 0.9, as having good sensitivity and specificity for vascular injury.

Citations - 185 (as of July 2017)

The reliability of physical examination in the evaluation of penetrating extremity trauma for vascular injury: results at one year.
Frykberg ER, Dennis JW, Bishop K, Laneve L, Alexander RH.
J Trauma. 1991 Apr;31(4):502-11.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the utility of physical exam for diagnosing vascular injury in penetrating extremity trauma.

Citations - 157 (as of July 2017)

Diaphragmatic rupture due to blunt trauma: sensitivity of plain chest radiographs.
Gelman R, Mirvis SE, Gens D.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1991 Jan;156(1):51-7.

Rationale for inclusion: This study retrospectively reviewed the chest radiography of 50 patients with blunt hemidiaphragm rupture and found that films were diagnostic in 46% of patients on admission with an additional subset of injuries identified on delayed imaging.

Citations - 318 (as of July 2017)

Conservative management of duodenal trauma: a multicenter perspective.
Cogbill TH, Moore EE, Feliciano DV, Hoyt DB, Jurkovich GJ, Morris JA, Mucha P Jr, Ross SE, Strutt PJ, Moore FA, et al.
J Trauma. 1990 Dec;30(12):1469-75.

Rationale for inclusion: This multi-institutional analysis of 164 duodenal injuries supported the use of primary repair for most injuries and concluded that while pyloric exclusion techniques are useful for complex injuries, pancreaticoduodenectomy is rarely necessary and tube duodenostomy is not required, supporting the trend toward simplified management of the duodenal injury.

Citations - 276 (as of July 2017)

The Major Trauma Outcome Study: establishing national norms for trauma care.
Champion HR, Copes WS, Sacco WJ, Lawnick MM, Keast SL, Bain LW Jr, Flanagan ME, Frey CF.
J Trauma. 1990 Nov;30(11):1356-65.

Rationale for inclusion: Large descriptive study on outcomes after major trauma.

Citations - 1224 (as of July 2017)

Pelvic ring disruptions: effective classification system and treatment protocols.
Burgess AR, Eastridge BJ, Young JW, Ellison TS, Ellison PS Jr, Poka A, Bathon GH, Brumback RJ.
J Trauma. 1990 Jul;30(7):848-56.

Rationale for inclusion: Using a classification system that accounted for vector of force and pelvic fracture pattern, 210 patients were used to generate treatment protocols for each type to reduce the morbidity and mortality from pelvic trauma.  Anteroposterior compression fractures were associated with the highest transfusion requirements and mortality.

Citations - 723 (as of July 2017)

Limb salvage versus amputation. Preliminary results of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score.
Helfet DL, Howey T, Sanders R, Johansen K.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1990 Jul;(256):80-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Using the Mangled Extremity Severity Score complied of readily accessible data regarding skeletal/soft-tissue damage, ischemia, shock, and age, need for primary amputation was accurately predicted in a prospective fashion in 26 lower-extremity open fractures.  MESS>7 was 100% predictable for amputation.

Citations - 395 (as of July 2017)

A prospective controlled study of outcome after trauma during pregnancy.
Pearlman MD, Tintinallli JE, Lorenz RP.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Jun;162(6):1502-7; discussion 1507-10.

Rationale for inclusion: 85 pregnant trauma patients compared with nontrauma, showing increased placental abruption. 4h of monitoring was sensitive to detect women who would have issues.

Citations - 304 (as of July 2017)

A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury. Results of the Second National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study.
Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, Holford TR, Young W, Baskin DS, Eisenberg HM, Flamm E, Leo-Summers L, Maroon J, et al.
N Engl J Med. 1990 May 17;322(20):1405-11.

Rationale for inclusion: Patients treated with methylprednisolone within 8 hours of SCI had improved neurologic recovery at 6 months.

CAVEAT: Later reanalyzed and failed to show improvement in primary outcome measures.

