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Trauma Resuscitation

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Damage control resuscitation in patients with severe traumatic hemorrhage: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma.
Cannon JW, Khan MA, Raja AS, Cohen MJ, Como JJ, Cotton BA, Dubose JJ, Fox EE, Inaba K, Rodriguez CJ, Holcomb JB, Duchesne JC.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Mar;82(3):605-617.

Rationale for inclusion: Quantitative meta-analysis using GRADE methodology of 31 studies.  Mortality improved with massive transfusion protocols and high plasma and platelet to red cell transfusion ratios.

Citations - 6 (as of July 2017)

Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of Peritoneal Resuscitation in the Management of Trauma Patients Undergoing Damage Control Surgery.
Smith JW, Matheson PJ, Franklin GA, Harbrecht BG, Richardson JD, Garrison RN.
J Am Coll Surg. 2017 Apr;224(4):396-404.

Rationale for inclusion:  103 patients who underwent damage control surgery were randomized to peritoneal verus conventional resuscitation.  Peritoneal resuscitation patients had more rapid definitive closure, less intra-abedominal infection and improved mortality.

Citations - 0 (as of July 2017)

Saline versus Plasma-Lyte A in initial resuscitation of trauma patients: a randomized trial.
Young JB, Utter GH, Schermer CR, Galante JM, Phan HH, Yang Y, Anderson BA, Scherer LA.
Ann Surg. 2014 Feb;259(2):255-62.

Rationale for inclusion: Use of Plasma-Lyte A led to less hyperchloremia and more physiologic acid-base status than saline.

Citations - 92 (as of July 2017)

Damage control resuscitation is associated with a reduction in resuscitation volumes and improvement in survival in 390 damage control laparotomy patients.
Cotton BA, Reddy N, Hatch QM, LeFebvre E, Wade CE, Kozar RA, Gill BS, Albarado R, McNutt MK, Holcomb JB.
Ann Surg. 2011 Oct; 254(4): 598-605.

Rationale for inclusion: Damage control resuscitation reduces administration of fluids (crystalloid and colloid) and has lower mortality in this retrospective study.

Citations - 220 (as of July 2017)

Out-of-hospital hypertonic resuscitation after traumatic hypovolemic shock: a randomized, placebo controlled trial.
Bulger EM, May S, Kerby JD, Emerson S, Stiell IG, Schreiber MA, Brasel KJ, Tisherman SA, Coimbra R, Rizoli S, Minei JP, Hata JS, Sopko G, Evans DC, Hoyt DB; ROC investigators.
Ann Surg. 2011 Mar;253(3):431-41.

Rationale for inclusion: Multi-center randomized trial of hypertonic to normal saline showed no difference.

Citations - 194 (as of July 2017)

Hypotensive resuscitation strategy reduces transfusion requirements and severe postoperative coagulopathy in trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock: preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial.
Morrison CA, Carrick MM, Norman MA, Scott BG, Welsh FJ, Tsai P, Liscum KR, Wall MJ Jr, Mattox KL.
J Trauma. 2011 Mar;70(3):652-63.

Rationale for inclusion: Use of a low mean arterial pressure (target 50mmHg) intraoperatively had a lower early postoperative mortality and were less likely to die from postoperative coagulopathy.

Citations - 268 (as of July 2017)

Out-of-hospital hypertonic resuscitation following severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.
Bulger EM, May S, Brasel KJ, Schreiber M, Kerby JD, Tisherman SA, Newgard C, Slutsky A, Coimbra R, Emerson S, Minei JP, Bardarson B, Kudenchuk P, Baker A, Christenson J, Idris A, Davis D, Fabian TC, Aufderheide TP, Callaway C, Williams C, Banek J, Vaillancourt C, van Heest R, Sopko G, Hata JS, Hoyt DB; ROC Investigators.
JAMA. 2010 Oct 6;304(13):1455-64.

Rationale for inclusion: No difference in patients treated with hypertonic fluid in the prehospital setting versus patients treated with saline, but a higher mortality in a subgroup of patients who did not receive blood transfusions and received hypertonic saline.

Citations - 217 (as of July 2017)

Hypertonic resuscitation of hypovolemic shock after blunt trauma: a randomized controlled trial.
Bulger EM, Jurkovich GJ, Nathens AB, Copass MK, Hanson S, Cooper C, Liu PY, Neff M, Awan AB, Warner K, Maier RV.
Arch Surg. 2008 Feb;143(2):139-48; discussion 149.

Rationale for inclusion: RCT of hypertonic dextran vs LR in hypotensive blunt trauma patients, showing possible benefit in patients who required massive transfusions.

