- Time to laparotomy for intra-abdominal bleeding from trauma does affect survival for delays up to 90 minutes.
- Clarke JR, Trooskin SZ, Doshi PJ, Greenwald L, Mode CJ.
- J Trauma. 2002 Mar;52(3):420-5.
Rationale for inclusion: 243 hypotensive patients with isolated abdominal injuries were studied to find the probability of death increased 1% for every 3 minutes in the ED prior to OR.
Citations - 334 (as of July 2017)
- Selective nonoperative management in 1,856 patients with abdominal gunshot wounds: should routine laparotomy still be the standard of care?
- Velmahos GC, Demetriades D, Toutouzas KG, Sarkisyan G, Chan LS, Ishak R, Alo K, Vassiliu P, Murray JA, Salim A, Asensio J, Belzberg H, Katkhouda N, Berne TV.
- Ann Surg. 2001 Sep;234(3):395-402; discussion 402-3.
Rationale for inclusion: Large retrospective series indicating that selective nonoperative management was a safe method of managing abdominal gunshot wounds.
Citations - 212 (as of July 2017)
- Role of ultrasonography in penetrating abdominal trauma: a prospective clinical study.
- Udobi KF, Rodriguez A, Chiu WC, Scalea TM.
- J Trauma. 2001 Mar;50(3):475-9.
Rationale for inclusion: 75 penetrating trauma victims underwent FAST examination, revealing a sensitivity of 46% and specificity of 94%.
Citations - 210 (as of July 2017)
- Diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy for penetrating abdominal trauma: a multicenter experience.
- Zantut LF, Ivatury RR, Smith RS, Kawahara NT, Porter JM, Fry WR, Poggetti R, Birolini D, Organ CH Jr.
- J Trauma. 1997 May;42(5):825-9; discussion 829-31.
Rationale for inclusion: Large, multi-center study in which laparoscopy prevented potential unnecessary laparotomy in 54% of patients.
Citations - 226 (as of July 2017)
- Unnecessary laparotomies for trauma: a prospective study of morbidity.
- Renz BM, Feliciano DV.
- J Trauma. 1995 Mar;38(3):350-6.
Rationale for inclusion: A 41% complication rate was found prospectively after 254 unnecessary laparotomies.
CAVEAT: Study definition for complications included potentially benign conditions such as atelectasis or hypertension.
Citations - 278 (as of July 2017)
- Prospective comparison of diagnostic peritoneal lavage, computed tomographic scanning, and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of blunt abdominal trauma.
- Liu M, Lee CH, P'eng FK.
- J Trauma. 1993 Aug;35(2):267-70.
Rationale for inclusion: A prospective comparison of 55 patients who each underwent CT, ultrasound and DPL as compared with laparotomy each demonstrated good accuracy (>92%).
Citations - 269 (as of July 2017)
- Prospective evaluation of surgeons' use of ultrasound in the evaluation of trauma patients.
- Rozycki GS, Ochsner MG, Jaffin JH, Champion HR.
- J Trauma. 1993 Apr;34(4):516-26; discussion 526-7.
Rationale for inclusion: The trauma team of attendings, fellows and resident demonstrating a sensitivity of 79% with FAST examination.
Citations - 388 (as of July 2017)
- Duration of antibiotic therapy for penetrating abdominal trauma: a prospective trial.
- Fabian TC, Croce MA, Payne LW, Minard G, Pritchard FE, Kudsk KA.
- Surgery. 1992 Oct;112(4):788-94; discussion 794-5.
Rationale for inclusion: Prospective, double blinded study comparing 1 versus 5 days of antibiotics for penetrating abdominal injuries.
Citations - 119 (as of July 2017)
- The role of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma.
- Livingston DH, Tortella BJ, Blackwood J, Machiedo GW, Rush BF Jr.
- J Trauma. 1992 Sep;33(3):471-5.
Rationale for inclusion: 39 patients prospectively underwent laparoscopy followed by laparotomy and demonstrated a significant rate of missed hollow viscous and splenic injuries with laparoscopy alone.
Citations - 178 (as of July 2017)
- Blunt abdominal trauma in cases of multiple trauma evaluated by ultrasonography: a prospective analysis of 291 patients.
- Hoffmann R, Nerlich M, Muggia-Sullam M, Pohlemann T, Wippermann B, Regel G, Tscherne H.
- J Trauma. 1992 Apr;32(4):452-8.
Rationale for inclusion: An early description regarding the use of ultrasound to determine need for laparotomy, demonstrating positive and negative predictive values of 94 and 95% respectively.
Citations - 285 (as of July 2017)
- Benefits of immediate jejunostomy feeding after major abdominal trauma--a prospective, randomized study.
- Moore EE, Jones TN.
- J Trauma. 1986 Oct;26(10):874-81.
Rationale for inclusion: Patients undergoing trauma laparotomy were prospectively randomized to NPO for 5 days or early jejunal feeding. Patients who underwent early jejunal feeding were less likely to develop septic complications.
Citations - 620 (as of July 2017)
- Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage.
- Root HD, Hauser CW, McKinley CR, Lafave JW, Mendiola RP Jr.
- Surgery. 1965 May;57:633-7.
Rationale for inclusion: The first description of flushing sterile fluid into the abdomen to obtain peritoneal samples in trauma.
Citations - 569 (as of July 2017)