Citations - 2720 (as of July 2017)

Objective criteria accurately predict amputation following lower extremity trauma.
Johansen K, Daines M, Howey T, Helfet D, Hansen ST Jr.
J Trauma. 1990 May;30(5):568-72; discussion 572-3.

Rationale for inclusion: This study reviewed objective data confirming the use of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score, compiling skeletal/soft-tissue damage, ischemia, shock, and age, as a valid tool to predict need for limb amputation after devastating extremity trauma.  

Citations - 623 (as of July 2017)

Geriatric blunt multiple trauma: improved survival with early invasive monitoring.
Scalea TM, Simon HM, Duncan AO, Atweh NA, Sclafani SJ, Phillips TF, Shaftan GW.
J Trauma. 1990 Feb;30(2):129-34; discussion 134-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Invasive monitoring (PA catheter placement) in geriatric trauma patients with efforts to optimize cardiac function led to improved survival.

Citations - 363 (as of July 2017)

Fatal hepatic hemorrhage: an unresolved problem in the management of complex liver injuries.
Beal SL.
J Trauma. 1990 Feb;30(2):163-9.

Rationale for inclusion: This paper analyzed surgical techniques utilized for hemostasis following severe liver injury providing a critical algorithm for successful surgical control.

Citations - 305 (as of July 2017)

Pelvic fracture in multiple trauma: classification by mechanism is key to pattern of organ injury, resuscitative requirements, and outcome.
Dalal SA, Burgess AR, Siegel JH, Young JW, Brumback RJ, Poka A, Dunham CM, Gens D, Bathon H.
J Trauma. 1989 Jul;29(7):981-1000; discussion 1000-2.

Rationale for inclusion: In this study, the authors evaluated 343 complex multi-system trauma patients and successfully identified patterns of force and pelvic fractures that provide reliable predictions to organ injury patterns and anticipated mortality.  

Citations - 400 (as of July 2017)

Primary repair of colon wounds. A prospective trial in nonselected patients.
George SM Jr, Fabian TC, Voeller GR, Kudsk KA, Mangiante EC, Britt LG.
Ann Surg. 1989 Jun;209(6):728-33; 733-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Using 102 patients with penetrating colon injuries, this study concluded that the majority of these injuries can be managed with repair or resection and primary anastomosis.

Citations - 228 (as of July 2017)

Colostomy and drainage for civilian rectal injuries: is that all?
Burch JM, Feliciano DV, Mattox KL.
Ann Surg. 1989 May;209(5):600-10; discussion 610-1.

Rationale for inclusion: This series of 100 consecutive patients with extraperitonal rectal injuries treated in the 1980s described the need for colostomy and presacral drainage as mainstays of treatment for this injury pattern.

Citations - 158 (as of July 2017)

A revision of the Trauma Score.
Champion HR, Sacco WJ, Copes WS, Gann DS, Gennarelli TA, Flanagan ME.
J Trauma. 1989 May;29(5):623-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of development of the Revised Trauma Score, incorporating GCS, systolic BP, and respiratory rate and removal of capillary refill and respiratory expansion

Citations - 1910 (as of July 2017)

Early versus delayed stabilization of femoral fractures. A prospective randomized study.
Bone LB, Johnson KD, Weigelt J, Scheinberg R.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1989 Mar;71(3):336-40.

Rationale for inclusion: Using 178 patients with acute femoral fractures, this study identified increased pulmonary complications, cost, and hospital stay when delayed intervention was performed as compared to those undergoing early stabilization.

Citations - 805 (as of July 2017)

Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community.
Tinetti ME, Speechley M, Ginter SF.
N Engl J Med. 1988 Dec 29;319(26):1701-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Falls among older persons living in the community are common and that a simple clinical assessment can identify the elderly persons who are at the greatest risk of falling.