Citations - 137 (as of July 2017)

Saline or albumin for fluid resuscitation in patients with traumatic brain injury.
SAFE Study Investigators; Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group; Australian Red Cross Blood Service; George Institute for International Health, Myburgh J, Cooper DJ, Finfer S, Bellomo R, Norton R, Bishop N, Kai Lo S, Vallance S.
N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 30;357(9):874-84.

Rationale for inclusion: In this post hoc study of critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury, fluid resuscitation with albumin was associated with higher mortality rates than was resuscitation with saline.

Citations - 475 (as of July 2017)

Damage control resuscitation: directly addressing the early coagulopathy of trauma.
Holcomb JB, Jenkins D, Rhee P, Johannigman J, Mahoney P, Mehta S, Cox ED, Gehrke MJ, Beilman GJ, Schreiber M, Flaherty SF, Grathwohl KW, Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Beekley AC, McMullin NR, Park MS, Gonzalez EA, Wade CE, Dubick MA, Schwab CW, Moore FA, Champion HR, Hoyt DB, Hess JR.
J Trauma. 2007 Feb;62(2):307-10.

Rationale for inclusion: This is not primary research but it is an extremely well cited discussion of the coagulopathy of trauma.

Citations - 956 (as of July 2017)

Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation.
Cohn SM, Nathens AB, Moore FA, Rhee P, Puyana JC, Moore EE, Beilman GJ; StO2 in Trauma Patients Trial Investigators.
J Trauma. 2007 Jan;62(1):44-54; discussion 54-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the use of tissue oxygen saturation as an indicator of shock.

Citations - 270 (as of July 2017)

The immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic saline resuscitation in patients sustaining traumatic hemorrhagic shock: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial.
Rizoli SB, Rhind SG, Shek PN, Inaba K, Filips D, Tien H, Brenneman F, Rotstein O.
Ann Surg. 2006 Jan;243(1):47-57.

Rationale for inclusion: Hypotensive blunt trauma patients given normal saline or hypertonic saline plus dextran and had inflammatory markers measured; showed that hypertonic saline plus dextran had a more balanced inflammatory response.

Citations - 214 (as of July 2017)

Prehospital hypertonic saline resuscitation of patients with hypotension and severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.
Cooper DJ, Myles PS, McDermott FT, Murray LJ, Laidlaw J, Cooper G, Tremayne AB, Bernard SS, Ponsford J; HTS Study Investigators.
JAMA. 2004 Mar 17;291(11):1350-7.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes 6-month neurologic outcomes after use of hypertonic saline in patients with traumatic brain injury

Citations - 416 (as of July 2017)

Supranormal trauma resuscitation causes more cases of abdominal compartment syndrome.
Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Cocanour CS, Kozar RA, Valdivia A, Sailors RM, Moore FA.
Arch Surg. 2003 Jun;138(6):637-42; discussion 642-3.

Rationale for inclusion: Patients who receive fluids to target "supranormal' physiology have worse outcomes including abdominal compartment syndrome, multiple organ failure, and death.

Citations - 485 (as of July 2017)

Endpoints of resuscitation of critically injured patients: normal or supranormal? A prospective randomized trial.
Velmahos GC, Demetriades D, Shoemaker WC, Chan LS, Tatevossian R, Wo CC, Vassiliu P, Cornwell EE 3rd, Murray JA, Roth B, Belzberg H, Asensio JA, Berne TV.
Ann Surg. 2000 Sep;232(3):409-18.

Rationale for inclusion: Patients who are able to reach optimal hemodynamic parameters have improved survival than those who cannot, but aggressive interventions to achieve these values do not improve outcomes.

Citations - 208 (as of July 2017)

The golden hour and the silver day: detection and correction of occult hypoperfusion within 24 hours improves outcome from major trauma.
Blow O, Magliore L, Claridge JA, Butler K, Young JS.
J Trauma. 1999 Nov;47(5):964-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Describes the increased morbidity and mortality in patients who have persistent occult hypo-perfusion.

Citations - 396 (as of July 2017)

Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries.
Bickell WH, Wall MJ Jr, Pepe PE, Martin RR, Ginger VF, Allen MK, Mattox KL.
N Engl J Med. 1994 Oct 27;331(17):1105-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Description of permissive hypotension in patients with penetrating torso injuries, with significant improvement in survival in the delayed resuscitation group.

Citations - 2069 (as of July 2017)

Fluid Therapy in Hemorrhagic Shock
Shires T, Coln D, Carrico J, Lightfoot S.
Arch Surg. 1964 Apr;88:688-93.

Rationale for inclusion: Historical and early landmark description of the importance of resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock.

Citations - 497 (as of July 2017)

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Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

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