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Trauma Quality Improvement

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Immediate total-body CT scanning versus conventional imaging and selective CT scanning in patients with severe trauma (REACT-2): a randomised controlled trial.
Sierink JC, Treskes K, Edwards MJ, Beuker BJ, den Hartog D, Hohmann J, Dijkgraaf MG, Luitse JS, Beenen LF, Hollmann MW, Goslings JC; REACT-2 study group.
Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):673-83.

Rationale for inclusion: Randomized, controlled, multicenter trial comparing patients randomized to immediate, total body CT scanning or standard workup and found no difference in hospital mortality. 

CAVEAT: 46% of standard workup group eventually underwent total body CT by sequential scans.  Median times to imaging completion and diagnosis were both decreased in the total body CT group.

Citations - 27 (as of July 2017)

Intracranial pressure monitoring in severe traumatic brain injury: results from the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program.
Alali AS, Fowler RA, Mainprize TG, Scales DC, Kiss A, de Mestral C, Ray JG, Nathens AB.
J Neurotrauma. 2013 Oct 15;30(20):1737-46.

Rationale for inclusion: In TQIP data, hospitals that used ICP monitors more frequently tended to have better outcomes and lower mortality.

Citations - 74 (as of July 2017)

Benchmarking outcomes in the critically injured trauma patient and the effect of implementing standard operating procedures.
Cuschieri J, Johnson JL, Sperry J, West MA, Moore EE, Minei JP, Bankey PE, Nathens AB, Cuenca AG, Efron PA, Hennessy L, Xiao W, Mindrinos MN, McDonald-Smith GP, Mason PH, Billiar TR, Schoenfeld DA, Warren HS, Cobb JP, Moldawer LL, Davis RW, Maier RV, Tompkins RG; Inflammation and Host Response to Injury, Large Scale Collaborative Research Program.
Ann Surg. 2012 May;255(5):993-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrates use of "standard operating procedures" to improve outcomes for trauma patients.

Citations - 44 (as of July 2017)

Variation in hospital complication rates and failure-to-rescue for trauma patients.
Glance LG, Dick AW, Meredith JW, Mukamel DB.
Ann Surg. 2011 Apr;253(4):811-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Variation in hospital complication rates suggests that the primary driver of differences in hospital quality for trauma patients is the ability to recover after major complication (i.e. failure to rescue in high-mortality hospitals).

Citations - 50 (as of July 2017)

Trauma mortality in mature trauma systems: are we doing better? An analysis of trauma mortality patterns, 1997-2008.
Dutton RP, Stansbury LG, Leone S, Kramer E, Hess JR, Scalea TM.
J Trauma. 2010 Sep;69(3):620-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Survival increased at a single trauma center over a 12 year period despite increasing age and worsening injuries.

Citations - 233 (as of July 2017)

The Trauma Quality Improvement Program: pilot study and initial demonstration of feasibility.
Hemmila MR, Nathens AB, Shafi S, Calland JF, Clark DE, Cryer HG, Goble S, Hoeft CJ, Meredith JW, Neal ML, Pasquale MD, Pomphrey MD, Fildes JJ.
J Trauma. 2010 Feb;68(2):253-62.

Rationale for inclusion: Demonstrates that TQIP may be useful to provide risk-adjusted benchmarking.

Citations - 100 (as of July 2017)

Preventable or potentially preventable mortality at a mature trauma center.
Teixeira PG, Inaba K, Hadjizacharia P, Brown C, Salim A, Rhee P, Browder T, Noguchi TT, Demetriades D.
J Trauma. 2007 Dec;63(6):1338-46; discussion 1346-7

Rationale for improvement: Analysis of all trauma deaths in a single mature level I trauma center, showing that preventable or potentially preventable deaths exist, including type and incidence of errors.

Citations - 241 (as of July 2017)

Patterns of errors contributing to trauma mortality: lessons learned from 2,594 deaths.
Gruen RL, Jurkovich GJ, McIntyre LK, Foy HM, Maier RV.
Ann Surg. 2006 Sep;244(3):371-80.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of errors that occurred in a mature level I trauma center in patients who died during a trauma admission.

Citations - 347 (as of July 2017)

The effect of trauma center designation and trauma volume on outcome in specific severe injuries.
Demetriades D, Martin M, Salim A, Rhee P, Brown C, Chan L.
Ann Surg. 2005 Oct;242(4):512-7; discussion 517-9.

Rationale for improvement: NTDB study showing that Level I ACS-verified trauma centers have improved outcomes as compared to Level II centers.

Citations - 265 (as of July 2017)

Trauma fatalities: time and location of hospital deaths.
Demetriades D, Murray J, Charalambides K, Alo K, Velmahos G, Rhee P, Chan L.
J Am Coll Surg. 2004 Jan;198(1):20-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of epidemiology, timing, and place of hospital deaths for trauma patients, describing 2648 deaths.