Citations - 6021 (as of July 2017)

Severe hepatic trauma: a multi-center experience with 1,335 liver injuries.
Cogbill TH, Moore EE, Jurkovich GJ, Feliciano DV, Morris JA, Mucha P.
J Trauma. 1988 Oct;28(10):1433-8.

Rationale for inclusion: This serves as a descriptive review of the management of 210 complex liver lacerations (Grade III, IV, and V) in the 1980s, including the placement of caval shunt. This paper analyzed surgical techniques utilized for hemostasis following severe liver injury providing a critical algorithm for successful surgical control in 38 patients with a survival of only 4 of these patients.  

Citations - 400 (as of July 2017)

Management of combined pancreatoduodenal injuries.
Feliciano DV, Martin TD, Cruse PA, Graham JM, Burch JM, Mattox KL, Bitondo CG, Jordan GL Jr.
Ann Surg. 1987 Jun;205(6):673-80.

Rationale for inclusion: This case series evaluated 129 patients with combined pancreatoduodenal injuries, recommending the use of pyloric  exclusion and gastrojejunostomy to combat the high morbidity and fistula rate in this study.  

Citations - 180 (as of July 2017)

Mandatory vs selective exploration for penetrating neck trauma. A prospective assessment.
Meyer JP, Barrett JA, Schuler JJ, Flanigan DP.
Arch Surg. 1987 May;122(5):592-7.

Rationale for inclusion: A prospective evaluation of 113 patients who underwent areteriography/panendoscopy followed by neck exploration identified 6 major injuries that were not detected with arteriography/panendoscopy

Citations - 98 (as of July 2017)

Evaluating trauma care: the TRISS method. Trauma Score and the Injury Severity Score.
Boyd CR, Tolson MA, Copes WS.
J Trauma. 1987 Apr;27(4):370-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of the development of the TRISS method.

Citations - 2049 (as of July 2017)

Indications for operation in abdominal stab wounds. A prospective study of 651 patients.
Demetriades D, Rabinowitz B.
Ann Surg. 1987 Feb;205(2):129-32.

Rationale for inclusion: This study represents one of the first prospective evaluations of patients with anterior stab wounds to the abdomen, and concluded that the decision of operation or observation can be made on clinical exam alone.  

Citations - 260 (as of July 2017)

Hemorrhage associated with major pelvic fracture: a multispecialty challenge.
Moreno C, Moore EE, Rosenberger A, Cleveland HC.
J Trauma. 1986 Nov;26(11):987-94.

Rationale for inclusion: This series from the 1980s described 538 patients with pelvic fractures, utilizing many adjuncts provided by multiple disciplines including external fixation, laparotomy, angiography, with overall 26% mortality.

Citations - 291 (as of July 2017)

Suspected vascular trauma of the extremities: the role of arteriography in proximity injuries.
Gomez GA, Kreis DJ Jr, Ratner L, Hernandez A, Russell E, Dove DB, Civetta JM.
J Trauma. 1986 Nov;26(11):1005-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the use of arteriography for proximal extremity injury.

Citations - 76 (as of July 2017)

Benefits of immediate jejunostomy feeding after major abdominal trauma--a prospective, randomized study.
Moore EE, Jones TN.
J Trauma. 1986 Oct;26(10):874-81.

Rationale for inclusion: Patients undergoing trauma laparotomy were prospectively randomized to NPO for 5 days or early jejunal feeding.  Patients who underwent early jejunal feeding were less likely to develop septic complications.

Citations - 620 (as of July 2017)

The effect of regionalization upon the quality of trauma care as assessed by concurrent audit before and after institution of a trauma system: a preliminary report.
Shackford SR, Hollingworth-Fridlund P, Cooper GF, Eastman AB.
J Trauma. 1986 Sep;26(9):812-20.

Rationale for inclusion: Before and after study of trauma care after a trauma system was initiated with improvement in care.

Citations - 385 (as of July 2017)

Management of the ruptured bladder: seven years of experience with 111 cases.
Corriere JN Jr, Sandler CM.
J Trauma. 1986 Sep;26(9):830-3.

