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Traumatic Brain Injury

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Hypothermia for hypertension after traumatic brain injury.
Andrews PJ, Sinclair HL, Rodriguez A, Harris BA, Battison CG, Rhodes JK, Murray GD; Eurotherm3235 Trial Collaborators.
N Engl J Med. 2015 Dec 17;373(25):2403-12.

Rationale for inclusion: 387 patients with intracranial hypertension randomized to standard care or hypothermia + standard care.  The addition of hypothermia did not improve functional outcomes at 6 months from injury.

Citations - 136 (as of July 2017)

A trial of intracranial-pressure monitoring in traumatic brain injury.
Chesnut RM, Temkin N, Carney N, Dikmen S, Rondina C, Videtta W, Petroni G, Lujan S, Pridgeon J, Barber J, Machamer J, Chaddock K, Celix JM, Cherner M, Hendrix T; Global Neurotrauma Research Group.
N Engl J Med. 2012 Dec 27;367(26):2471-81.

Rationale for inclusion: 324 patients with severe TBI were randomized to either pressure monitoring or clinical examination/imaging to find no difference in measured outcomes.

Citations - 535 (as of July 2017)

Placebo-controlled trial of amantadine for severe traumatic brain injury.
Giacino JT, Whyte J, Bagiella E, Kalmar K, Childs N, Khademi A, Eifert B, Long D, Katz DI, Cho S, Yablon SA, Luther M, Hammond FM, Nordenbo A, Novak P, Mercer W, Maurer-Karattup P, Sherer M.
N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar 1;366(9):819-26.

Rationale for inclusion: Patients 1-4 months after TBI were randomized to amantadine or placebo.  Patients randomized to amantadine experienced a more rapid rate of functional recovery.

Citations - 292 (as of July 2017)

Decompressive craniectomy in diffuse traumatic brain injury.
Cooper DJ, Rosenfeld JV, Murray L, Arabi YM, Davies AR, D'Urso P, Kossmann T, Ponsford J, Seppelt I, Reilly P, Wolfe R; DECRA Trial Investigators; Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group.
N Engl J Med. 2011 Apr 21;364(16):1493-502.

Rationale for inclusion: RCT determined that patients with severe diffuse traumatic brain injury fared no better when randomized to early bifrontotemporoparietal decompressive craniectomy than standard care.

Citations - 797 (as of July 2017)

Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: development and international validation of prognostic scores based on admission characteristics.
Steyerberg EW, Mushkudiani N, Perel P, Butcher I, Lu J, McHugh GS, Murray GD, Marmarou A, Roberts I, Habbema JD, Maas AI.
PLoS Med. 2008 Aug 5;5(8):e165; discussion e165.

Rationale for inclusion: 11 studies were analyzed and individual patient data prospectively collected to find that age, motor score, pupillary reactivity, CT findings, secondary injury, and laboratories were predictive of outcomes at 6 months.

Citations - 507 (as of July 2017)

The epidemiology and impact of traumatic brain injury: a brief overview.
Langlois JA, Rutland-Brown W, Wald MM.
J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2006 Sep-Oct;21(5):375-8.

Rationale for inclusion: An epidemiological view of TBI and its staggering long-term impact and costs.

Citations: 2272 (as of July 2017)

The Canadian CT Head Rule for patients with minor head injury.
Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen K, Clement C, Lesiuk H, Laupacis A, McKnight RD, Verbeek R, Brison R, Cass D, Eisenhauer ME, Greenberg G, Worthington J.
Lancet. 2001 May 5;357(9266):1391-6.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective study that established a clinical decision tool for the use of CT after minor head injury.

Citations - 937 (as of July 2017)

Indications for computed tomography in patients with minor head injury.
Haydel MJ, Preston CA, Mills TJ, Luber S, Blaudeau E, DeBlieux PM.
N Engl J Med. 2000 Jul 13;343(2):100-5.

Rationale for inclusion: Among patients with GCS of 15, all with CT findings had one of the following:  headache, vomiting, age >60, intoxication, memory deficits, physical evidence of head/neck trauma, or seizures.

Citations - 776 (as of July 2017)

A population-based study of seizures after traumatic brain injuries.
Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Coan SP, Rocca WA.
N Engl J Med. 1998 Jan 1;338(1):20-4.

Rationale for inclusion: Study that definitively established the link between TBI and rates of post-traumatic seizures which varied with respect to injury severity and time after injury.

Citations - 776 (as of July 2017)

Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia.
Marion DW, Penrod LE, Kelsey SF, Obrist WD, Kochanek PM, Palmer AM, Wisniewski SR, DeKosky ST.
N Engl J Med. 1997 Feb 20;336(8):540-6.

Rationale for inclusion: RCT compared moderate hypothermia (33C) to normothermia treatment for TBI to find that hypothermia may improve outcomes.

CAVEAT: Treatment effect was not preserved among all GCS subgroups and all followup intervals.

Citations - 1377 (as of July 2017)

The role of secondary brain injury in determining outcome from severe head injury.
Chesnut RM, Marshall LF, Klauber MR, Blunt BA, Baldwin N, Eisenberg HM, Jane JA, Marmarou A, Foulkes MA.
J Trauma. 1993 Feb;34(2):216-22.

Rationale for inclusion: Prospective investigation of severe TBI patients that determined hypoxia and hypotension to have detrimental impact on outcomes.

Citations - 2108 (as of July 2017)

The diagnosis of head injury requires a classification based on computed axial tomography.
Marshall LF, Marshall SB, Klauber MR, Van Berkum Clark M, Eisenberg H, Jane JA, Luerssen TG, Marmarou A, Foulkes MA.
J Neurotrauma. 1992 Mar;9 Suppl 1:S287-92.

Rationale for inclusion: A description of the "Marshall" head injury classification system based on CT findings.

Citations - 544 (as of July 2017)

Late outcome of very severe blunt head trauma: a 10-15 year second follow-up.
Thomsen IV.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1984 Mar;47(3):260-8.

Rationale for inclusion: 40 patients were followed for 10-15 years  to find permanent disability common after severe TBI.

Citations - 646 (as of July 2017)

Seizures after head trauma: a population study.
Annegers JF, Grabow JD, Groover RV, Laws ER Jr, Elveback LR, Kurland LT.
Neurology. 1980 Jul;30(7 Pt 1):683-9.

Rationale for inclusion: Defined the rate of post-traumatic seizures after severe, moderate, and mild head injury.

Citations - 639 (as of July 2017)

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Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

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