Citations - 258 (as of July 2017)

Relationship between trauma center volume and outcomes.
Nathens AB, Jurkovich GJ, Maier RV, Grossman DC, MacKenzie EJ, Moore M, Rivara FP.
JAMA. 2001 Mar 7;285(9):1164-71.

Rationale for inclusion: High volume centers have improved mortality and length of stay as compared with low-volume trauma centers; threshold is 650 admissions per year in this study.

Citations - 425 (as of July 2017)

Outcome from injury: general health, work status, and satisfaction 12 months after trauma.
Michaels AJ, Michaels CE, Smith JS, Moon CH, Peterson C, Long WB.
J Trauma. 2000 May;48(5):841-8; discussion 848-50.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes 12 month outcomes after trauma showing that multiple aspects of recovery are largely dependent on mental health.

Citations - 305 (as of July 2017)

Outcome after major trauma: 12-month and 18-month follow-up results from the Trauma Recovery Project.
Holbrook TL, Anderson JP, Sieber WJ, Browner D, Hoyt DB.
J Trauma. 1999 May;46(5):765-71; discussion 771-3.

Rationale for inclusion: 12 and 18 month followup after trauma showing persistent, prolonged, and profound level of functional level after major trauma.

Citations - 408 (as of July 2017)

Lethal injuries and time to death in a level I trauma center.
Acosta JA, Yang JC, Winchell RJ, Simons RK, Fortlage DA, Hollingsworth-Fridlund P, Hoyt DB.
J Am Coll Surg. 1998 May;186(5):528-33.

Rationale for inclusion: Epidemiological study of 900 trauma deaths in 1 level I trauma center describing the reason for death.

Citations - 491 (as of July 2017)

Treatment results of patients with multiple trauma: an analysis of 3406 cases treated between 1972 and 1991 at a German Level I Trauma Center.
Regel G, Lobenhoffer P, Grotz M, Pape HC, Lehmann U, Tscherne H.
J Trauma. 1995 Jan;38(1):70-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Comparison of two time periods (1972-1981 vs 192-1991) showing changes over time, including more aggressive care, decline in mortality, increased multiple organ failure, decrease in ARDS.

Citations - 402 (as of July 2017)

The Major Trauma Outcome Study: establishing national norms for trauma care.
Champion HR, Copes WS, Sacco WJ, Lawnick MM, Keast SL, Bain LW Jr, Flanagan ME, Frey CF.
J Trauma. 1990 Nov;30(11):1356-65.

Rationale for inclusion: Large descriptive study on outcomes after major trauma.

Citations - 1224 (as of July 2017)

A revision of the Trauma Score.
Champion HR, Sacco WJ, Copes WS, Gann DS, Gennarelli TA, Flanagan ME.
J Trauma. 1989 May;29(5):623-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of development of the Revised Trauma Score, incorporating GCS, systolic BP, and respiratory rate and removal of capillary refill and respiratory expansion

Citations - 1910 (as of July 2017)

Evaluating trauma care: the TRISS method. Trauma Score and the Injury Severity Score.
Boyd CR, Tolson MA, Copes WS.
J Trauma. 1987 Apr;27(4):370-8.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of the development of the TRISS method.

Citations - 2049 (as of July 2017)

Preventable trauma deaths. A review of trauma care systems development.
Cales RH, Trunkey DD.
JAMA. 1985 Aug 23-30;254(8):1059-63.

Rationale for inclusion: Historical review article describing development of trauma care systems.

Citations - 439 (as of July 2017)

Trauma score.
Champion HR, Sacco WJ, Carnazzo AJ, Copes W, Fouty WJ.
Crit Care Med. 1981 Sep;9(9):672-6.

Rationale for inclusion:  Description of development of the Trauma Score.

Citations - 1050 (as of July 2017)

Penetrating abdominal trauma index.
Moore EE, Dunn EL, Moore JB, Thompson JS.
J Trauma. 1981 Jun;21(6):439-45.

Rationale for inclusion: Development of the Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index to identify high risk patients.

Citations - 349 (as of July 2017)

Epidemiology of trauma deaths.
Baker CC, Oppenheimer L, Stephens B, Lewis FR, Trunkey DD.
Am J Surg. 1980 Jul;140(1):144-50.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of the trimodal death distribution.

Citations - 732 (as of July 2017)

The injury severity score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care.
Baker SP, O'Neill B, Haddon W Jr, Long WB.
J Trauma. 1974 Mar;14(3):187-96.

Rationale for inclusion: Landmark article describing development of the injury severity score.

Citations - 7574 (as of July 2017)

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