Rationale for inclusion: This series of 111 patients with bladder injury recommends closure of intraperitoneal bladder injuries with drainage either via urethral or suprapubic catheters, with successful management of extraperitoneal bladder injuries requiring catheter drainage only.

Citations - 157 (as of July 2017)

Pelvic fractures: value of plain radiography in early assessment and management.
Young JW, Burgess AR, Brumback RJ, Poka A.
Radiology. 1986 Aug;160(2):445-51.

Rationale for inclusion: This retrospective analysis of radiographs by Burgess from 142 patients with pelvic fractures identified and introduced four patterns of force:  anteroposterior compression, lateral compression, vertical shear, and complex.  

Citations - 405 (as of July 2017)

Panendoscopy with arteriography versus mandatory exploration of penetrating wounds of the neck.
Noyes LD, McSwain NE Jr, Markowitz IP.
Ann Surg. 1986 Jul;204(1):21-31.

Rationale for inclusion: Panendoscopy with arteriography was found to be equally safe and accurate as mandatory exploration while reducing the rate of negative neck explorations.

Citations - 69 (as of July 2017)

The mangled extremity syndrome (M.E.S.): a severity grading system for multisystem injury of the extremity.
Gregory RT, Gould RJ, Peclet M, Wagner JS, Gilbert DA, Wheeler JR, Snyder SO, Gayle RG, Schwab CW.
J Trauma. 1985 Dec;25(12):1147-50.

Rationale for inclusion: This series is one of the firs t to identify and define a grading system to characterize the Mangled Extremity Syndrome in order to identify the potential for limb salvage versus need for likely amputation.

 Citations - 276 (as of July 2017)

Preventable trauma deaths. A review of trauma care systems development.
Cales RH, Trunkey DD.
JAMA. 1985 Aug 23-30;254(8):1059-63.

Rationale for inclusion: Historical review article describing development of trauma care systems.

Citations - 439 (as of July 2017)

Open tibial fractures with associated vascular injuries: prognosis for limb salvage.
Lange RH, Bach AW, Hansen ST Jr, Johansen KH.
J Trauma. 1985 Mar;25(3):203-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Using a series of 23 cases of open tibial fractures, this study identified factors associated with high amputation rate (61%) including the presence of crush injuries, delay in vascular reconstruction, and segmental tibial fractures.

Citations - 332 (as of July 2017)

Ten years of mandibular fractures: an analysis of 2,137 cases.
Ellis E 3rd, Moos KF, el-Attar A.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1985 Feb;59(2):120-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Assaults, falls, and motor vehicle collisions caused the majority of the 3,462 mandible fractures in 2,137 patients.

Citations - 545 (as of July 2017)

Prehospital stabilization of critically injured patients: a failed concept.
Smith JP, Bodai BI, Hill AS, Frey CF.
J Trauma. 1985 Jan;25(1):65-70.

Rationale for inclusion: Review of 52 hypotensive trauma patients; transport time to hospital was less than time to establish an IV. Supports "Scoop and Run."

Citations - 332 (as of July 2017)

Routine versus selective exploration of penetrating neck injuries: a randomized prospective study.
Golueke PJ, Goldstein AS, Sclafani SJ, Mitchell WG, Shaftan GW.
J Trauma. 1984 Dec;24(12):1010-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Randomized prospective study of 160 patients with penetrating neck injuries underwent either mandatory or selective exploration based on examination or imaging.  No clear benefit was demonstrated in the mandatory exploration group.

Citations - 97 (as of July 2017)

Risk of infection after penetrating abdominal trauma.
Nichols RL, Smith JW, Klein DB, Trunkey DD, Cooper RH, Adinolfi MF, Mills J.
N Engl J Med. 1984 Oct 25;311(17):1065-70.

Rationale for inclusion: Published in NEJM, this study concluded equivalent infectious complication rates between single or dual agent antibiotic prophylactic therapy (cefoxitin vs clindamycin and gentamicin).  Presence of injury to the left colon requiring colostomy, increased age, increased organ injury, and transfusion were associated with increases in infection.

Citations - 347 (as of July 2017)

Spinal instability as defined by the three-column spine concept in acute spinal trauma.
Denis F.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1984 Oct;(189):65-76.

Rationale for inclusion: The 3 column spine concept is described from a review of 412 thoracolumbar spine injuries.  

Citations - 994 (as of July 2017)

The role of packing and planned reoperation in severe hepatic trauma.
Carmona RH, Peck DZ, Lim RC Jr.
J Trauma. 1984 Sep;24(9):779-84.

Rationale for inclusion: This series describes the utility of peri-hepatic packing with planned reoperation as a useful technique for the control of liver hemorrhage prior to definitive control, citing no additional morbidity or mortality as compared to definitive control on initial exploration.

Citations - 164 (as of July 2017)

Permanent coverage of large burn wounds with autologous cultured human epithelium.
Gallico GG 3rd, O'Connor NE, Compton CC, Kehinde O, Green H.
N Engl J Med. 1984 Aug 16;311(7):448-51.

Rationale for inclusion: Well-cited, use of cultured epithelium to cover burn wounds with results similar to split thickness skin grafting.

Citations - 1300 (as of July 2017)

Polytetrafluoroethylene grafts in the rapid reconstruction of acute contaminated peripheral vascular injuries.
Shah DM, Leather RP, Corson JD, Karmody AM.
Am J Surg. 1984 Aug;148(2):229-33.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the use of PTFE grafts for vascular reconstruction in contaminated wounds.

Citations - 99 (as of July 2017)

Major bladder trauma: mechanisms of injury and a unified method of diagnosis and repair.
Carroll PR, McAninch JW.
J Urol. 1984 Aug;132(2):254-7.

Rationale for inclusion: A descriptive case series of 51 patients with bladder trauma from the 1970s is presented in this paper, recommending rapid resuscitation and prompt diagnosis by cystography.    

Citations - 207 (as of July 2017)

Problems in the management of type III (severe) open fractures: a new classification of type III open fractures.
Gustilo RB, Mendoza RM, Williams DN.
J Trauma. 1984 Aug;24(8):742-6.

Rationale for inclusion: This early series of open fractures with significant contamination or soft tissue injury recommended the improved classification of this varied injury patterns into Type IIIA, B, and C based on soft tissue coverage, contamination, and associated vascular injuries, and recommended the addition of an amino-glycoside to cephalosporin in the initial management of these patients.

Citations - 2454 (as of July 2017)

Late outcome of very severe blunt head trauma: a 10-15 year second follow-up.
Thomsen IV.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1984 Mar;47(3):260-8.

Rationale for inclusion: 40 patients were followed for 10-15 years  to find permanent disability common after severe TBI.

Citations - 646 (as of July 2017)

The three column spine and its significance in the classification of acute thoracolumbar spinal injuries.
Denis F.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1983 Nov-Dec;8(8):817-31.

Rationale for inclusion: The concept of the middle column is introduced and the 3 column classification is correlated with stability and therapy.

Citations - 3277 (as of July 2017)

Management of the major coagulopathy with onset during laparotomy.
Stone HH, Strom PR, Mullins RJ.
Ann Surg. 1983 May;197(5):532-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Review of 31 patients who developed major coagulopathy during laparotomy including planned relaparotomy to do delayed definitive surgery.

Citations - 764 (as of July 2017)

Management of traumatic peripheral vein injuries. Primary repair or vein ligation.
Hardin WD Jr, Adinolfi MF, O'Connell RC, Kerstein MD.
Am J Surg. 1982 Aug;144(2):235-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes indications for vein repair or ligation for peripheral vein injuries.

Citations - 56 (as of July 2017)

Major abdominal vascular trauma--a unified approach.
Kashuk JL, Moore EE, Millikan JS, Moore JB.
J Trauma. 1982 Aug;22(8):672-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Historical description of death from lethal triad secondary to vascular injury.

Citations - 280 (as of July 2017)

Successful use of a physiologically acceptable artificial skin in the treatment of extensive burn injury.
Burke JF, Yannas IV, Quinby WC Jr, Bondoc CC, Jung WK.
Ann Surg. 1981 Oct;194(4):413-28.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes use of an artificial skin substitute for grafting to burn wounds.

Citations - 1141 (as of July 2017)

Trauma score.
Champion HR, Sacco WJ, Carnazzo AJ, Copes W, Fouty WJ.
Crit Care Med. 1981 Sep;9(9):672-6.

Rationale for inclusion:  Description of development of the Trauma Score.

Citations - 1050 (as of July 2017)

Penetrating abdominal trauma index.
Moore EE, Dunn EL, Moore JB, Thompson JS.
J Trauma. 1981 Jun;21(6):439-45.

Rationale for inclusion: Development of the Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index to identify high risk patients.

Citations - 349 (as of July 2017)

Intra-abdominal packing for control of hepatic hemorrhage: a reappraisal.
Feliciano DV, Mattox KL, Jordan GL Jr.
J Trauma. 1981 Apr;21(4):285-90.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of how to pack the abdomen for exsanguinating hepatic hemorrhage with planned relaparotomy.

Citations - 293 (as of July 2017)

Epidemiology of trauma deaths.
Baker CC, Oppenheimer L, Stephens B, Lewis FR, Trunkey DD.
Am J Surg. 1980 Jul;140(1):144-50.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of the trimodal death distribution.

Citations - 732 (as of July 2017)

Seizures after head trauma: a population study.
Annegers JF, Grabow JD, Groover RV, Laws ER Jr, Elveback LR, Kurland LT.
Neurology. 1980 Jul;30(7 Pt 1):683-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Defined the rate of post-traumatic seizures after severe, moderate, and mild head injury.

Citations - 639 (as of July 2017)

Management of perforating colon trauma: randomization between primary closure and exteriorization.
Stone HH, Fabian TC.
Ann Surg. 1979 Oct;190(4):430-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Performed in the 1970s, this prospective study found primary colon repair had superior outcomes as compared to colostomy in the absence of preoperative shock or >20% blood loss, with 2 or less abdominal organ injuries, and minimal intraabdominal contamination.

Citations - 356 (as of July 2017)

Management of duodenal wounds.
Stone HH, Fabian TC.
J Trauma. 1979 May;19(5):334-9.

Rationale for inclusion: This review evaluated 321 injuries of the duodenum dating back to 1962, characterizing significant morbidity in these patients, with no survival in patients in whom pancreatoduodenectomyl  was attempted.

Citations - 174 (as of July 2017)

Systems of trauma care. A study of two counties.
West JG, Trunkey DD, Lim RC.
Arch Surg. 1979 Apr;114(4):455-60.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison of two counties; San Francisco county utilized one trauma hospital and Orange County utilized the closest hospital. Survival was improved in the county that utilized one trauma hospital.

Citations - 669 (as of July 2017)

The tibial plateau fracture. The Toronto experience 1968--1975.
Schatzker J, McBroom R, Bruce D.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1979 Jan-Feb;(138):94-104.

Rationale for inclusion: This series of 94 tibial plateau fractures from 1968-1975 documented an early classification system of this fracture into 6 types with introduction of type-specific recommendations for intervention.

Citations- 1579 (as of July 2017)

The born-again spleen. Return of splenic function after splenectomy for trauma.
Pearson HA, Johnston D, Smith KA, Touloukian RJ.
N Engl J Med. 1978 Jun 22;298(25):1389-92.

Rationale for inclusion: This study found a more significant frequency of splenosis with retained splenic activity following traumatic splenectomy than previously suspected, contributing to overall low rates of post-splenectomy sepsis and infectious complications.

Citations - 378 (as of July 2017)

The use of pyloric exclusion in the management of severe duodenal injuries.
Vaughan GD 3rd, Frazier OH, Graham DY, Mattox KL, Petmecky FF, Jordan GL Jr.
Am J Surg. 1977 Dec;134(6):785-90.

Rationale for inclusion: This series of 75 patients in the 1970s with duodenal injuries demonstrated the utility of temporary pyloric exclusion and gastrojejunostomy to combat the mortality and morbidity associated with this injury.

Citations - 205 (as of July 2017)

Evaluation of peritoneal lavage and local exploration in lower chest and abdominal stab wounds.
Thal ER.
J Trauma. 1977 Aug;17(8):642-8.

Rationale for inclusion: This series of 123 patients in 1977 first described the use of local exploration and diagnostic peritoneal lavage to successfully reduce the number of unnecessary laparotomies following anterior stab wounds. 

Citations - 152 (as of July 2017)

Subxiphoid pericardial window in patients with suspected traumatic pericardial tamponade.
Arom KV, Richardson JD, Webb G, Grover FL, Trinkle JK.
Ann Thorac Surg. 1977 Jun;23(6):545-9.

Rationale for inclusion: The use of subxiphoid pericardial window led to rapid diagnosis of hemoperricardium.

Citations - 110 (as of July 2017)

The role of thoracic aortic occlusion for massive hemoperitoneum.
Ledgerwood AM, Kazmers M, Lucas CE.
J Trauma. 1976 Aug;16(08):610-5.

Rationale for inclusion:  Historical article, describing aortic occlusion in the chest for hemoperitoneum.

Citations - 135 (as of July 2017)

Indications for early thoracotomy in the management of chest trauma.
Kish G, Kozloff L, Joseph WL, Adkins PC.
Ann Thorac Surg. 1976 Jul;22(1):23-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Early civilian series that established indications for thoracotomy still utilized today.

Citations - 122 (as of July 2017)

Prevention of infection in the treatment of one thousand and twenty-five open fractures of long bones: retrospective and prospective analyses.
Gustilo RB, Anderson JT.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1976 Jun;58(4):453-8.

Rationale for inclusion: This early case series from 1955-1968 describes the management of open long bone fractures, identifying a cephalosporin as appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis as well as documenting increasing infectious complications with increased severity of injury.

Citations - 3322 (as of July 2017)

Prevention of infection in the treatment of one thousand and twenty-five open fractures of long bones: retrospective and prospective analyses.
Gustilo RB, Anderson JT.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1976 Jun;58(4):453-8.

Rationale for inclusion: This early case series from 1955-1968 describes the management of open long bone fractures, identifying a cephalosporin as appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis as well as documenting increasing infectious complications with increased severity of injury.

Citations - 3322 (as of July 2017)

The clinical indications for arteriography in trauma to the extremity. A review of 114 cases.
McDonald EJ Jr, Goodman PC, Winestock DP.
Radiology. 1975 Jul;116(1):45-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Historical description of use of arteriography in 114 patients with extremity trauma, with indications for angiography and surgery.

Citations - 74 (as of July 2017)

Management of flail chest without mechanical ventilation.
Trinkle JK, Richardson JD, Franz JL, Grover FL, Arom KV, Holmstrom FM.
Ann Thorac Surg. 1975 Apr;19(4):355-63.

Rationale for inclusion: Challenged convention by comparing patient with flail chests who underwent intubation and mechanical ventilation versus treatment of the underlying pulmonary contusion alone.

Citations - 260 (as of July 2017)

Management of upper abdominal vascular trauma.
Mattox KL, McCollum WB, Jordan GL Jr, Beall AC Jr, DeBakey ME.
Am J Surg. 1974 Dec;128(6):823-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes management strategies for managing upper abdominal vascular trauma.

Citations - 80 (as of July 2017)

Duodenal "diverticulization" for duodenal and pancreatic injury.
Berne CJ, Donovan AJ, White EJ, Yellin AE.
Am J Surg. 1974 May;127(5):503-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Published in 1974, this represents an initial case series of 34 patients with severe pancreatic and duodenal injuries treated with duodenal diverticulization with antrectomy, gastrojejunostomy, tube duodenostomy, closure of the injury and drainage with high rates of complication.

Citations - 254 (as of July 2017)

The injury severity score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care.
Baker SP, O'Neill B, Haddon W Jr, Long WB.
J Trauma. 1974 Mar;14(3):187-96.

Rationale for inclusion: Landmark article describing development of the injury severity score.

Citations - 7574 (as of July 2017)

The serum amylase in blunt abdominal trauma.
Olsen WR.
J Trauma. 1973 Mar;13(3):200-4.

Rationale for inclusion: This series by Olsen in 1973 described the use of hyperamylasemia as an adjunct to the assessment for blunt abdominal trauma.  

Citations - 139 (as of July 2017)

The value of postural reduction in the initial management of closed injuries of the spine with paraplegia and tetraplegia. I.
Frankel HL, Hancock DO, Hyslop G, Melzak J, Michaelis LS, Ungar GH, Vernon JD, Walsh JJ.
Paraplegia. 1969 Nov;7(3):179-92.

Rationale for inclusion: 612 patients with closed spinal injuries were described and managed with postural reduction in bed for several weeks.  All but 4 patients achieved spinal stability in this manner.

Citations - 2745 (as of July 2017)

Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage.
Root HD, Hauser CW, McKinley CR, Lafave JW, Mendiola RP Jr.
Surgery. 1965 May;57:633-7.

Rationale for inclusion: The first description of flushing sterile fluid into the abdomen to obtain peritoneal samples in trauma.

Citations - 569 (as of July 2017)

Fluid Therapy in Hemorrhagic Shock
Shires T, Coln D, Carrico J, Lightfoot S.
Arch Surg. 1964 Apr;88:688-93.

Rationale for inclusion: Historical and early landmark description of the importance of resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock.

Citations - 497 (as of July 2017)

Indications for operation in abdominal trauma.
Shaftan GW.
Am J Surg. 1960 May;99:657-64.

Rationale for inclusion: Published in 1960, this remains one of the first and most cited early descriptions of the indication for laparotomy following abdominal injury.

Citations - 345 (as of July 2017)

Nonpenetrating traumatic injury of the heart.
Parmley LF, Manion WC, Mattingly TW,
Circulation. 1958 Sep;18(3):371-96.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the lesions found at 546 autopsy cases with blunt cardiac injuries, finding that death most often occurs as a result of ventricular rupture.

Citations - 587 (as of July 2017)

Nonpenetrating traumatic injury of the aorta.
Parmley LF, Mattingly TW, Manion WC, Jahnke EJ Jr.
Circulation. 1958 Jun;17(6):1086-101.

Rationale for inclusion: A description of 296 blunt aortic injuries which established the most common site of injury and need for prompt diagnosis.

Citations - 1356 (as of July 2017)

The management of perforating injuries of the colon and rectum in civilian practice.
Woodhall JP, Ochsner A.
Surgery. 1951 Feb;29(2):305-20.

Rationale for inclusion: This series of 55 patients with perforating injuries to the rectum and colon remains one of the initial case series documenting 20% mortality, with the lowest mortality achieved with primary repair alone as compared to proximal decompression or exteriorization.

Citations - 167 (as of July 2017)

Notes on the Arrest of Hepatic Hemorrhage Due to Trauma.
Pringle JH.
Ann Surg. 1908 Oct;48(4):541-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Written by Pringle and published in 1908, this represents one of the earliest descriptions regarding the treatment of severe liver injury and control of hemorrhage and is significant for its historical value.

Citations - 1307 (as of July 2017)

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